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Full text of "The Artizan"

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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 



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onvaaWMBMT FREJTDJQ OFTIOB " WMO 



THE AETIZAN 

VOL. XI., 1853. 



THE AETIZAN. 



J SitontJIg |0»raxl 



LIBRARY 



OF 



U* S, PATENT OFFICE 



THE OPERATIVE ARTS. 



VOL. XI. 



LONDON: 
OEEICE OF "THE ARTIZAN" JOURNAL, 69, CORNHILL. 

1853. 



T 7 / 



Ar 



LONDON : 

WATEBLOW AND SONS, PE1NTEES, 
LONDON WALL. 



LIBRARY 



U. S. PATENT OFFICE 



INDEX TO VOL. XI. 

THE ARTIZAN JOTJENAL, 1853. 



Agamemnon, trial of H.M.S., 1S8; steam pressure 
at trial, 208 

Agricultural Operations and Engineering: Potato 
digger, 20; the Smithfield Show, 27; Winton's 
steel digging forks, 27; Hart's patent brick- 
making machine, 27; Blyth's manure distri- 
butor, 28; Ferrabee's fixed engine, 52; Kan- 
somes and Sims' combined steam-engine and 
corn-mill, 52; Clayton's patent brick and pipe- 
making machines, 52, 53; Ferrabee's threshing 
and winnowing machinery, 54; Bach's portable 
and fixed engines, 85; Budding's patent mow- 
ing machine, 128; Hedges' manure spreader, 
138; unfair trial of portable engines at Royal 
Agricultural Society's shows, 140; Royal Agricul- 
tural Society's show at Gloucester: tables of the 
performance of the portable and fixed engines, 
185; application of liquid manure — irrigation, 
194,217,242; corn mills, Pimm and Rands' 
improvements in, 222; Griffiths' plough beams, 
260; Clayton's brick-making machine, 284 

Air, heated, as a motive power, Cheverton on, 62, 
63, Joule on, 64 ; Manby, Leslie and Siemens 
on, 135-137; Regnault on, 247 

Air pump, valves for, 16, 55; the trunk air-pump, 
267 

Alkalimeter of Will and Fresenius, 175 

Alloys of copper and zinc, 175 

Almanac, perpetual, Oram's, 284 

Anatto, adulteration of, 102 

Antimony as a mordant, 210; reduction of by 
cyanide of potassium, 269 

Arctic, specification for building the, 154, 184 

Arsenic, reduction of, by means of cyauide of 
potassium, 269 

Artificial ivory, 11 

Asphalte, 213 

Axle-boxes for engines and tenders, Allen on, 81 

Axles, railway, Adams on lubrication of, 151; 
McConnell on hollow railway axles, 246, 269 

B. 

Baltic, specifications for building the, 154, 184 

Banding pulleys, Parker's, 21 

Barrel-bottom ships, 257 

Barrel heads, machinery fur cutting, 138 

Baryta, caustic, preparation of, from the carbonate, 

268 
Beet-root sugar, statistics of manufacture in the 

Zollvcrein States, 198 
Bleaching liquors, on testing the strength of, 128 
Boiler explosions, 68, 92, 115, 140, 162, 187; 

Evans on, 114; Fairbairn on, 235 
Boilers: the evaporative efficiency of locomotive 

boilers, 18; experimental investigation of the 

principles of locomotive boilers, by D. K. Clark, 

82, 112, 135; effect of grease in boilers, M. 

Borme's patent, 93; use of cast iron in, 90; 

Sewell on locomotive boilers, 113; the egg-shaped 



vertical boiler, R. Armstrong on, 183; prevent- 
ing incrustation in, 222; Cameron's patent ver- 
tical boiler, 225 ' 

Boomerang propeller, 13 

Brass tube-making machinery, Degrand's, 89 

Brick-making machines, Hart's patent, 27; Clay- 
ton's, 52, 284 

Bromine and iodine, separation of, 11, 41 

C. 

CaloricEngines: caloric shipEricsson,25 ; Cheverton 
on heated air as a motive power, 62; Ericsson's 
engine, 63, 117, 125, 148; Stirling's engine, 62; 
Joule on, 64; C. Manby, C.E., on, 135; Leslie on, 
136; Siemens on the conversion of heat into 
mechanical effect, 136; hot-air engine in France, 
197 

Canada steam communication between England, 
97; Grand Trunk Railway, the contractor's 
works at Liverpool, 146 

Canals, steam haulage on, 139 

Carding engine, Leigh's self-stripping, 241 

Castings, extraordinary, 69 

Chains, making, Sleppy's improvements in, 283 

Challenge, the American ship, 1 

Channels for investment, list of new companies, 
amount of share and capital, 22, 45, 164, 189, 
213 

Charlemagne, the, French screw ship of war, 176, 
198 

Chloride of lime, determining the value of, 151 

Cinders, temperature generated by combustion of, 
42 

Circulars, a hint to patentees, 117 

Citric acid, 176 

Clay, improved modelling, 55 

Clocks, illuminated, at Havre, 19; insulation of 
clock frame from case, 20 

Coals at the Cape, 21 

Cobalt and manganese, separation of from nickel 
and zinc, 258 

Coinage, decimal system of, 73, 193 

Collodion, preparation of, 128 

Colt's revolvers, 140 

Condenser, gas, Wright's ventilating, 103 

Copper, coating iron with, 56; mines in Algeria, 
89; alloys of, 175; test for, 261; 

Core bars and cores for casting pipes, 162 

Corn mil's, Ransomes' and Sims', 52; Pimm and 
Rands' improvements in, 222 

Cotton, detection of in unbleached linen, 90; statis- 
tics of manufacture of in France, 98 

Cotton and its manufacturing mechanism, 3, 29, 50, 
149, 174,241,266 

D. 

Deadening the floors of rooms, 19, 70 
Decimal system, coinage, 73, 193; weights and 
measures, 193 



Derricks, Hill's improved, 20 

Designs registered for articles of utility, 24, 48, 72, 

96, 120, 144, 168, 182, 216, 240, 264, 288 
Differential motion, Houldsworth's, 29 
Digger, Foster's potato, 20 
Digging forks, Winton's steel, 27 
Dioptric system, application of, to lighthouses, 33 
Door springs, Kimberley's, 68 
Dublin Exhibition, notes on Irish industry and the, 

169,219,265 
Dyes, means of detecting in stuffs, 150 

E. 

Easel, sketching, Harvey's, 284 

Elastic fluids, specific heat of, Regnault on, 247 

Electric telegraphs, 43, 65 

Embankments, J. Glynn, F.R.S., on, 103 

Envelope-folding machine, De la Rue's, 8 

Ether engine, Du Trembley's, 197 

Events of the Month: Improvement of the Me- 
tropolis, street railways, American ship ' Chal- 
lenge,' extension of steam navy, the speculation 
mania, 1 ; the caloric ship Ericsson, the Austra- 
lian Direct Steam Navigation Company, mis- 
management of West India Mail Company, 
Parson's London and Suburban Railway, 25; 
the caloric engine, M'Naught's patent double- 
cylinder expansive engine, the British and 
Australian Clipper Steam Packet Company, 
the Panama Railway, the Sunderland ship- 
wrights, 49; agitation for a decimal coinage, 
the Australian Mail Company's steamer Austra- 
lian, 73; French transatlantic steam navigation 
scheme, Australian Mail Company, steam com- 
munication between Canada and England, 
packet contract service, iron steam-ship building 
on the Clyde, statistics of mercantile steam-ships 
in the United States, trial of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, 97; the Dublin Industrial Exhibition, 
the New York Crystal Palace, the French Exhi- 
bition of 1855, economical management of our 
dockyards, French line of steamers between 
Havre and New York, Great Indian Peninsula 
Railway, the East Indian Railway, 121 ; progress 
of our mercantile steam marine, superior eco- 
nomy of screw vessels, Pacific and Australian 
Company, Griffiths' propeller for the Great Bri- 
tain, the Australian Company's screw steam-ship 
Victoria, the Bengal and Cadiz, Grand Trunk 
of Canada Railway, the contractor's works at 
Liverpool, Permanent Way Company, Bays- 
water to Holborn Bridge Railway, Messrs. Tod 
and M'Gregoi's building yard, screw steam- 
ships for the Pacific Company, 145; decimal 
system of coinage, penny postage and receipt 
stamps, decimal weights and measures, the 
Australian Direct Steam Navigation Company, 
the system of granting charters, the New York 
Exhibition, Mr. Layard's discoveries at Nineveh, 
193. 



VI 



Index. 



Exhibition, the Great, surplus fund of the, 22; 
at Dublin, 121, 169,219, 265; at New York, 121 

Expansion of steam, method of finding the pres- 
sure during, by J. S. Holland, 76 

Exposition of 1855, French, 121, 210 

P. 
Floors of rooms, deadening the, 19, 70 
Forces, mechanical, economical production of 

mechanical effect from, 64; Siemens on, 136 
Four-wheel steam-ships, J. P. Drake on, 133 
Fuel, Daniels' granular, 20 
Furnaces, smoke-consuming, Lee Stevens', 100; 

Jucke's, 209 ; Armstrong on, 209 

G. 

Galvanic railway signal, 89 

Gas, purification of by peat charcoal, 21 ; supply of 
to Paris, 89; Wright's ventilating condenser, 103; 
Milne's gas heating stove, 137; Mutrel's gas re- 
gulator, 156; Hallam's gas meters, 162; Mair's 
gas stove, 173; water gas, hydrocarbon process 
of gas making, 278 

Gas cooking apparatus, Hare's, 42, 260 

Gases from the furnaces of locomotives, Ebelmen 
on, 186 

Gauge, steam and water, Grimes', 213; Goodfel- 
low's talc water, 260 

Glue, liquid preparation of, 11; new process for 
making, 284 

Governors for screw engines, 133, 160, 183,208, 
232, 257 

Governor, Siemen's chronometric, 242 

Governor regulator, Jones' patent, 196 

Grappler, H.M. ship, 20 

Great Britain, application of Griffiths propeller 
to, 145; alterations in, 188; actual power of, 
209 ; as she was and as she is, by J. P. Drake, 
231 

Green pigment from China, 11 

Gun cotton, 93, 128 

H. 

Hydrocarbon process of gas making, 278 
Hydrochloric acid, determination of, 258 



Incrustation of boilers, means for preventing, 222 

India, route to, via the Euphrates, 63 

India-rubber, air-pump valves of, 55; liquid, 236 

Indigo, valuation of, 55, 127 

Industrial Progress in France: — 
Illuminated clocks at Havre, 19; square steam 
engines, 20; high-pressure marine engines, 20; 
screw steamer Hunwick, 20; H. M. S. Grap- 
pler, 20; Paris Steam-boat Company, 20; 
French transatlantic steam navigation 
schemes, 26; proposed French line of ocean 
steamers, opening for English establishments 
in France, new way of launching vessels, 5C; 
brass tube-making machinery, copper mines of 
Algeria, the transatlantic steamers, galvanic 
railway signal, water and gas supply to Paris, 
a railway squabble, 89, 90; tinning looking- 
glasses, effect of grease in boilers, 93; Sar- 
dinian Steam Ship Company, use of cast iron 
in boilers, steam engines for the navy, cotton 
industry of France, Algeria packet service, 98 ; 
hot-air engine and Du Trembley's ether engine, 
197; French Exposition of 1855,Imperial Steam 
Navigation Company, travelling mansion, re- 
production of lithographs, steam to Corsica 
210 

Ink, Harrison's vessels for making, 21; for steel 
pens, 222 

Iodine and bromine, separation of, 11; detection 
and estimation of, 41 

Iron, manufacture of sheet, 20; coating iron with 
copper, 06; wrought iron by a new process, 69; 
improvements in the manufacture of, by J. D. M. 
StirlinaJJ; texture of, 90 

Iron masxs7T40 

Iron roofs of great span, 137 



Irrigation, 194-6, 217, 242 
Ivory, artificial, 11 

L. 

Lamps, Nibb's cottage, 213 

Launching vessels, new mode of, 50 

Lead, separation of from silver by means of zinc, 
101 

Lichens, as a protection to buildings, 236 

Life boats, Northumberland, 42; Peake's, 43; 
Foreman's, 284 

Lighthouses, application of dioptric system to, by 
C. Tomlinson, 33 

Lime, chloride of, determining the value of, 151 

Linen, detection of cotton in unbleached, 90 

Liquid glue, preparation of, 1 1 

Liquid india rubber, 236 

List of new books, 70, 94, 141 

Lithography: photography on stone, 209; repro- 
duction of lithographs, 210 

Lock for sliding panels, Lidstone's, 284 

Locomotives, evaporating efficiency of, 18; on 
various irregular motions in, by D. K. Clark, 36; 
experiments on blast and exhaust pressures, 37; 
economical production and use of steam in, 56, 
113; on the balancing of, 57, 101; Sewell on 
locomotive boilers, 113; McConnell's, 113; im- 
provements in, by J. S- Hepburn, 137; tank 
locomotive, by D. Gooch, for Great Western 
Railway, 171 ; analysis of gases from the furnaces 
of, Ebelmen on, 186; Winder's improvements in, 
210 

Looking-glasses sometimes tinned, 93 

Lubricator for spindles, by Tatham and Cheet- 
ham, 51 

Lubricating material, new, 234 

Lucifer matches, manufacture of, 40 

M. 
Machinery, notes on designing, 55, 223, 267 
Magnesium, chloride of, as a desiccating agent, 269 
Manganese and cobalt, separation of, from nickel 

and zinc, 258 
Manure, liquid, application of, 194 
Manure distributor, Blyth's patent, 28; Hedges', 

138 
Measures and weights, decimal system, 193 
Mechanical forces, economical production of effect 

from, 64; Siemens on, 136 
Mercury and copper, separation of, 258 
Metals, ornamenting the surfaces of, 188; punch- 
ing, improvements in machinery for, 284 
Metal vessels, raising and stamping, 188 
Metropolis, the, improvement of, 1 
Mowing machine, Budding's patent, 128 
Mule, cotton, self-acting, McGregor's, 174; Macin- 
doe's, 266 

N. 
Naval Architecture : by R. Armstrong, Blackwall : — 

Stability and the causes of a vessel's deviation 
from her course, 228 

The construction of vessels, 254 

Theory and practice of ship building, 275 
Nickel and zinc, separation of, from manganese and 

cobalt, 258 
Nineveh, Layard's discoveries at, 193 
Notes by a practical chemist, 11, 41, 55, 90, 101, 

127, 150, 175, 209, 222, 258, 268 
Notes on designing steam machinery, 55; by " Na- 

valis," the slot reversing- link, 223; the trunk 

air-pump, 267 

O. 

Ocean steamers, speed and other properties of, by 

A. Henderson, C.E., 272 
Oil, rosin, manufacture and use of, for mechanical 

purposes, 259 
Oils, analysis of, by means of sulphuric acid, 41 
Ore stampers, Reaney's improved, 20 
Ores, machinery for crushing and amalgamating, 

Berdan's, 212 
Orfila, memoir of, 76 
Oxides, metallic separation of, 258 



P. 

Packet contract service, 97 

Paddle-wheel steamers, the resistances of, calcu- 
lated in horse-power, by R. Armstrong, 206 

Paddle-wheel and screw vessels, relative economy 
of, R. Roberts, C.E., on, 180 

Paper-cutting machine, O'Byrne and Dowling's, 
197; Hesse's, 284 

Patent law, modification of the, 21 

Patentees, a hint to, 117 

Patents, recent American, 21, 138, 162, 210, 260, 
283 

Patents : — 

Provisional protections under the new law, 22, 
45, 70, 94, 117, 140, 166, 180, 214, 237, 261, 
285 
List of patents sealed, 47, 71, 95, 118, 142, 167, 

181, 215, 239, 263, 287 
Patents applied for with complete specifications 
deposited, 24, 48, 72,96, 120,142,168,182, 
216,240, 264, 288 
List of English patents, 24, 48, 72 

Peat charcoal, purification of gas by means of, 21 

Permanent Way Company, 146 

Photography on stone, 209 

Pigment, green, from China, 11 

Pinus sylvestris, uses of the leaf of, 186 

Pipe-making machines, Clayton's, 52 

Pipes, improved core-burs and cores for casting, 162 

Planing machines) wood, 98 

Plastic material, new, 140 

Plough, steam, Lord Willoughby de Eresby's, 147 

Plough beams, Griffiths' improved, 260 

Potash, red prnssiate of, 128 

Potassa, red chromate of, 128; salts of, presence of 
soda in, 223 

Potato digger, Foster's, 20 

Powhatan and Susquehanna U. S. steam-ships, per- 
formance of, 126 

Princeton U. S. screw steam-ship, performance 
of, 211, 232 

Printing machines, railway ticket, Lewthwaite's, 99 

Printing press, Jarrett's, 285 

Propellers, Hewet's improvement in, 260 

Prospectuses, a hint to patentees, &c, 117 

Pulleys, banding, Parker's, 21 

Pumps, Dodge's improved, 260 

Q. 

Queen's College, Birmingham, 117 

R. 

Rails for railroads, O'Reilly's, 210; Steele's, 210 
Raii.tvats : — 

Accidents on American railways, 69 

Axles, lubrication of, Adams on, 151; McConnell 

on hollow railway axles, 246, 269 
Axleboxes for engines and tenders, 81 
Balancing of locomotives, 57; on the stability of 

locomotives, 122 
Bayswater to Holborn Bridge Railway, 145 
Blast and exhaust and pressures in locomotives, 

experiments on, 37 
East Indian Railway, 121 
Economical production and use of steam in lo- 
comotives, 56 
Evaporative efficiency of locomotive boilers, 

Clark on, 18 
Gases from furnaces of locomotives, analysis of, 

186 
Grand Trunk of Canada Railway, 146 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 121 
Inclines, Hepburn on, 137 
Locomotive engines, Winder's, 210 
M'Connell's patent locomotive engines, 113 
Metallic permanent ways, Day and Laylee's 

sleepers, 172 
Panama Railway, 49 

Parsons' London and Suburban Railway, 25 
Permanent Way Company, 145 
Rails for railroads, 210 
Railway ticket-printing machines, Lewthwaite's, 

99 
Signal, galvanic, 89; Erskine's, 137 



Index. 



vu 



Railways {continued) : — 
Street railways, 1 
Tank locomotive, Gooch's, for Great Western 

Railway, 171 
Various irregular motions in locomotive engines, 
byD. K. Clark, 36 

Red-fire, 269 

Regulator, gas, Mutrel's, 156 

Revolving fire arms, strength of Colt's pistols, 140 

Revolving till, Nixey's patent, 93 

Reviews: — 

Bourne — Treatise on the Screw Propeller, 12 
Brande — Dictionary of Science, &c, 43, 65 
Clark — Railway Machinery, 17 
Clegg— Manufacture and Distribution of Coal 

Gas, 162 
Glynn— Treatise on the Power of Water, 90 
Grant— Time and Knot Tables, 162 
Engineer and Machinist's Drawing Book, 90 
Evans — Treatise on Boiler Explosions, 114 
Hughes— Treatise on Gas Works, 278 
Larkin — Practical Brassfounder's Guide, 161 
Neville — Hydraulic Formulae, 115 
Nystrom — Treatise on Screw Propellers, 17 
Stuart— Naval and Mail Steamers of the United 

States, 161 
Tomlinson — Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, 18, 

233 
United States Patent-Office Reports, 65, 137 
"Wells— Annual of Scientific Discovery, 258 
Woehler — Analytical Chemist's Assistant, 90 
Wordsworth— On the Law of Letters Patent, 115 

Roofs, iron, of great span, 137 

Rosin oil, manufacture and use of for mechanical 
purposes, 259 

Roving frame, details of, 3 

Rudders for steam vessels, Sickel's improvements 
in, 210 



Sailing ships and steam vessels, their comparative 
value, J. P. Drake on, 159 

Sanspareil, accident to the, 21 

Sanitary regulations, defective, 117 

School of Design, 69 

Screw and paddle-wheel vessels, relative economy, 
by R. Roberts, C.E. 

Screw propeller, positive and negative slip of the, 
by R. Budmer, 19, 86, 131, 203; by " W." 31, 
105, 157, 177, 225, 250; " Goose Quill, 31, 106; 
" Navalis," 32, 107, 178, 226, 252; by J. Bourne, 
C.E., 58; " Workman," on, 129, 156, 201, 228; 
"Fulano," 180; " Multiple," 228 

Screw propeller, the, Bourne's treatise on, reviewed, 
12; Du Quet's machine for drawing up vessels 
against a current, 12; Maudslay's feathering 
screw propeller,13; Boomerang propeller, 13, 145; 
Griffiths' propeller, 13; trial of, in H. M. yacht 
Eairy, 61, 92; parabolic propeller, 14, 145; modes 
of receiving the thrust of the screw, 16, 17; Nys- 
trom's treatise on, reviewed, 17; comparative ad- 
vantages of paddle and screw vessels, 58 ; thrust 
and friction of the screw, 59 ; centrifugal action, 
best proportions, 59 ; predicating speed of screw 
vessels, 59; engines for the, by Caird, Maudslay 
and Pield, Carlsund, Summers, Grantham.Watts, 
Penn, Blyth, Seaward, Rennie and Nystrom, 145 ; 
Hodgson's parabolic propeller, 111; J. P. Drake 
on, 181; Stevens' propeller, 212; Moore's pro- 
peller, 260 

Screw v. paddle, 140, 230,277 

Screw wrench, Reid's, 162 

Sheet iron, manufacture of, 20 

Ships' boats, Brae's apparatus for lowering, 84 

Ship Building: — 

American ship Challenge, 1 

Circular or barrel-bottom ships, by J. P. Drake, 

257 
Construction of vessels, the, by R. Armstrong, 

254 
Defective state of naval architecture, by J. P. 

Drake, 278 
Bible's patent ventilating apparatus, 26 
Hull, form of for screw vessels, 60 
Iron steam ship-building on the Clyde, 97 



Ship Building (continued) ; — 
Launching, new mode of, 50 
Progress of at various ports ; dimensions of 
steamers and sailing vessels building, 67, 93, 
116, 138, 164-5, 189, 214, 237, 261 
Resistance of bodies moving in water, 58 
Sails, operation of the, 60 
Ships' boats, Brae's apparatus for lowering, 84 
Specifications for building the Baltic and Arctic 

U. S. mail steam-ships, 154, 184 
Stability and the causes of a vessel's deviation 

from her course, by R. Armstrong, 228 
Steam vessels for canals and shallow rivers, 60 
Theory and practice of ship building, 275 
Ventilating ships, new mode of, 140 

Shipwrights, strike of at Sunderland, 49 

Signal, railway, galvanic, 89; Erskine's, 137 

Silver, new alloy of, 41; separation of from lead by 
means of zinc, 101 

Skylight fastener, Kimberley's, 69 

Sleepers, Day and Laylee's cast-iron, 172 

Slide valves of the Fire Queen, 182 

Sluice valves, Jennings', 69 

Smoke, prevention of, 140 

Smoke-consuming furnaces, 100; Jucke's furnaces, 
209; Armstrong on, 209 

Societies; Proceedings of: — 

Mechanical Engineers, Institute of, 77, 151, 234, 

242, 269 
Civil Engineers, Institute of, 62, 82, 112, 134,. 

272 
Royal Geographical Society, 63 
Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 83, 137 
Society of Arts, 84 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 260, 284 

Soda, stannate of, 11 ; presence of in salts of potassa, 
223 

Specifications for building the Baltic and Arctic, 
154, 184 

Speculation mania, 1 

Spike-making machine, 210 

Springs, door, Kimberley's, 68 

Stamp- heads, Reaney's, 20 

Stamps, penny postage and receipt, 193 

Steam-boat law, the American, 20 

Steam Engines: — Engines of H. M. S. Amphion, 
15; air-pump valves for ditto, 16; Penn's air- 
pump valves, 16; Maudslay's disc for india-rub- 
ber valves, 16; mode of receiving the thrust of 
the screw, 16; square steam engines, 20; high- 
pressure marine engines, by Mazeline, 20; Eer- 
rabee's fixed steam engine, 52; india-rubber air- 
pump valves, 55; Nystrom's direct acting, for 
the screw propeller, 74; geometrical method of 
finding the pressure of steam during expansion, 
by J. S. Holland, 76; Bach's portable and fixed 
engines, 85; for French navy, 98; governors for 
screw engines, 133, 160, 183, 208, 232, 257; 
portable engines, unfair trial of, at Royal Agri- 
cultural Society's shows, 140; rotary engines, 
140; engines of Baltic and Arctic, 154, 184; 
slide valves of the Fire Queen, 182; tables of 
performance of portable and fixed engines at 
Royal Agricultural Society's show at Gloucester, 
184; steam pressure, increase of, in the navy, 
208 ; the slot reversing-link, by Navalis, 223; 
chronometric governor for steam engines, C. 
W. Siemens on, 242 ; throttle-valve arrange- 
ment, 260; at Dublin Exhibition: Fairbairn's, 
M'Naught's patent, Graham's, Simpson and 
Shipton's, Shekleton's, and Carrett's steam pump, 
265 

Steam gauge, Grimes', 213 

Steam navy, our, increase of, 1, 21 

Steam Navigation: — 
Algerian Packet Service, 98 
Australian Direct Steam Navigation Companv, 

25, 193 
Australian Mail Company's steam ships : Austra- 
lian, 73, 97; Victoria, 145 
British and Australian Clipper Steam Packet 

Company's steam ships, 49 
Charlemagne, French screw ship of war, 176, 

198 
Dible's ventilating apparatus for steam vessels, 26 



Steam Navigation (continued) : — 
Dimensions of Hull and Machinery of 
Bengal, wd. sc, Tod and McGregor, 93 
Briton Ferry iron pd., Hoby and Co., 165 
Duke of Argyll, iron pd., Scott, Sinclair and Co., 

138 
Duncan Hoyle, iron pd., Scott, Sinclair and Co., 

237 
Flamingo, iron pd., Hoby and Co., 165 
Mountaineer, iron pd., J. and G. Thomson, 93 
Prompt, iron sc, A. and J. Inglis, 214 
Reindeer, iron pd., Blackwood and Gordon, 116 
Santander, iron sc., Wingate and Co., 138 
Taurus, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 116 
Telegraph, iron pd., J. and G. Thomson, 67 
Tenerifi'e, iron sc, Tulloch and Denny, 116 
Tubal Cain, iron sc, Blackwood and Gordon, 
139 
American Steamers: — 
Augusta, wd. pd., Stillman, Allen and Co., 139 
Carolina, wd. sc, Renny, Neafie and Co., 165 
John L. Stevens, wd. pd., Stillman, Allen and 

Co., 139 
Keystone State, wd. pd., Merrick and Son, 164 
North Star, wd. pd., Allaire Works, 164 
San Francisco, wd. pd., Morgan Iron Works, 214 



Eastern Steam Navigation Company, report of 

directors, 5 
Eour-wheel steam-ships, by J. P. Drake, 133 
French transatlantic steam navigation schemes, 

26, 50, 89, 121, 261 
Imperial Steam Navigation Company, 210 
London, Liverpool, and North American Screw 

Steam-ship Company, 7 
Paddle wheels v. screw, 140, 231, 277 ; resistances 
of paddle-wheel steamers calculated in horse- 
power, by R. Armstrong, Blackwall, 206 ; late 
return to paddle-wheel propulsion, by J. P. 
Drake, 207 
Princeton, performance of, U. S. screw steam- 
ship, 211, 232 
Sardinian Steam-ship Company, 98 
Screw steam-ships to India and Australia, will 

they pay? by J. P. Drake, 255, 276 
Screw steam-ships, superior economy of, 145; for 

the Pacific, 146 
Specification of Arctic and Baltic, 154, 184 
Speed and other properties of ocean steamers, by 

A. Henderson, C.E., 272 
Steam and sailing vessels, comparative value, by 

J. P. Drake, 159 
Steam communication between Canada and Eng- 
land, 97 
Steam murine, our mercantile, progress of, 145 
Steam to Corsica, 210 
' Susquehanna and Powhatan, performance of, 
127 
United States, statistics of mercantile steam- 
ships in the, 97 
West India Mail. Company, mismanagement of 
the, 25 
Steam plough, Lord Willoughby de Eresby's, 147 
Steam pump, Carrett's, at Dublin Exhibition, 265 
Stereotype moulds, new process of, 83 ; iUahan's, 

213 
Street railways, 1 
Stone, artificial, 236 

Sturgeon, the electrician, erection of tablet to, 188 
Sugar, Bessemer's improvements in the manufac- 
ture of, 2; correspondence between Messrs. 
Fairrie and Bessemer, 66, 88, 109; extract from 
Journal of Franklin Institute on, 111; beet-root 
sugar, statistics of manufacture in the Zollvcrein 
States, 198 
Sulphuric acid for analysing oils, 41 
Susquehanna and Powhatan, performance of the, 
127 



Threshing and winnowing machinery, 54 
Throstle, cotton, 149 
Throttle-valve arrangement, 260 
Ticket-printing machine, railway, 99 



vTLl 



Index. 



Till, revolving, Nixey's patent, 93 

Tinning of iron articles, 90; looking glasses, 93 

Travelling mansion, 210 

Tube-making, brass, machinery, 89 

U. 

Ultramarines, estimation of, 55 

V. 
Valves, air-pump valves of H. M. S. Amphion, 1 6 ; 
Penn's air-pump valves, 16; Maudslay's disc for 



india-rubber valves, 16; india-rubber air-pump 
valves, 55; sluice valves, Jennings', 69; throttle- 
valve arrangements, Anderson's, 260 

W. 

Washing machine, Eobertson's, 284 

Water, supply of, to Paris, 89; Glynn on the power 

of, 91, 103 
Water gauge, Grimes', 213; Goodfellow's talc, 260 
Waterworks: Lough Island Reavy, and the Shaw's 

Waterworks, Greenock, 103 
Weights and measures, decimal system of, 193 



Wool, wood, from pinus sylvestris, 186 
Wood-plauing machines, by Worssam and Co., 
98 



Yacht, the new royal, 261, 284 

Z. 

Zinc, use of, for freeing lead from silver, 101; alloys 
of, 175; zinc and nickel, separation of, from 
manganese and cobalt, 258 

Zinc white, Jones', 21 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate 

1. Cotton Throstle 

2. Engines of H. M. Screw Steam-ship Amphion 

3. Dible's Patent Ventilating Apparatus for Steam Vessels 

4. Revolving Dioptric Light for Lighthouses 

4. Fixed Catadioptric Light for Lighthouses 

5. Ransomes and Sims' Steam Corn Mill 

6. Nystrom's Direct-acting Engines for the Screw 

7. Worssam's Wood-planing Machines 

8. Lewthwaite's Improved Railway-ticket Printing Machine 
McGregor's Self«acting Cotton Mule — Side Elevation 



Page 
, 149 
. 15 
. 26 
. 33 
. 33 
. 52 
. 78 
. 94 
. 99 
. 174 



Plate Page 

10. McGregor's Self-acting Cotton Mule— Plan 174 

11, 12. Lord Willoughby de Eresby's System of Ploughing by Steam... 148 

13. D. Gooch's Tank Locomotive for the Great Western Railway ... 171 

14. Pimm and Rands' Improvements in Corn Mills 222 

15. Leigh's Patent Self-stripping Carding Engine 241 

16. Macindoe's Patent Self-acting Cotton Mule 26G 

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 
Plate 11 to form the Frontispiece. The remaining Plates to be placed at the 
end of the Volume. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ON WOOD IN VOLUME XL, 1853. 



De la Rue's envelope-folding machine (10), 8 

Du Quet's machine for drawing up vessels againsta current, 12 

Maudslay's feathering screw propeller (2), 13 

Boomerang propeller (4), 13 

Griffiths' propeller (3), 13 

Parabolic propeller, 14 

Cylinders and valves of H. M. S. Amphion, 15 

Air-pump valves of H. M. S. Amphion, 16 

Penn's air-pump valves (2), 16 

Maudslay's disc for india-rubber valves, 16 

Mode of receiving the thrust of the screw (4), 16, 17 

Hart's br:ck-making machine, 28 

Blytlfs manure distributor, 29 

Dioptric system for lighthouses (7), 33 

Blast and exhaust pressures in locomotives, diagrams of, (7), 37 

Manufacture of lucifer matches, die (2), 40 

Do.- do. do. phosphorus bath (2), 41 

Hare's gas cooking apparatus, " elementary," 42 
Hare's bachelor's gas oven, 42 
Northumberland prize life boat (2), 43 
Peake's life boat <?,), 43 
Electric telegraphs (5), 44 
Ferrabee's fixed steam-engine, 52 
Clayton's patent brick-making machine, 53 
Clayton's patent pipe-making machines (2), 53 
Ferrabee's threshing and winnowing machinery, 54 
India-rubber air-pump valves, 55 
Oscillation diagrams from goods engines, 57 
Electric telegraphs (2), 65, 66 



Kimberley's box door-spring and stay-fastener, 68 

Do. door-fastener (2), 69 

Do. sky-light fastener, 69 

Diagram for ascertaining the pressure of steam, 76 
Axleboxes for passenger engines (2), 81 
Axleboxes for tenders (3), 81 
Brae's self-retaining support for Venetian blinds, 84 
Brae's detainer, as applied for lowering boats, 84 
Bach's improved portable ennine, 85 
Bach's improved fixed engine, 85 
Nixey's patent revolving till, 93 
Lewthwaite's railway-ticket printing-machine, 100 
Stevens' patent smoke-consuming furnaces (3), 1 01 
"Wright's improved ventilating gas condenser, 104 
Budding's patent mowing machine, 128 
Theory of screw propeller (3 diagrams), 129 
Four-wheel steam ships (2), 133 
Railway axle lubrication (8), 153 
Mutrel's gas regulator, 156 
Day and Laylee's semi-tubular wrought-iron transverse sleeper, 

(4), 173 
Day and Laylee's semi-tubular cast-iron transverse sleeper, 

(3), 173 
Mair's patent multiple gas stove (3), 173 
Egg-shaped vertical steam boiler (2). 183, 184 
Jones's patent governor regulator (2), 196 
O'Byrne and Dowling's patent paper-cutting machine, 197 
Stevens' screw propelle- (2), 212 
Berdan's inclined grinder and amalgamator (2), 212, 213 



Plan of the Great Irish Industrial Exhibition building, 221 

The slot reversing-link (8), 224 

Cameron's patent steam boiler (2), 225 

Midship section of Canopus and Ripon, 229 

Siemens' chronometric governor for steam engines. (3), 244 

Hollow railway axles, (7), 246 

Midship section for sailing ships, 257 

Governor for screw engines, 258 

Moore's screw propeller, (4), 260 

Talc water-gauge for steam boilers, (2), 260 

Hare's cylindrical gas cooking stove, 260 

The trunk air-pump, 268 

White's hydrocarbon gas retorts (2), 283 

Harvey's portable sketching easel (2), 284 

Oram's perpetual almanac, 284 

Jarrett's patent printing press, 285 



THE FOLLOWING ENGRAVINGS ACCOMPANY THE 
PLATES BELONGING TO THE SERIES OF ARTI- 
CLES ON COTTON AND ITS MANUFACTURING 
MECHANISM. 

Details of roving frame, 3 

Houldsworth's differential motion, 29 

Teed's double centrifugal press, 31 

Copping rail motion, 31 

Tumbling lever, 31 

Details of Macindoe's self-acting mule (2), 266 




AETIZAN. 



No. CXX.— Vol. XI.— JANUARY 1st, 1853. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

The intolerable over-crowding of the streets of London, and the 
obstruction to locomotion and the vast expense incurred from the loss 
of time to which vehicles of every kind are subjected in most of the 
great thoroughfares, from their disgracefully crowded condition, are at 
length awakening public attention to the necessity of some compre- 
hensive system of improvement being carried into effect, by which these 
injurious results will be to a great measure averted. It seems to be 
agreed upon all hands, that the only effectual mode of remedying the 
evil is by the construction of railway streets, which shall withdraw from 
the existing streets a large part of their traffic, and accordingly Mr. 
Pearson has devised a scheme for bringing the principal railways which 
communicate with London to a grand terminus in Farringdon-street ; 
and Mr. Samuel proposes to carry a railway on piles along the middle 
of the Thames, as we explained in our last month's number. More 
recently a former idea has been revived for carrying a railway along the 
city side of the Thames from Westminster Bridge to London Bridge. 
There is no doubt that these several schemes, if carried into effect, would 
be productive of much advantage to the community; but the impres- 
sion appears to be gathering strength that they are not of adequate 
comprehensiveness for the accomplishment of the intended object, and 
that it is now necessary to look the difficulty in the face, and to lay out 
such lines of railway street as are not suggested by mere facility of con- 
struction, but as appear likely to afford the best prospect of enabling 
London to acquire that facility of locomotion which is so necessary to 
its most important interests. It appears to be indispensable to the 
attainment of this object that new railway streets should be driven 
through London in directions approaching those of the principal 
thoroughfares. Sooner or later such streets must be constructed, and 
there can be no time more favourable than the present for the accom- 
plishment of such a work. Anticipating the probability of this import- 
ant improvement being speeddy undertaken, we may here offer a few 
general observations, which may aid in rendering such a scheme more 
perfect and comprehensive than it would otherwise become. 

Each line of railway should, we think, consist of six parallel lines of 
rails, of which two should be continuations of the great railways enter- 
ing London, two should be devoted to the omnibus or short passenger 
traffic, and two to the waggon or short goods traffic. The railways 
should not be on the level of the streets, but should be carried on a 
higher level, by means of cast-iron columns and girders. Beneath each 
railway a street should run, on which any of the common street vehicles 
should be permitted to ply, on payment of a small toll to the railway 
company. This street could be lighted both from the sides and the 
top, for a large part of the railway surface could be flagged with thick 
glass. Footpaths would run on each side of the street, both on the 
level of the street and the level of the railway, and it would, probably, 
be found advisable to run footpaths on the level of the storeys above 



the level of the railway, as those footpaths could cross the railway in 
any part without interruption. Upon the whole of these several levels 
lines of shops could be opened, and as these railway streets would, 
when constructed, immediately become the great arteries of traffic, the 
shops established in them might be expected to bring such rents as 
would largely remunerate the company. Easy communication should 
be afforded by stairs at frequent intervals between the several lines of 
footway, and also between the railway and the adjoining streets. The 
other details of the plan which present themselves to us we need not 
dwell upon at present, and we merely mention the project generally as 
one which we are confident would conciliate public favour and public 
support. 

We have been much gratified during the current month by a visit 
which we have paid to the American ship Challenge, lying in the East 
India Dock. Never before have we seen such an admirable specimen 
of naval architecture in the department of sailing ships. The vessel is 
of about 2,000 tons burden, and, in the form of the hull, more nearly 
resembles a fast steamer than a sailing ship. The water lines at the 
bow are very hollow, so as to resemble a sharp vessel lengthened out 
close to the stem. This, we are satisfied, is the right shape for the bows 
of ships, as it gives to the water the same motion sideways that a body 
acquires in falling by gravity — slow at first and gradually accelerated. 
There is a large extent of sail power, but the necessary area is given by 
great width rather than by great height ; so that the masts are not 
very high, but the yards are very long. The main sail is 120 feet wide 
at the bottom, and both masts and spars are of immense strength. 

The directors of the Upper India Railway have resolved to carry that 
line from Allahabad to Delhi, instead of restricting themselves to the 
more limited portion they formerly proposed. They have not, however, 
yet obtained the sanction of the East India Company to their scheme, 
without which, it is to be apprehended, it cannot be pursued. 

The mania for speculation which is now upon us appears to be 
taking the direction of Australia, and every scheme having reference to 
that country is swallowed without qualm or inquiry. The shares of 
the Australian Land Company, lately selling at ,£15, have risen to the 
incredible price of £340, in consequence of gold having been found on 
a part of their property. Such fluctuations are artificial and unwhole- 
some, and it is to be hoped that those interested in that country will 
endeavour to check such reckless speculation. 

The extension of the steam navy appears to have received from the 
late government much consideration. Four pairs of screw engines have 
lately been ordered from Messrs. Penn, and four pairs from Messrs. 
Maudslay, for new war vessels. The whole of these engines are to be 
trunk engines of the description introduced by Messrs. Penn. 

The Portland Iron Works, near Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, lately 
abandoned by Messrs. Burns, are proposed to be put again into opera- 
tion by a London joint-stock company. Those embarking in such an 
undertaking will require to take care what they are about. 



Manufacture of Sugar. 



[January, 



BESSEMER'S IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE 
OF SUGAR. 

Mr. Bessemer has invented a number of expedients for the improved 
manufacture of sugar, of which some are applicable to the extraction of 
sugar from the cane, while others have exclusive reference to the refining 
of sugar in this country. To the former class of improvements we do not 
think it necessary at present to refer, and we shall confine the observa- 
tions we have to offer to those expedients of improvement which ex- 
clusively concern the sugar refiner. The refining of sugar has risen 
into an occupation of great importance in this country, and any novelty 
in the process or apparatus by which that manufacture is cheapened or 
expedited, deserves well to be recorded and commended. Whether any 
of Mr. Bessemer's contrivances appear likely to hold their ground as 
permanent and useful improvements we shall presently inquire : but 
whatever be their fate in this respect, it is at least gratifying to find men 
of acknowledged ingenuity devoting their attention to a subject of so 
much importance to the country, as any important amelioration of the 
modes of manufacturing sugar would assuredly be. 

In the ordinary mode of refining sugar, the raw sugar is first dissolved 
in hot water, so as to bring it to the condition of a syrup. It is then 
filtered through cloth, so as to separate the mechanical impurities, and 
is next passed through a thick layer of animal charcoal, by which its 
colour is changed from that of brandy to that of nearly pure water. 
The rationale of the bleaching power of the charcoal is not well under- 
stood. To some extent its action is probably mechanical, but the main 
virtue of the charcoal is, in our judgment, imputable to its deoxidising 
power. The carbon of the animal charcoal reduces, we believe, the 
phosphoric acid of the bones to a condition more nearly approaching 
phosphorus, and also reduces any potash or soda present to a condition 
more nearly approaching potassium and sodium. When, therefore, the 
syrup is poured over newly burned animal charcoal, there is a partial 
decomposition of the water, and nascent hydrogen is formed, which is 
distributed over the immense surface of the cells and capillaries of the 
burnt bones — probably in a liquid state. The free charcoal in the syrup, 
which gives to it its dark colour, coming into contact with this nascent 
hydrogen, combines with it, forming a colourless compound, and the 
syrup is thus freed from that superfluous charcoal to which its colour is 
to be imputed. The syrup, thus deprived of its colouring matter, is 
passed into a close pan, heated by steam, and within which a vacuum is 
constantly maintained by proper arrangements. This pan is called the 
vacuum-pan, and in it the syrup is concentrated until it reaches such a 
point of saturation that, when suffered to escape, it concretes into 
sugar. The purpose of the vacuum within the evaporating vessel is to 
enable the evaporation to be conducted at a low temperature, whereby 
any new carbonisation of the sugar will be in a great measure pre- 
vented. The concentrated syrup is let out not directly into the moulds, 
but into a large open pan called the heater, which is heated by steam, 
and in which the liquid sugar is momentarily brought to a higher tem- 
perature than it attained within the vacuum-pan — that condition being 
more favourable for its perfect crystallisation. Out of the heater the 
liquid sugar is ladled into moulds of the form of loaves of sugar. Each 
of these moulds has a small hole at the apex, through which the un- 
crystallisable portion of the sugar is permitted to drain into a vessel 
placed beneath. Should the sugar, when solidified, not be sufficiently 
white, a solution of refined sugar in pure water is poured over the base 
of each inverted cone, which, penetrating through the mass of the sugar, 
washes away whatever colouring matter that may remain into the re- 
ceiving vessel below. This process is what is termed liquoring. Before 
the use of animal charcoal was introduced, sugar was whitened by 
liquoring exclusively, but it is desirable that there should be as little 
liquoring as possible, as there is some waste of sugar by the process, 
which it is very desirable to avoid. 



Such, then, is a rapid outline of the present mode of refining sugar. 
Mr. Bessemer, in the first of his improvements that we shall notice, 
proposes to dispense altogether with the vacuum pan, and to concen- 
trate the syrup in an open pan, in which there shall be a number of 
discs revolving slowly on a horizontal axis. These discs may be so bent 
as to form a continuous Archimedian spiral. They are partly immerged 
in the syrup, and the axis consists of a pipe perforated with numerous 
holes, through which a current of air is forced by a centrifugal fan, 
which air, by passing rapidly over the surface of the discs, aids the 
evaporation of the film of syrup with which each disc is coated. Mr. 
Bessemer asserts that, by the aid of this apparatus, he can accomplish 
the evaporation of the syrup with even less carbonisation than what 
takes place in the present vacuum pan. Of this we must confess we 
are very sceptical. No doubt, in many sugar refineries in which the 
vacuum pan is unskilfully used, a good deal of carbonisation does take 
place; but, ceteris paribus, there will, in our judgment, certainly be 
less carbonisation by excluding the atmosphere than by admitting it, 
since the weight of the atmosphere resists the formation of vapour, 
until such an amount of heat has been given to the liquid as will give to 
its vapour a higher tension than that which the atmosphere possesses. 
The use of an evaporating surface partly immerged in the syrup is not 
an absolute novelty in sugar refining. Expedients of a similar nature 
have been tried before, with only inadequate results ; and although 
some of the details of Mr. Bessemer's arrangements are superior to those 
of his predecessors, yet we can hardly expect that these ameliorations 
can compensate for any deficiency in the principle, or enable any very 
eminent success to be attained. In the colonies, perhaps, where open 
pans are at present used, Mr. Bessemer's mode of evaporation may be 
advantageously practised ; but this capability, if proved to exist, will 
not necessarily enable it to be employed beneficially for refining sugar 
at home ; and, to say the truth, we have no expectation that it will be 
found equal in eligibility to the vacuum pan at present in common 
use. 

The next improvement of Mr. Bessemer's that we shall notice, is an 
apparatus for liquoring raw sugar, by which it is very much bleached 
before being subjected to the action of the charcoal, and the charcoal 
will thus be relieved from much of the work that it has to perform. A 
round metal vessel, with a flat top, has a vacuum maintained within it 
by means of an air pump, and from the centre of the top of the vessel 
to its periphery, a slit extends, through which the air can rush in. 
Upon the top of the vessel is laid a revolving table of wire gauze, upon 
which a stratum of sugar is being continually fed from a hopper, and 
continually discharged by a scraper on the opposite side. Over the slit 
through which the air rushes a shower of water is sprinkled by a rose, 
and as the successive portions of the layer of sugar pass over the slit 
a shower of water falls, which washes away the colouring matter of the 
sugar, and which is sucked into the interior of the vessel in the shape of 
thin molasses. This process is substantially a reproduction of that 
patented by Mr. Hague many years ago. He used the vacuum and the 
shower of water as Mr. Bessemer does, but the arrangements for feeding 
and discharging were not the same. We apprehend, however, that the 
objection found to apply to Mr. Hague's plan will apply in an equal 
extent to this. The shower of water not merely washed away the 
colouring matter, but dissolved and carried off a part of the supar, and 
this sugar could not be afterwards recovered by any process which did 
not involve other objections. 

Another of Mr. Bessemer's improvements is a revolving filter. Under 
the usual arrangement, the impure syrup is filtered through a large 
number of long bags, having, collectively, a vast extent of filtering sur- 
face. These bags have to be frequently emptied and thoroughly washed. 
Mr. Bessemer discards the filtering bags, and uses in their place a per- 
forated drum, over which filtering cloth is spread, and the liquid is to 



1853.] 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanism. 



pass from the exterior of this drum to the interior, and be then con- 
ducted away, — a scraper being so applied to the surface of the drum as 
to remove from the cloth the feculencies as they accumulate. This 
contrivance, in our judgment, will not do. The filtering surface is 
quite insufficient, and no scraper that could be applied would remove 
from the filtering cloth the feculencies it collects, since they accumulate 
to a large extent, not on the surface of the cloth, but in its substance, 
and it requires diligent washing in pure water to remove them in an 
effectual manner. 

Mr. Bessemer's last improvement is a new species of heater, for heat- 
in°- the liquid sugar before it is ladled into the moulds. Instead of a 
common open pan, surrounded by a steam casing, he proposes to run 
the sugar through a number of small pipes heated by steam, the 
configuration being, in fact, somewhat like that of a tubular boiler with 
vertical tubes, with the sugar in the tubes, and the steam outside of 
them. This, though in our judgment an improvement, is a somewhat 
microscopic one ; and if there is to be a deviation from established 
modes, we are not sure that Mr. Bessemer's arrangement of heater is 
the best that could be suggested. 

From the tenor of the foregoing remarks, it will be obvious that we 
do not anticipate an}' revolution in the art of sugar-refining from 
Mr. Bessemer's discoveries ; and, indeed, his contrivances, though 
marked with a certain degree of mechanical intelligence, do not rise 
above mediocrity, and will iu no respect support any very exalted pre- 
tensions. It is not by expedients of this quality that the operations of 
suo-ar-refining are to be amended ; nor, we may predict, is any patentee 
likely to derive benefit from petty ameliorations, which naturally work 
themselves out in the prosecution of any manufacture; but he must 
look to large features of improvement, which, by their novelty, will 
command attention, and which will compel their own adoption by the 
advantages they hold out. 

COTTON AND ITS MANUFACTURING MECHANISM, 
By Robert Scott, Burn, M.E., M.S.A. 

Illustrated by Plate 21, vol. x. 
(Continued from page 260, vol. x.) 

"We now proceed to detail, as concisely as our limits will admit of, 
the various movements of the beautiful machine, the " roving frame." 
These may be classed under two heads, the movements which are uni- 
form, and those which are variable. And, first, as to the uniform move- 
ments. The first in sequence is that of the drawing rollers. These are 
always kept at the same speed, having an invariable quantity of cotton 
to deliver to the bobbins. The sliver, from the can filled at the drawing- 
frame, is passed between two rollers, placed on a horizontal moving bar, 
having a slow traverse from side to side. The effect of this is to pass the 
sliver over the whole length of surface of the drawing-roller, which is 
covered with leather, thus obviating its indentation and ultimate cutting, 
which would result from the sliver passing invariably over one portion 
of the leather surface. The other invariable 
movement is that of the spindles, the duty of 
which is to give an equable twist throughout to 
all the length of sliver as it is delivered to the 
bobbin. The method of driving the spindles 
is seen in fig. 1, where a a is the spindle, sup- 
ported by a bearing at b, and revolving in the 
step at c; the flyer, d, is placed at its upper 
end, and is easily removed, to admit of the 
bobbin being " doffed," that is, taken away 
when filled with its supply of roving, and to 
place the empty one. A small bevel wheel is 
attached to the foot of the spindle, at a dis- 
tance from the step, in which it revolves, suffi- 
cient to admit of a driving bevel wheel at e 



□ 4 



_n 




Fig. 2. 



I 






di* 



Kg. 1. 



working easily. It must be noted, that the motion of the bobbins is 
independent of that of the spindles, round which they revolve. They 
derive their motion from bevel gearing, a b (fig. 2). The bearings of 
the shaft, b, is fixed upon what is termed the " copping-rail," on which 
also is fixed the bearing, b, of the spindle (see fig. 1). 
The variable movements are next to be considered. 
The reader may, perhaps, recollect that, in our article 
on " Flax and its Manufacturing Mechanism," while 
explaining the rationale of the operation of the bobbin 
and fly, we mentioned that, as the spindles were so 
fixed as to have merely a circular motion, and incapable 
of vertical motion, they would deliver the sliver only 
at one part of the bobbin, if this, like the spindles, 
was incapable of vertical motion; this, as we then 
mentioned, was obviated by giving the bobbins an up- 
and-down motion, on spindles. How this movement 
is carried out, by the beautiful automatic mechanism 
of the machine under consideration, it is now our duty 
to explain. 
The reader is, doubtless, acquainted with the principle of the " mangle 
wheel motion," by which the continuous motion of one shaft having a 
pinion on it is made to give an alternate, or right and left, motion to 
another shaft on which the mangle wheel is fixed. Suppose a to be the 
1( mangle-wheel shaft (fig. 3), a small pinion is 

f e j] fixed on the extremity, working into the face 

§ !j f teeth of the rack, b b. This rack works in a 

slide, to which is fastened the projecting arm 
of the copping rail d, in which the bobbin 
rests, and to which the driving gearing (see 
fig. 2) is attached. As the shaft a moves 
alternately from right to left, it is easy to 
perceive how the rack and arm are moved 
up and down, and, consequently, the bobbins 
resting on the rail. The bobbins, thus sliding 
on the spindles, change the position of their 
surface relatively to the delivering eye of the 
arm of the fly, in a certain ratio or speed. To 
relieve the strain on the teeth of the rack and pinion, b, a, the rack and 
copping rail are attached to a weight by a chain,/, which passes over a 
pulley above the rack. Before describing the next movement, it will be 
necessary to go a little further into the operation of the machine. On 
first starting, suppose the diameter of bobbin to be equal to the 
diameter of front delivering roller, one revolution of the bobbin will just 
take up the exact quantity given out by one revolution of the roller; 
but the speed of the spindle and roller remaining uniformly the same, 
each successive layer of cotton on the bobbin necessarily increases its 
diameter, and, in proportion to this increase, the relative condition of 
the diameter of bobbin to that of the roller is changed. Supposing 
the speed of the bobbin to be 5, and that of the spindle 10, and that, in 
this relative condition of matters, the cotton sliver given out by the front 
rollers, and which we shall call 6, was exactly wound upon the circum- 
ference of the bobbin, which we further suppose to be represented by 2, 
by one revolution of the spindle round the bobbin, — now, suppose the 
circumference of the bobbin to be increased by the operation of the 
machine, till it is represented by 6, — it is very evident that, the speed of 
the spindle still being 10, the speed of the bobbins cannot now be 5 ; 
if so, the cotton sliver must be broken, inasmuch as the quantity of 
cotton given out by the rollers, and which originally had only to be 
wound over a surface of 2, has to go over a surface of three times that 
amount, or 6. One of two things, therefore, must be effected ; the 
spindle must be increased in speed so — to use a familiar expression— to 
run, as it were, before the bobbin ; or the bobbin must be decreased in 



© 



Fig. 3. 



4 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanism. 



[January, 



speed, in order to enable the spindle to keep up with its increased sur- 
face. As before stated, the speed of the spindle is uniform, the latter 
operation is, therefore, carried out. The relative position of affairs, 
between the quantity of cotton to be wound on the bobbin, the speed of 
the bobbins, and that of the spindle, may be more familiarly explained. 
Suppose a large wheel to revolve in vertical bearings, and that a boy 
is charged with the task of winding on a certain length of cord, given 
out uniformly every minute, if the speed of the large wheel was to 
remain uniform, it is clear that, as its diameter increased, the boy would 
require to run faster, this increase of speed being proportioned to the 
increase of the diameter of the wheel ; just as the horse near the 
circumference of a gin walks fast, while his neighbour near the centre 
walks slowly, or the sailors at the ends of the lever of the windlass have 
to run merrily, while those near the centre take it very easily. If, how- 
ever, it was essential that the speed of the boy, like that of the quan- 
tity of cord given out to him every minute should be uniform, the 
speed of the wheel would have to be decreased, or the result would be 
either that the cord would break, or be pulled out of the boy's grasp. 
But the diameter of wheel increasing with every layer of cord laid on 
its surface, its speed would have to be correspondingly altered for every 
revolution. This is just what has to be done in the roving machine ; 
the speed of the bobbins has to be adjusted to the exact rate of in- 
crease of their diameters, and the traverse of the copping rail in like 

proportion. Plow this is 

n * 

I 



-{A 




Fin 



effected we shall now 
endeavour to explain. 
Let a a (fig. 4) be the 
main driving shaft, hav- 
ing at one end a spur 
wheel, b, driving c, that 
of the shaft, d d, parallel 
to a a ; the diameter of 
the driving wheel b, is 
equal to that of the 
driving wheel c ,• con- 
sequently, the speed of 
the shaft, d, is equal to 
that of a. From the shaft, e e, the various motions are derivable. On 
the shaft, d, a parallel key or projection is made, which works into a 
slot made in the interior of the moveable frame, g g. This frame has 
two motions, one along the length of the shaft, and a circular one, of 
the same speed of revolution as dj this revolving motion is obtained 
by means of the key, e e, taking into the corresponding slot in g g. On 
the frame, g g, a pulley, /, is fastened, round which a belt is placed, 
which passes over the circumference of a cone pulley, h h, placed 
beneath the shaft, d. As the diameter of the driving pulley, /, is the 
same throughout, and that of the cone pulley, h h, continually changing, 
the driving belt is kept always in contact with the pulley, h h, by 
means of a second pulley, with a weight; this pulley revolving between 
two arms, fastened to the frame, g g, and having the weight at the 
outer extremity. Now, supposing the pulley, /, with its frame, g g, 
to be pulled along the shaft, d d, on the slot, e e, the result would be, 
that the belt would gradually move up from the apex to the large end of 
the cone pulley, h h, thus giving a gradually retarded motion to the 
shaft, m m, on which the pulley, 7* h, is fastened. To those of our 
readers acquainted with the principle of the cone pulley, this requires 
no explanation; a slight further detail may, however, to some be useful. 
Supposing the pulley, /, to be exactly opposite the smallest end of the 
cone pulley, h h, and that the diameter of / was twice that of the small 
end of h, for each revolution of/, h h would make two, and, conse- 
quently, the shaft, m m, in which it is fixed; but as the pulley,/, was 
pulled along the slot, e e, the belt would be removed to a part of the 



cone pulley, which would be increased in diameter, suppose it arrived at 
a part where its diameter would just equal that of the pulley, /, the 
speed of k h would just be equal to d d or/. But suppose the belt 
arrived at the large end of the cone, h h, which suppose to be in dia- 
meter twice that of the pulley, /, the relative speeds of the cone, h, and 
the pulley,/, will be just reversed from those at the starting; that is, 
the cone, h, would only revolve once for every two revolutions of the 
pulley,/. Now, it will be easily understood, that it is necessary to 
move the pulley, /, along the shaft, d, in a certain proportion or rate of 
speed, inasmuch as the rate of speed of the cone pulley, h h, regulates 
the speed of the bobbins and of the traverse of the copping rail on 
which the bobbins are placed, every successive advance of the belt on 
the cone (or of the pulley, /, along the shaft, d) being simultaneous, 
or in exact keeping with the successive layers of cotton on the surface 
of the bobbin. How the pulley, /, is moved along the shaft, d, is, 
therefore, our next task to explain. At the end of the machine, oppo- 
site to that at which the driving wheels, b c (fig. 4), are placed, a 
counterbalance weight is hung ; the chain attached to this is passed 
over a pulley, and carried along the machine parallel to the shaft, d d, 
and finally attached to the moving frame, g g, carrying the pulley,/. 
Suppose this free to move in the slotted shaft, e e, the tendency of 
the drag on the chain, represented by a double dotted line, s s, by the 
weight above mentioned, will be to pull the frame and pulley, /, along 
the shaft, d, in the direction of the arrow. Suppose the frame, g g 
(fig. 4), to be continued for some distance along the machine, and 
attached to the rack, a a (fig. 5), which slides longitudinally on 




Fig. 5. 

the framing in a line with the shaft, d d. This rack is an alternate 
one; that is, the end of one of the teeth is placed opposite the 
middle of the slide of that under or over it. The weight attached 
to the frame, g, exercises its influence also over the rack, which will 
slide along, if left free to move in the direction of the arrow. 
Now, if two clicks, as a and c, be so placed, that while one, as b, 
holds the rack fast in one position, by preventing it from being 
pulled along in the direction of the arrow, the other click or paul, as e, 
will be exactly in the middle of the slide below it; if, then, the clicks 
can be disengaged alternately, the rack will be dragged along its slide, 
in the direction of the arrow, a space equal to half the length of one of 
the slides or teeth of the rack. As the rack is attached to the frame, 
g g, which, in its turn, carries the pulley,/, it is easy to see how the belt 
will be passed up the surface of the conical drum, in exact proportion to 
the movement of the rack along its slide. The next essential movement 
at this stage of our analysis is obviously some means of alternately dis- 
engaging the clicks, b and c, of fig. 5. It may be here noted, that the 
weight of the upper click, b, keeps it always in contact with the faces 
of the slides, the contact of the under one, c, being maintained by a 
weight hung from the prolonged end. 

Suppose a (fig. 6") to be a vertical slide, fixed immediately behind the 
rack, a a (fig. 5), having a slot at its lower end, through which the end 
of a lever oscillating on the centre, b, is passed. This bar, a, has project- 
ing from its surface two arms; these acting alternately on the ends of the 
clicks, b and c (fig. 5), as the bar, a (fig. 6), is moved up and down. 
The other end of the lever, b, is attached to the vertical rod, d, having 



1853.] 



Eastern Steam Navigation Company. 







Fig. 6. 



adjusted on it, at certain 
points, two catches, or pro- 
jecting arms. A weight, e, 
serves to make the move- 
ment equal. At the opposite 
side of the rack, b b (fig. 3), 
another rack, c c (fig. 6), is 
fixed, which has an alter- 
nate up and down motion 
imparted to it by the pinion, 
a (fig. 3), fixed on the end 
of the mangle-wheel shaft, 
as before explained. 'The 
rack, c c, in fig. 6, has a 
projecting arm fixed on 
it. This projecting arm, 
as the rack moves upwards, strikes one of the adjustable catches 
on the vertical rod, d, and correspondingly moves the lever, b, and the 
vertical slide-bar, a ; which again, by one of its projecting arms, strikes 
the end of one of the clicks or pauls, disengages the rack, enables the 
drag-weight to act, and pulls the rack and pulley forward (see figs. 4 
and 5), in the direction of the arrow, until the other paul or click catches 
the extremity of its slide, and prevents it from going further. The rack, 
c c (fig. 6), on descending, by means of its projecting arm, strikes the 
other catch on the vertical rod, d, and this again acts, as before, on the 
vertical slide, a a, disengaging the other paul, and thus enabling the 
drag-weight to pull forward the rack and pulley, thus passing the belt 
gradually over the surface of the cone pulley (see fig. 4.) When we 
mention that the mangle-wheel shaft is driven by a train of gearing 
from the shaft of the cone pulley, the reader will at once observe how 
the various movements we have thus far described are self-adjusting, 
dependent one upon another. In our next we purpose still further in- 
vestigating the movements of this machine, as well as of those of the 
machine next in sequence, the Throstle, and of which we give a " front 
elevation," and two end elevations, drawn to a £ scale, in Plate 1. 

(To be continued.) 

EASTERN STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

In our number for August last we gave an abstract of the report 
which was made by the directors of this company to a meeting of the 
proprietors, held on the 12th of July. At that meeting Mr. Brunei 
intimated the intention of the directors to employ steam vessels of large 
size, which were to be propelled both by paddles and by the screw — a 
combination proposed by Mr. Bourne some years ago, but which was only 
published to the world, in his Treatise on the Screw-Propeller, a few 
days before the date of Mr. Brunei's announcement. During the 
present month of December, another meeting of the proprietors of this 
company has been held, and another report has been presented by the 
directors. This report is manifestly the production of an engineer, and 
as it addresses itself mainly to engineering questions, and uses argu- 
ments which an engineer alone can adequately appreciate, we believe 
that no apology will be necessary for giving the material parts of it a 
plane in our pages, with the addition of such comments as the occasion 
appears to us to require. After recapitulating the names of the direc- 
tors, the report proceeds as follows : — 

In conformity with the proceedings at the extraordinary general meeting of proprietors 
held on the 12th of July last, by which the directors were authorised " to lake all necessary 
measures for carrying the objects of the company into effect" your directors have been 
engaged in further examination into the practicability and the best means of constructing 
vessels of power and capacity to perform the voyage from England to Calcutta, and, if 
deemed advisable, to Australia, without stopping to coal by the way, and have continued 
their inquiries as to the amount of passengers and merchandise that can be obtained, in 
order to make the employment of such a class of vessels remunerative. 

On the first point — Your directors have satisfied themselves, upon what they conceive to 
be the highest authority, that vessels can be constructed with capacity for carrying their 
coals for the whole voyage, with increased ability to provide for passengers luxurious and 



roomy cabins, with air, comfort, and accommodation, on a scale hitherto wholly unattain- 
able, and that the size and power of such vessels will constitute, in a high degree, the 
elements of greatly increased speed, certainty, and safety, while the disposable capacity for 
passengers and cargo will be multiplied in a higher ratio, and be attended with an actual 
diminution in the proportionate working expenses. 

On the second point — Your directors are satisfied that a sufficient number of passengers, 
with such an amount of merchandise, will be obtained as will render the employment of the 
class of vessels referred to, making one voyage out and home every two months, the source 
of a large return upon the capital invested. 

The limits of a report will not permit your directors to state in detail the grounds and 
views on which their judgment has been formed, after much lab irious consideration of the 
subject with Mr. Brunei and other practical men ; but, for the information of the proprietors 
and the public, they think it right to recapitulate the leading features of the plan. 
As regards the class of ships proposed, your directors have satisfied themselves that a 
vessel of unusual strength, capable of resisting any strain that it can possibly be subjected 
to, divided completely into numerous water-tight compartments, so that no local injury can 
affect its safety, may be constructed of the necessary dimensions to carry the required quan- 
tity of fuel, and yet to draw only 21 to 22 feet water, on arriving at then on th of the Hoogly, 
and they have satisfied themselves that this depth of water at least can, with certainty, be 
obtained up to Diamond Harbour, while a greater draught exists in both the principal ports 
of Australia. Should a greater depth be found hereafter to be attainable in the Hoogly, as 
many experienced men assert, it will afford increased facilities ; but your directors have 
determined, in the first instance, to limit the draught to that stated. By the use of paddle- 
wheels, combined with the screw, which your engineer recommends, the most competent 
and experienced men concur with him in the opinion, that such vessels will, notwith- 
standing their size, be more easily managed, and be more completely under control, than 
the present steamboats even of small dimensions. 

With respect to the size, the experience of the last twenty years has proved decisively 
the advantages of increased dimensions for all classes of sea-going vessels, but for steam- 
boats especially ; and the introduction of iron in ship-building, which has enabled vessels to 
be constructed of any dimensions, with any degree of strength that may be determined 
upon, has introduced an entirely new law in the determination of the size and capacity of 
ships for any given trade. Increase of size is now ascertained to be an element of increased 
security, speed, and relative economy, such dimensions being limited only by a due regard to 
the amount of capital to be embarked, to the supply of freight and passengers that can be 
obtained on any given line, and to the peculiarities, such as draught of water, of the ports 
to be frequented. The very great advantages of increased size for vessels running to 
distant ports, such as those of India or Australia, may thus be briefly explained: — 
Steam-vessels of the sizes now in use require to coal three or four times in a passage 
to Calcutta ; and, although the power of engines at present applied to such vessels 
is small, being called on that account auxiliary, and the vessels obliged to be prepared 
for sailing, and nearly full-rigged, and, consequently, comparatively slow, as steam-boats, 
yet nearly the whole ship is sacrificed to the engine and coal, very little cargo-space 
is left, and the number of passengers and the accommodation is limited. Great delays 
result from the taking in of coals at the various stations; and the coal, thus sent at great 
expense, and stored at the different ports, costs, with all contingencies, when on board the 
steamboat, somewhat above 40s. a ton : 4,000 or 5,000 tons are consumed in a voyage out to 
Calcutta and home ; and such a vessel will scarcely make more than two voyages in the 
year. 

If the same amount of capital embarked in several such small ships be applied to the con- 
struction of one of much larger dimensions, the following very striking results are obtained. 
Such a ship will be able to carry a much larger power of engines proportioned to her resist- 
ance, and yet will have ample capacity to carry the whole fuel to supply her engines for the 
voyage out and home, the fuel costing only 12s. on board instead of 40s. The total quantity 
of fuel consumed by the large ship on the voyage, at a hi . h rate of speed, is proved by all 
past experience to be much less than the aggregate consumption of the smaller ships during 
their lengthened voyages, and the price per ton being reduced by two-thirds, the largest 
single item in the whole expense of working the smaller boats is reduced by 75 to 80 per 
cent., while the charges of ship's company, and other working expenses, not being increased 
in nearly the same ratio as the size, the total cost per annum becomes materially reduced 
in proportion to the capacity of the ship for freight, while the capacity, over and above that 
occupied by the fuel, rapidly increases with the increased size of the ship. In addition to 
this, the same ships can easily make three voyages out and home in the year, instead of 
two, with much longer intervals for rest ; thus further increasing the amount of return, in 
proportion to the capital embarked, by 50 per cent. Such a ship, running direct frrm 
England to Calcutta, at the rate only which our past experience proves steam-vessels 
capable of, will perform the voyage easily in thirty-two days. She will afford such extended 
accommodation in the state-room, with single berths, airy and roomy saloons, and private 
cabins, ample supplies of water, and other conveniences, with an almost unlimited amount 
of luggage to passengers, as will effect an entire change in the character of an Indian or 
Eastern voyage. The saving of time — the saving of expense— the absence of all the usual 
fatigues, inconveniences, and annoyances, now resulting from want of space in long sea 
voyages — must lead immediately to a great increase of the number of travellers, as it has, 
in all other cases, of improved facilities of communication. All these accommodations can 
be afforded, in the proposed ships, to any number of passengers which at present can be 
expected on a line to Calcutta, and to a greater number than is at all necessary to ensure 
very large profits ; while upon a voyage to Australia, where larger numbers may be 
expected, 1,500 or 2,000 passengers could be accommodated with an amount of room and 
comfort not now afforded in the best and least-crowded steam-packets. Moreover, such 
ships will be able to take, over and above the fuel for the voyage, 4,000 or 5,000 tons 
measurement of cargo ; and it is a striking feature of this plan, that, to attain these 
important results, it is not necessary to apply a single novelty, or to depend upon a single 
uncertain or speculative expedient, but merely to carry out fully and completely the result 
of the past few years' experience. 

The Great Western steam-ship, built expressly, so as to be able to carry her own coal to 
America and back, led the way to rendering steam communication across the Atlantic swift, 
certain, and, above all, profitable, which before had been considered absolutely profitless, 
even if practicable ; the Great Britain, going a step further, is able, and if the principle had 
been fully adopted, would, on her last voyage, have gone to the Cape without coaling, and, 
if so, would have carried the largest number of passengers at the lowest cost, and in the 
shortest time yet attained. A further step in the same profitable direction has already 
been taken in ships recently built, and it is only necessary to follow out the same system 
completely, in order to effect that which is now sought. 

Every company, and every individual, engaged in steam navigation, has gradually become 
convinced by experience of the advantage of size, and, so far as their opportunities and their 
means enable them, are at the present moment applying the principle, but only by small 
steps, being to a great degree controlled and limited by their existing establishments, and 
are acting only on the general view, that large ships can be worked cheaper, and that large 
steamboats, especially, can attain much greater speed and certainty than small ; but they are 
not able to apply the system to an extent sufficient to dispense with the costly and inconve- 
nient arrangements necessary for coaling, all which arrangements must precede by many 
months the determination of any particular line, and, when made, practically restrict the 
vessels to that line. 

This company, on the contrary, unembarrassed by the previous investment of a large 
capital in old and inefficient ships, and commencing operations at a period when a vast in- 
crease seems likely to take place in the communication with the most distant parts of the 
world, unfettered by any contract with the government, and with a charter that enables 
the company to apply its capital to any lines which may prove most remunerative, has the 



Eastern Steam Navigation Company. 



[January, 



opportunity of building vessels on the most approved construction, of sufficient size to carry 
from England, and, consequently, at the lowest possible price the fuel to go to, and, if ex- 
pedient, return from, any port in the world, which at the same time may afford the most 
profitable freight, and of the dimensions which, wherever the trade exists, will enable them 
to carry a freight of passengers and cargo yielding a return proportionate to the working 
expenses greatly beyond anything attainable by any vessel hitherto built. 

It appears to be the intention of the company, as announced in this 
and the preceding report, to establish vessels between England and 
India or Australia, which shall be of sufficient size to carry 1,500 or 
2,000 passengers, 4,000 or 5,000 tons of cargo, and 3,000 or 4,000 tons 
of coal. Such vessels, therefore, it may fairly be presumed, would re- 
quire to be of at least 10,000 tons burden; and it is proposed that they 
shall be constructed of iroD, with a great number of watertight bulk- 
heads. Now, the main proposition propounded by Mr. Brunei — for we 
must regard this report as substantially of his manufacture — is, in our 
judgment, incontrovertible. Large ships will carry passengers or 
merchandise at a cheaper rate than small ships, and at a higher speed, 
with the same proportionate power, provided only that they can be filled. 
But, whether ships of the dimensions Mr. Brunei proposes, and maintain- 
ing a high rate of speed, could be filled at remunerative rates on any 
known line of ocean communication at the present time is, we think, 
more than problematical. The cost of such vessels would be very great; 
the charge for wear and tear, insurance and interest would also be neces- 
sarily large; and if, after all, the vessels were to be inadequately filled, 
how they could return a profit to those adventuring their money in them ? 
The Great Britain, even though proceeding to the Australian diggings in 
the height of the gold mania, was not completely filled up, — the space 
available for passengers being greater than was necessary to meet the 
demand for it. What, then, must the result have been, if she had been of 
three or four times the size ? This, it may be argued, is substantially a 
commercial question, which is no doubt the fact; but if, as appears to 
be the case, it is Mr. Brunei who has recommended the employment of 
these Brobdignagian vessels, he ought to be prepared to show that the 
measure would be for the advantage of his employers. Nor is any 
evidence adduced to inspire greater confidence in the mechanical details 
of Mr. Brunei's arrangements than appears to be clue to his commercial 
dogmas. The large number of bulkheads he proposes would occasion 
inconvenience in the disposal of the passengers and cargo, since those 
bulkheads would virtually convert the vessel into so many distinct 
ships ; and there is no method described of giving to the vessel that 
measure of longitudinal strength which a vessel of such enormous mag- 
nitude ought to possess, and the necessity for which has hitherto con- 
stituted one of the main mechanical impediments to the construction 
of such vessels. Iron ships, even of the ordinary size, have, as is well 
known, occasionally cracked in the middle, and, in some instances, have 
even broken in two. This propensity will certainly be aggravated in 
the proportion of the increased length ; and, if we are to have confidence 
in the safety of such structures, it is right that some evidence of the 
adequacy of the expedients by which the quality of longitudinal strength 
is assured should be afforded. No doubt Mr. Brunei may object that 
such proofs would not be in their proper place in a report from the 
directors to the shareholders of a public company, but the report is an 
engineering report, intended mainly to remove engineering objections, 
for its manifest purpose is to allay practical doubts, which cannot be 
ignored. If the authority of Mr. Brunei's name is not sufficient to 
prevent these doubts from arising, the only process by which they can 
be extinguished is by affording ample proofs of their futility ; and this, 
accordingly, is what the report before us endeavours to do. But in 
this attempt it completely fails. We are not informed in what way 
Mr. Brunei proposes to give adequate strength to such immense vessels, 
on a draught of 21 or 22 feet of water ; nor is there any evidence ad- 
duced to convince us that it is advisable to carry coal for the voyage to 
India and home, in vessels maintaining the high speed of 15 knots an 
hour, or that vessels of such colossal dimensions, and maintaining an 



expensive speed, could be filled with remunerative cargo. High speeds 
in steam navigation are necessarily very costly. The amount of cargo, 
or the number of passengers which can afford to pay for a high rate of 
speed, is, we apprehend, not very considerable, and, in our eyes, it is 
preposterous to expend the space possessing the capability of rapid 
locomotion, acquired at a great expense, in the conveyance of such a 
commodity as coal. No doubt, delays occur at coaling stations ; but, 
by proper arrangements, those delays may be greatly abridged, and it 
would be preferable, we consider, to make the vessels of smaller size, 
and to take in coal occasionally during the voyage, than to make one 
of their main functions that of a collier, flying at a speed of 15 knots 
an hour. We can augur for this company nothing but disaster, if their 
existing plans be persisted in ; nor is it, we think, calculated to lend much 
assurance to the proprietors of the realisation of an auspicious result, to 
cite the cases of the Great Western and Great Britain steam-vessels, when 
plying on the Atlantic, as an example of an analogous scheme, since those 
vessels, though constructed aDd worked under Mr. Brunei's advice, noto- 
riously entailed very heavy loss upon their owners, and were at length 
driven from the station they undertook to occupy. While, therefore, we 
readily admit that large vessels are preferable to small, on important 
lines of ocean navigation, and while, also, we admit that the dimensions 
of vessels most proper for any particular trade are gradually being en- 
larged, both from the increase of the traffic on most of the important 
lines of communication, and from the new resources which are con- 
stantly being made available in engineering science, yet it is equally 
clear that there is a certain limit of size which, at the present time, it 
would not be advisable to exceed, and, in our judgment, the vessels 
which Mr. Brunei recommends exceed the limits which prudence would 
at present prescribe. We do not by any means assert that, some day or 
other, vessels of such a magnitude as Mr. Brunei now proposes would 
not be advisable ; but we do assert that, setting aside all engineering 
considerations, there is no trade sufficiently ripened to warrant the 
construction of such vessels at the present time, and we think it a much 
more prudent course to go on by degrees, as other steam companies are 
doing, extending the size of the vessels according to the requirements of 
the traffic, than to jump at once into the next century, and provide 
means of conveyance greatly exceeding the requirements of the age. 
It is not our propensity, we believe, to discourage adventure in steam 
navigation, or to recommend an adherence to antiquated modes of con- 
struction, when the superiority of other modes can be clearly pointed 
out ; but neither would we desire to rush into novelties merely because 
they have been untested, — to be carried from the path of prudence by 
the worship of magnificent ideas — or to commend a display of courage 
unless there be also a corresponding display of skill. We have no 
expectation, however, that any argument we could offer would induce 
the promoters of this enterprise to pause in their adventurous career. 
The cautions we ventured to give respecting the Atlantic enterprise 
before the Great Britain was in being were unheeded, as we venture 
also to say our present cautions will be. The issue of the one enter- 
prise is before us; that of the other is, in our judgment, equally certain, 
unless there be a complete re-organisation of the project; and if these 
gentlemen will spend so much money merely to give evidence of our 
perspicacity, we suppose they cannot be prevented from indulging in 
the expensive pastime. 

There are other parts of the plan to which we object besides the 
great size of the vessels, and the design to carry coal for the whole 
voyage ; but we cannot undertake here to enumerate all our objections 
in detail. We may state, however, that although we approve of the 
plan of using the screw and paddles combined in such cases as those 
for which Mr. Bourne suggested it, we do not think it the best arrange- 
ment which could be adopted in this case ; and, indeed, Mr. Bourne 
says, in his Treatise on the Screw Propeller, that in the case of new 
vessels the combination does not constitute the best arrangement which 
could be adopted. What the best arrangement would be, in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, it is not our business to explain. We have 
a right to look for such elucidations from persons in the position of 
Mr. Brunei, who has undertaken to direct the operations of a great 
steam navigation company; and if he cannot or does not afford them, 
but limits his efforts to such vulgar efforts as that of carrying the wide 
gauge across the sea, then we can only congratulate him on his talents 
for diplomacy, and his supporters on the comprehensiveness of their 
faith. 



1853.] 



London, Liverpool, and North American Screw Steam Ship Company. 



LONDON, LIVERPOOL, AND NORTH AMERICAN SCREW 

STEAM SHIP COMPANY. 
This is the epoch of screw steam-ship companies, and rash and 
hasty will be the beginning of many of them, and disastrous the end. 
Not that we have any reason to distrust the eligibility of the screw 
itself, or the capabilities of screw vessels, but because those vessels, 
more than other vessels, require to be adapted to the special circum- 
stances in which they are to be employed ; and, if this condition be 
neglected, very different results will be. obtained from those which are 
expected. The undertaking which we have at present to notice does 
not, we fear, manifest any great perspicacity in its arrangement. No 
doubt it has the sanction of Messrs. Cunard's example, who have 
just started screw vessels to ply across the Atlantic. But we have 
serious doubts whether Messrs. Cunard's screw vessels, or any of the 
existing screw vessels on the Atlantic, will be found profitable ; and we 
do not see how we can come to a different conclusion in regard to this 
undertaking. The promoters of this company, in a pamphlet which 
they have circulated, quote Mr. Bourne's " Treatise on the Screw Pro- 
peller," to show that screw vessels will carry more cheaply than either 
paddle vessels or sailing ships. But all screw vessels will not do this ; 
and to realise such a result the vessels must be specially adapted for the 
trade in which they are to be employed. We cannot discover that 
there is to be any such special adaptation in the case before us ; but the 
vessels are to be of about 2,000 tons burden, and 400 horse power, 
and will, we presume, resemble very much the screw vessels already 
plying on the Atlantic. Now, we think we may be permitted to inquire, 
Have these vessels been profitable ? Have the City of Glasgow, City 
of Pittsburgh, City of Manchester, and other screw vessels, which have 
now for a considerable time been plying between Liverpool and America, 
realised any large profits, or any profits at all for their owners ? No 
doubt this is a somewhat delicate question to ask, and we would not 
wish to make any positive assertion on the subject ; but we think 
it behoves those concerned in the present undertaking to satisfy them- 
selves upon this point before they proceed further in an undertaking 
of such magnitude, and from which it will afterwards be difficult to 
withdraw. We do not, indeed, assert that there is no species of screw 
vessel which would be incapable of being worked on the Atlantic with 
a profit. Our opinions are, in point of fact, precisely the reverse. But 
we have very serious doubts whether any of the existing screw vessels 
on the Atlantic, or the vessels which this company proposes to build, 
possess those capabilities which will enable them to come into the 
category of profitable vessels ; and whether this opinion is correct or 
not, can be proved, not merely by analogy, but by experience. Messrs. 
Cuaard probably have some subsidiary object to serve in establishing 
their screw vessels, and their loss will be less than that of others, since, 
having an establishment already, they will have no new management 
to maintain. But this circumstance affords but small encouragement 
to those who enter upon the undertaking de novo, and who must have 
a large establishment to organise and support. We need not dwell 
longer, however, upon these disparagements, but shall proceed to set 
before our readers the prospectus of this company, leaving every one 
to form his own conclusions, as to the prospects which such an under- 
taking presents or the hopes it justifies. 

The object of this company is to establish an economical, expeditions, and direct steam 
communication, for goods and passengers, between London, Liverpool, the United States, 
and the British North American colonies, by first-class iron screw steam-ships, leaving 
London and Liverpool alternately for New York, throughout the year ; also for Canada 
(calling, probably, at St. John's, Newfoundland, on their outward and homeward voyages), 
from April to October, and during the remainder of the year (in order that the communi- 
cation with Canada may not ,be wholly interrupted) for Portland, in the state of Maine, 
which will shortly be connected with Quebec and Montreal by a railway, now in course of 
construction. It is intended that these steamers shall have all recent improvements, and 
afford ample accommodation for passengers. 

In consequence of the great economy which is now effected by the application of the 
screw propeller to iron ships, they are being placed on all the great lines, and are found to 
compete not only with sailing vessels for freight, but with the paddle steamers of subsidised 
companies for the conveyance of passengers. Considering, therefore, the regularity and 
dispatch secured to passengers and shippers by well appointed vessels of this description, 
and the favourable reception given to the present project by influential parties largely 
interested in both branches of the North American trade, there can be no reasonable doubt 
of its successful issue, and of its yielding a liberal dividend on the capital embarked. It is 
to be observed that, in consequence of there being no steam conveyance from the port of 
London to North America, shippers are obliged to forward their goods (if for shipment by 
'' steam") to Southampton and Liverpool, thereby incurring heavy railway and other 
charges. This observation applies with greater force to imports from North America by 
steam, which are more bulky and less valuable than exports to that country, and more 
subject to customs' and excise regulations, requiring the attention and care of paid agents 
at the outports ; whilst the importation of tobacco (which, according to these regulations, 
must be brought direct into England in one bottom), is, for want of better means of transit, 
now confined exclusively to sailing vessels, at an average passage of about thirty days. All 
these expenses and delays will be obviated by the establishment of this company. 

The traffic at present actually existing between London, Liverpool, and other ports of 
Great Britain, to the United States and our North American colonies, employs annually an 
aggregate of 3,850,172 tons of shipping, in which are included only about 15 paddle and screw 
steamers, with carrying capacity for the small proportion of 222,618 tons (as appears by the 



Parliamentary returns of 1851-1852) ; and the total number of passengers in the year 1851 
has been 310,062. To accommodate, in a superior manner, a portion of this immense and 
rapidly-incrtasing trade, to afford that direct steam communication between the North 
Amerian colonies and the mother country, which here also is entirely wanting, and likewise 
to open important intercolonial communications, are among the principal objects of this com- 
pany. It is intended, during the season, to run vessels alternately from London and Liver- 
pool to Quebec or Montreal, there to meet the lake steamers, which will convey passengers 
and goods inland, to their various destinations on the Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and 
Michigan, calling at Kingston, Toronto, Hamilton, Chicago, and intermediate ports. Thus, 
the company's steamers will discharge their freight and passengers at Quebec or Montreal, 
into the lake steamers, and the emigrant will reach his destination, from 1,000 to 1,500 
miles inland, without any subsequent transhipment, while these lake craft will also act as 
feeders to this company's ships. Some idea of the immense traffic on the lakes and the 
St. Lawrence may be formed from the fact, that the Canadians have expended upwards of 
£3,000,000 in completing a system of canals, which have brought the chain of North Ameri- 
can lakes into direct communication with the shipping ports of sea-going vessels. The 
aggregate value of the lake commerce is estimated at above 200,000,000 dollars, and was, 
in 1848, forty millions of dollars greater than that of the entire foreign export trade of the 
United States from all their seaports. The United States and the British lake shipping 
exceeds 205,000 tons, and employs 13,000 men. 

The establishment of regular steam communication with England is considered in the 
colonies to be of such vital importance to their interests, that the government of Canada, 
and of Newfoundland, together with some public bodies, have respectively offered bounties 
for the encouragement of that object. The committee have concluded a provisional agree- 
ment, on behalf of this company, with the contractors, who have obtained the grant for the 
service of Canada, extending over a period of seven years, and which will require the com- 
pany, during the first year, to run at least one steamer per month to and from Quebec, or 
Montreal, from April to October inclusive, and to and from Portland, in the state of Maine, 
from November to March inclusive, conveying a mail and a post-office agent, if required ; 
and for the six years following to run one steamer, per fortnight, to and from the same 
ports. It is also expected that a satisfactory arrangement will shortly be made with the 
government of Newfoundland, which may induce the company to carry out the intention of 
a portion of their vessels calling at that island. 

Estimate of Receipts and Expenses of an Iron Screw Steam Ship, o/i£!22c tons measurement 
andfyjffi horse power, prr Voyage from London or Liverpool, to New York or Canada and 
oack, founded on Average of Voyages of At' antic Screw Steamers throughout the Year. 



One Voyage in Two Months. 



Br. Expenses. 

Port charges, dock dues, wharfage, 
&c, in England and America, 
labour, loading, and discharging 
cargoes, engine stores, and sun- 
dries, including agencies £1,000 

Wages of captain, officers, engineers, 
and crew 500 

Victualling them 225 

Coals out and home 750 

Management, salaries, office expenses, 
printing, &c 100 

Insurance 700 



To which add, for wear and tear (re- 
pairs to hull and machinery, and 
depreciation fund), liberal allow- 
ance 

Balance carried down, being profit per 
voyage 



£3,275 



£6,400 



Cr. 



. Receipts. 
Net passage money outwards (having 
large accommodation for 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd class passengers), after de- 
ducting cost of provisions, commu- 
tation money, &c £2,300 

Freight outwards 1,850 

Net passage homewards 1,000 

Freight homewards 1,259 



£6,100 



Balance brought down, being profit per voyage £1,625 
Ten ships, at six voyages per annum each, 

would make in the year 60 voyages 
Allow for contingencies, lay- 
ing up for repairs, and in 
winter !0 „ 

Total profit on 50 voyages .... £81,250 

Or nearly 12 J per cent, per annum. 

In addition to which, the amount to be received from Canada will be equal to at least 
£8 per cent, on the capital employed in that service; and the contract provides that the 
vessels employed in that service shall be free of harbour, light, and all provincial dues in 
Canada. It is also expected that a contract will be made with the government of New- 
foundland, by which (with similar privileges as to exemptions from dues, &c, and the 
freight of specie, parcels, &c. not included in the preceding estimate) a further consider- 
able increase in the company's profits will be realised. 

We do not think it necessary to go at any length into the details of 
the foregoing estimate ; but, since the projectors of this undertaking 
have adopted Mr. Bourne's conclusions as to the profits of screw vessels, 
we may state that, by adopting his mode of estimation for wear and 
tear, interest and depreciation, the fixed expense under this head would 
be more nearly £2,500 than ^1,500, whereby nearly two-thirds of the 
supposed profits would be swallowed up. We do not say which mode 
of estimation should be adopted, but the doubt is sufficiently discour- 
aging ; and this will be more especially the case, if it be found to 
derive corroboration from the experience already obtained in the navi- 
gation of the Atlantic with screw vessels. The statement of the receipts 
moreover, appear to be given with too few details and too little pre- 
cision ; but, whatever judgment may be formed upon this subject, one 
fact is at least patent to the world — the proprietors of the Great 
Britain did not find the navigation of the Atlantic to be so profitable as 
to prevent them from withdrawing that vessel to another station ; and 
the same discovery will, we believe, be made in other cases, if screw 
vessels of that character are employed. 



Envelope-Folding Machine. 



[January, 



ENVELOPE-FOLDING MACHINE. 

One of the machines which excited the greatest amount of interest 

at the Great Exhibition was the envelope-folding machine exhibited by 

Messrs. De la Rue. A perspective view of this machine we introduce 

here, and in Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, of which a notice 



Instead of these parts being put suddenly into motion, and the motion 
being suddenly reversed, the cams by which such motion is communi- 
cated are made of such a shape, that the motion follows the same law 
as that of a falling body, being slow at first, and gradually accelerated. 
The outline of the cam is, therefore, that of a parabola bestowed round 




will be found in another part of our pages, there is an excellent descrip- 
tion of it, which we shall extract for the information of our readers. 

Before entering, however, upon the constructive peculiarities of the 
machine, we may briefly explain one excellent principle which has been 
kept in view in communicating motion to the reciprocating parts. 



an axis, and there is thus a minimum amount of shock and jarring in 
the operation of the machine. The cams are formed by projecting 
ledges on the side of a circular plate. Between these ledges a friction 
roller is placed, which friction roller is attached to the end of the lever 
to which motion has to be communicated. The lever, by this arrange- 



1853.] 



Envelope-Folding Machine. 



9 



ment, is pressed both backwards 
and forwards by the cam, instead 
of requiring a weight or spring to 
keep the roller in contact. The 
design of this arrangement is to 
obviate the friction which the pres- 
sure caused by a weight or spring 
would produce. With these few 
preliminary remarks, we introduce 
to our readers Mr. Tomlinson's 
description of this interesting ma- 
chine : — 

The functions of this machine 
are, to fold envelopes previously cut 
into the proper shape, and to secure 
the folds thus made by means of 
gum. The machine is fed with blank 
envelopes by a boy, at the rate of 
about one per second, this being the 
rate at which the principal cam re- 
volves. The seal stamp is embossed 
on each blank, and the gum imme- 
diately under the seal is applied be- 
fore the blanks are brought to the 
folding machine. This machine 
might be so arranged as to stamp 
the seal and feed itself; but, in order 
to stamp efficiently, the parts must 
be made considerably stronger than 
they are in this machine, and it sel- 
dom happens that a sufficient num- 
ber of envelopes are required from 
one seal to render such an adapta- 
tion economical. Moreover, every 
additional motion introduced must 
retard the progress of a machine; so 
that, in this instance, it is found 
more advantageous to engage the 
services of a separate machine. Then, 
as regards feeding, a self-supplying 
apparatus would not in this case be 
of great advantage, because, as some 
one must be present to superintend 
the machine, it is better that he be 
employed than remain idly looking 
on, for, in such case, his attention is 
apt to flag, and by allowing badly 
folded or broken envelopes to get 
into the machine much mischief 
might be done. Some idea of the 
precision with which this folding 
machine works may be gathered from 
the fact, that on an average there is 
not more than one envelope in 2,000 
badly folded, and these generally 
arise from defects in the paper. 

The blank envelopes, or lozenges, 

as they are called, are cut out, 250 

at a time, with 

great rapidity 

and precision, 

by means of 

an instrument 

identical in its 

action with a 

common gun - 

punch, b and 

f (fig. 1) show 

two forms of 

lozenges, and 

F 'g- l - may also be 

taken to represent the steel cutting 

edge of the punch. In the plain 

lozenge form, e, there is little or no 

waste of paper in the cutting out ; 

but in the fancy envelopes (which 

are really less elegant in form than 

the plain lozenge) the waste is often 

considerable. Thus, it will be evi- 

2 





Fig. 4. SECTION OF FOLDING MACHINE THROUGH THE LINE a b OF FIG. 7. 




Fig. 6. SECTION THROUGH THE LINE C d OF FIG. 7. 



10 



Envelope-Folding Machine. 



[January, 



dent, that there must be a greater waste 
in cutting out r than in e. The waste 
paper is returned to the paper- maker to 
he made into pulp. 

The blanks are next stamped with a 
seal at the embossing-press, and the seal 
flap is also gummed by hand. The 
lozenges thus prepared are then handed 
to the feeding lad, who places them one 
at a time on a small table, t, seen best 





Fig. 3. 



Fig. 2. 

in figs. 2 and 3, in such a manner that 
the angles fall within the stops, g g g y. 
which stops also form the bearings of the 
triangular folders, 5' 5' 5' 5'. As soon 
as the envelope is placed on this table, 
the compound box, or plunger, 5 (figs. 
4, 6, and 7), is brought down by the 
cam, 3, upon 
the table, t, and 
this plunger de- 
scending with 
the table into 
the recess form- 
ed by the four 
axes of the 
folders, 5', carries down the envelope, 

and creases it in a rectangular form, the four triangular flaps standing up m 
a vertical direction. The ends of the plunger being moved by that side of the 
cam, 3, shown by the dotted lines in fig. 4, rise up so as to leave room for 
the two end folders, 5' 5', to turn over, not simultaneously, but one slightly 
in advance of the other (fig. 3), so that one of the end flaps of the envelope 
may overlay the other. These two triangular folders are moved by the cams, 
6 and 7, in the order of the numbering ; but before the other two flaps are 
turned over, it is necessary that gum be applied in the exact spot, in order to 
cause three out of the four triangular flaps to adhere. The gumming appa- 
ratus is seen separately in figs. 8 and 9, the gummer being marked 10 in 
the other figures. After the two end flaps are turned down, this gumming 
apparatus' is brought forward by the cam, 11, and prints on the two end 
flaps a line of gum imparted to it by an endless blanket. During the whole 
of these operations, the sides of the plunger, 5, which had remained down, 
so as to prevent the envelope from being disturbed, are now moved upwards 
by the cam, 3, seen best in fig. 4, and remain up until the commencement 
of the folding of another envelope, the two end folders remaining down to 
secure the envelope, and the gumming apparatus retreating. The two tri- 
angular side folders are now turned over by means of the two cams, 8 and 
9, one having a little the precedence of the other. The four folders then open 
simultaneously, leaving the envelope complete ; but as the flaps of the en- 
velope would, from the elasticity of the paper, be liable to spring open, there 
is a contrivance for keeping them pressed down ; for which purpose, the 
apparatus which removes each envelope as soon as it is folded also places it 
in a pile immediately under the one last folded. 

The taking-offaiid piling apparatus consists of a slide, hinged, and capable 
of rising and falling, and of a saddle, carrying the fingers. This saddle 
moves in a horizontal direction on the slide. The points of the fingers move 
by a combination of these two motions, the vertical and the horizontal, in the 

^ line shown in fig. 5, and in the direction of the arrows. 

„ — • — / / After the envelope is folded, the fingers are brought 
\r ~ ~~" ' down into the recess formed by the axes of the folders, 
jr; 4_ 5 ', by means of a double cam, one side of which is appro- 

priated to the vertical motion of the slide, and the other 
to the horizontal motion of the saddle. When, by these motions, the fingers 
are brought into contact with the envelope, they are raised up, and at the same 
time the table, t, is made to raise with them, by means of a projection on 
the rim of the cam, 3 (fig. 4), in such a manner as to keep the envelope 
firmly pressed against the fingers. The next motion of the fiDgers is the 
horizontal one ; they are moved along the springing table, 15, carrying the 
envelope with them, adhesion being promoted by tipping the points of the 
fingers with caoutchouc. As soon as the envelope reaches its destination 




Fig. 7. PLAN OF TUE UPPEK PART OP THE MACHINE. 

under the pile, the slide is lifted by means of the cam, 13, by which means 
the fingers are disengaged from the envelope, and they remain at rest until 
the next envelope is folded. The envelopes thus removed from the table are 
knocked over by means of a small beater, 10, moved by a pin on the slide, 
12, on to an endless blanket, 17, and pass under a small roller, 18, which 
serves to compress the folds of the envelope more closely together. The 
envelopes then rise in a pile in the three-sided trough, 19, from which they 
are removed at intervals by an attendant. 

On reference to figs. 4, 6, and 7, it will be seen that a series of racks, 6'', 7", 8", 
9", serve to communicate motion from the levers, 6', 7 ', 8', 9', to the wheels, 
6"', 7'", 8'", 9'", affixed to the folder axes, 5 5 5 5. The object of this is to 
allow of the transmission of motion to the folding apparatus for envelopes of 
various sizes. The levers and racks retain their position, the folder axes 
being adjusted either at a greater or a less distance from the centre of the 
machine, in case a larger or a smaller envelope be required to be folded. 
Were it not for this provision, the cams and levers would have to be recon- 
structed for every variation in the size of the envelope, or, in other words, a 
new machine would be required for every size of envelope. 

The gumming apparatus, shown separately in figs. 8 and 9, requires some 

further notice. The cam, 11 (figs. 4 
and 8), gives motion to the lever, 
11', and this to the wheel, 11", and 
the axis to which it is affixed. The 
prolongation of this axis carries a 
lever, e, and is hinged to a small 
frame, //, which carries the gum- 
mer, 10. The curved lever, e', is 
linked to the opposite side of the 
frame, //, and serves to retain it 
alwaj'S horizon- 
tal to the plane 
of the table, t, 
so that when the 
former moves 
forward on to 
the envelope, its 
action is very 
similar to that 
of the closing of 
a parallel ruler. 





Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 



1853.] 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



11 



This gummer, 10, takes its gum from the endless blanket, 20 (fig. 9), which 
moves in the trough, 21, the quantity being regulated by the small doctor, 

23. The endless blanket is moved forward at each interval of motion of the 
gumming apparatus, by means of a paul, or catch, fixed to the lever worked 
by the axis, 11". and working in a ratchet-wheel, 22, fixed to one of the 
rollers of the endless blanket. In fig. 8 the two positions of the gumming 
apparatus are shown. 

As the principal cam revolves at the rate of about one revolution per 
second, it is necessary to feed the machine, when in motion, with a blank 
envelope at that rate. If the boy neglects to feed at the proper time, that 
is, on the completion of one revolution, two things happen ; the first and 
more serious one is. that the gummer would place gum on the small tabic, 
t, so that the next blank envelope would be spoiled; secondly, the envelope 
which had been previously folded, and which, by the arrangement of the 
taking-off fingers, is left projecting a little from the pile, would be knocked 
up in the heap, in consequence of which the succeeding envelope would enter 
the pile with so much difficulty, as to be crumpled up and spoiled, and it 
might also spoil several others. Both of these consequences are prevented 
by two stops, moved by the boy as soon as he fails to insert an envelope at 
the proper moment. The first slop being slid forward, touches a small lever, 

24, attached to the axis carrying the gummer, 10, and lifts up this axis and 
gummer as the frame is descending upon the table, t ; so that by this con- 
trivance, as long as the stop remains in position, the gummer does not come 
in contact with the table. The second stop catches a projection, 13"', affixed 
to the axis of the finders, 13", which are adjusted so as to turn in a small arc 
of a circle, so that, as the saddle, 13', retreats along the slide, 12, the fingers 
turn upwards and away from the projecting, or leading envelope, as it is 
termed, which was previously folded. The slide, in rising, brings a pro- 
jecting piece on the axis against a stop, 14, which places the fingers in their 
usual position, and so long as the lad ceases to feed the machine (except, of 
course, when it is not at work), he leaves both these stops at rest ; but as 
soon as he has fed the machine, he instantly removes them, and the operations 
proceed in the order previously described. By these simple contrivances, the 
waste of the machine is reduced to the small quantity already noticed. But 
it may be asked, Instead of these complicated provisions, why not adopt the 
apparently simpler course of stopping the machine, by shifting the strap 
from the fast pulley, p, to the loose pulley, p ' ? The answer is, that it is 
impossible either to stop or to start the machine instantly ; for, as the ma- 
chine makes one revolution in a second, its several parts have a momentum 
due to that velocity, and could not be arrested in less than three or four seconds ; 
but, by the ingenious contrivances above described, no time is lost, except 
that required for the feeding of one envelope ; and should the boy see a 
broken sheet of paper, or find that two are stuck together, and require a 
brief instant to remedy the defect, he can thus secure it without stopping the 
machine. 



NOTSS BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 



Preparation of Liquid Glue. — Take 1 kilogramme of Cologne 
glue and dissolve it in 1 quart of water in a glazed pot over a gentle fire, 
or, better, in the sand bath, stirring from time to time. When it is all 
melted, 200 grammes of nitric acid at 36° are added, by small quantities 
at a time. Effervescence takes place, from the disengagement of hy- 
ponitric acid. When all the acid has been poured in, the vessel is re- 
moved from the fire, and allowed to cool. Glue thus prepared has been 
kept for upwards of two years, in an uncorked bottle, without suffering 
any change. Liquid glue is very convenient in various chemical opera- 
tions. Pieces of linen covered with it may be used as a luting for pre- 
serving certain gases. Tt is likewise very useful to cabinet makers, car- 
penters, paste-board makers, and toy makers, since it does not require 
heating. 

Artificial Ivory. — The process consists, firstly, in withdrawino- 
the water from native bihydrated sulphate of lime (either in the form of 
compact alabaster, or as fine powder), and subsequently restoring it. 
The material is either cut or moulded into the form required, and is 
then exposed for 48 hours to a heat of 250" to 350° Fab. This pro- 
cess drives out the water originally combined with the sulphate of 
lime. The substance is thus rendered very brittle, but does not lose 
its form. If it is intended to be transparent, it is plunged, before re- 
hydration, into hard white varnish, olive oil, or some similar bodv, until 
the surface is saturated, but if an opaque mass is desired, this prepara- 
tion is omitted. 

The object is hardened by plunging, but only for a moment, into 
water at from 100° to 150°. This operation is repeated every 10 or 15 



minutes, until the sulphate of lime is completely saturated. The object 
then becomes crystalline, and much harder than alabaster. The success 
of the process depends chiefly on the gradual manner in which the water 
is absorbed, as without great care the article crumbles to pieces. 
Colours may be applied by dissolving them in water and dropping them 
on the object, which gives a marbled appearance, or by placing it en- 
tirely in the colouring liquid, which produces a uniform tinge. This 
must be done before immersing the article in oil or varnish. 

Green Pigment from China, — M. Persoz received last autumn 
a sample of calico, dyed in China, of a sea-green tint of great stability, 
and endeavoured to ascertain the composition of this green colour. All 
attempts to detect either a blue or a yellow colour failed, and he soon 
found that this green was produced by a peculiar tinctorial substance. 
It also appeared — 

1. That this colouring matter was of vegetable origin. 

2. That the tissue upon which it was fixed was charged with a large 
amount of alumina, and with a little oxide of iron and lime, substances 
whose presence showed that the pigment had required the aid of mor- 
dants. 

M. Persoz has subsequently obtained about 1 gramme of the colour- 
ing matter in question. In thin plates it is of a blue colour, resembling 
Javanese indigo, but of a finer grain, and differing from indigo in com- 
position and chemical properties. On infusing a very small portion in 
water, this fluid soon took a deep greenish blue. On gradually bring- 
ing the liquid to boil, and dipping into it a piece of calico printed with 
mordants of iron and alumina, a genuine dyeing took place ; the 
portions of the tissue coated with alumina acquiring a sea-green colour, 
more or less deep according to the strength of the mordant, those 
parts coated with alumina and iron, deep sea-green with an olive tinge, 
and those charged with pure oxide of iron, dark olive. The parts of 
the calico not mordanted remained white. Hence, we may conclude, — 

1. That the Chinese possess a colouring matter, having the appear- 
ance of indigo, which communicates a green colour to mordants of 
alumina and iron. 

2. That this colouring matter contains neither indigo nor any of its 
derivatives. 

Preparation of Stannate of Soda. — This salt, which now 
frequently occurs in commerce is prepared by boiling a solution of 
caustic soda, of 15° to 20° strength, with scraps of tin and litharge, or 
sulphate of lead. The latter bodies give their oxygen to the tin, and 
facilitate the oxidation. The powder of reduced lead is reoxidised in 
the air, and may be employed again. 

Process for Separating Bromine and Iodine. — A very acid 
solution of nitrate of silver in very slight excess is poured into from 25 
to 30 quarts of mineral water, in which the presence of bromine or 
iodine is suspected. It is then allowed to stand, the precipitate filtered, 
washed, and carefully collected. 

The precipitate is placed in a test-glass with some distilled water, 
and zinc filings and pure sulphuric acid added, the former in excess. 
When the evolution of hydrogen has ceased, the liquid is filtered 
through cotton ; the clear liquid may contain sulphate, chloride, iodide, 
and bromide of zinc. The liquid is put into a tube, and there are 
added, 1st, a fresh solution of starch, 2nd, sulphuric ether; and it is 
then shaken. The mixture being effected, there is carefully poured in 
by degrees chlorine water, or a compound resulting from the action 
(aided bv heat) of pure hydrochloric acid on compound chlorate of 
potassa, which contains chlorine and hypochlorous acid. 

If there is any iodine in the liquid examined, blue iodide of starch is 
formed and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. If the liquid con- 
tain bromine, the ether acquires a yellow or orange tinge. The bro- 
muretted ether may be removed by means of a pipette, and thus sepa- 
rated from iodide of starch. 



12 



Screw Propeller. 



[January, 



On Litmus.— According to Dr. Miiller, the inferior sorts only of 
litmus are mechanically mixed with indigo. The litmus, whilst still 
moist, is placed in a revolving cylinder, along with finely ground indigo, 
and set in motion until a uniform colour is obtained. Neither Prussian 
blue nor cobalt is employed. Various kinds of lichens are employed 
in the manufacture of litmus, but the best kind is prepared in Holland 
from rocella tinctoria. The lichens, well pulverised, are placed at a 
proper temperature, in contact with nitrogenous bodies, especially urine. 
The first product is a red pigment, which is formed slowly, if an equably 
high temperature be not maintained. A sort of potash, manufactured 
in Germany, and containing a peculiar constituent, is then added. 
Upon this ingredient, and the addition of Carrara marble, the quality of 
the litmus mainly depends. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

"Veritas." — We believe that the person who first manufactured 
British gum was imprisoned by the excise, as they probably considered 
the process a profane tampering with starch, one of the many articles 
then under their jurisdiction. He was ultimately liberated, owing to 
the interposition of the elder Sir R. Peel. 

" Syphon." — Prussic acid occurs in a variety of vegetables, but it is 
much more conveniently prepared by distilling ferrocyanide of potassium 
with sulphuric acid. Great care should be taken to prevent the escape 
of the vapours, as they may produce very alarming symptoms, if inhaled. 
The receiver should be bedded in some freezing mixture. 

" No. 22, Ravald-street." — 1. The distinction between organic and 
inorganic chemistry is, in fact, merely provisional, and the sooner we 
follow the example of Chevreul in laying it aside, the better. 2. The 
" hydrogen theory " of acids, whilst it explains some anomalies, creates 
others. To maintain it, we must not only deny that alumina and per- 
oxides of tin and gold are capable of playing the part of an acid, but 
we must even deny this property to Cr. O 3 . 



REVIEWS. 



THE SCREW PROPELLER. 

A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, with various Suggestions of Improve- 
ment. By John Bourne, C.E. London : Longman and Co. 1852. 

The screw propeller has now assumed an attitude of so much impor- 
tance, both in the engineering and commercial communities, that any 
information calculated either to elucidate its mode of action, or to im- 
prove its efficiency will be necessarily acceptable to a wide circle of 
auditors. The gratification, moreover, due to such elucidations, will 
be increased, if the desiderated information comes from an engineer of 
accredited attainments in this department of practical science; for there 
is less need, under such circumstances, to be constantly on our guard 



tion visible in its pages— will, nevertheless, we believe, be found of 
much value to those interested in the subject of screw propulsion ; and, 
indeed, it is the only work on the subject of any authority which we can 
be said to possess. This, it is true, is no very large measure of com- 
mendation, seeing that very few works have yet been written on this 
particular subject ; but we agree with Mr. Bourne in thinking that 
those who attentively peruse his treatise will be put in possession of all 
that is yet known on the subject of screw propulsion, be that much or 
little ; and we further think that, if they do not thus add much to their 
information, they will at least escape the contamination of mischievous 
errors, the dissemination of which is one of the greatest hindrances to 
engineering progress. 

Mr. Bourne's work consists of twelve chapters. Of these, the first 
and second are historical — chapter i. being an enumeration of the 
various projects for screw propulsion which have at different times been 
brought forward, and chapter ii. being an account of the practical 
introduction of the screw as a useful and efficient propeller. Mr. Bourne 
says that the propulsion of ships by a screw resembling a windmill is a 
ver}' antique expedient ; that screw propulsion is merely a continuous 
system of sculling ; and that the ancient Greeks and Romans sculled 
their galleys by means of oars at the sides — a mode still practised by 
some of the eastern nations. One of the earliest suggestions made in 
this country to employ an instrument like the sails of a windmill work- 
ing in water, was by Robert Hooke, in 1681. In 1731, a screw, par- 
tially immerged, and set between two barges moored in a river, was 
proposed by Du Quet, in France, as an expedient for drawing up boats 
against the stream. This arrangement is represented in fig. 1. 

It would be impossible to recapitulate here the multitude of projects 
for propelling by screws of different forms, and applied in different 
ways, which Mr. Bourne enumerates. We shall, however, extract his 
description of Maudslay's feathering propeller, of the boomerang pro- 
peller, and of Griffiths' propeller, these projects having of late attracted 
some attention. 

biatjdslay's feathering propeller. 

" This propeller is represented in figs. 2 and 3, of which fig. 2 is a side 
elevation, and fig. 3 is a bird's-eye view, a a are the propelling blades, 
which are formed with cylindrical necks which pass into holes in the 
boss, b. c c', dd', are toothed collars upon the necks of the propelling 
blades, and gearing with one another, so that the propelling blades turn 
simultaneously together on their necks, until arrested by the stop, ff. 
g g' are projecting lugs, which fit into a notch in the sliding clutch, 
h, which clutch is moved endways upon the shaft by a bell crank lever, 
e, to which motion is given by a screwed rod, i, which passes up to the 
deck. Each blade is formed with a greater area abaft the neck than 
before it, so that when the propeller is put into revolution, the blades 



\1 




Fig. 1. — DU quet's machine fok deawing up vessels against a cureent. 



against receiving crudities and errors along with new and useful truths, 
the value of which is greatly impaired by such debasing admixtures. 
The work before us, if it fails to go into the subject with any great 
depth of research — and there are many evidences of haste and inatten- 



assume of themselves their right position by being brought up to the 
stop ; or, should the vessel be proceeding under sail alone, the blades 
will spontaneously assume the line of the keel, and may be locked in 
that position." 



1853.] 



Screw Propeller. 



13 



maudslay's teathering scbew propeller. 





Figs. 2 and 3. 



THE BOOMERANG PROPELLER. 



" The idea of this propeller is taken from the Boomerang, a remark- 
able species of missile in use among the savages of Australia, which is 
substantially a bent blade so warped as to form a portion of a screw. 




centre of gravity of the propelling blades, any number of which blades 
may be set round the axis that appears expedient. The main purpose 
of this form of propeller appears to be to enable the propelling surfaces 
to act upon the water without involving the obstruction, or choking 
action, incident to the use of a common screw, the central part of which 
exerts but little propelling effect, while the resistance it occasions is 
considerable. This intention, however, is equally fulfilled by the pre- 
vious projects of Delisle, Ericsson, Fraisinet, Haddan, &c, whose 
various forms of propeller, moreover, are not so objectionable in other 
respects." 

Griffiths' propeller. 
" The main improvements in the mode of propelling vessels proposed 
by Mr. Griffiths consists in the use of a form of propeller represented 
in figs. 8, 9, and 10 ; fig. 8 being a longitudinal section, and fig. 9 
a transverse section of it. a is the propeller shaft, upon which is fixed 
a boss, b, provided with sockets for receiving the ends of the propeller 
arms, c c are the propelling blades, and d d are short levers, by which 
the arms of the propelling blades may be turned round somewhat in 
their sockets, so as to alter the angle which the blades make with the 
shaft, e is a half globe connected with the boss, Ti, which slides on the 





Figs. 8, 9, and 10. 

shaft and acts upon the levers, d d. The whole of these parts are en- 
closed within a boss, g, which may be spherical, or of other appropriate 
form, i is a lever, of which the fulcrum, i', is fixed to the vessel. A 
rod, j, connects the lever, i, with the spring, k, of which a side view is 
given in fig. 10. It will be obvious, on inspecting the figures, that by- 
moving the sliding boss, h, endways on the shaft, the propelling blades, 
c c, will be turned round, so as to make a greater or less angle with the 
shaft ; and the intention of the arrangement is, that when from any 





Fig. 5, 6, and 7. 
This propeller is represented in figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7 ; and it is to be 
so constructed that the centre of the propeller shaft shall be at the 



Figs. 1 1 and 12. 

cause the screw moves with a greater velocity than usual, the increased 
resistance of the leading edge of the blades shall, by turning them round 



14 



Screw Propeller. 



[January, 



against the spring, correspondingly increase the pitch, whereby the re- 
sistance to the propeller will be increased, and the engine will be 
brought back to its accustomed speed. Figs. 11 and 12 are other 
forms of propeller which the patentee purposes to employ. 

" With much ingenuity in these arrangements, there is much, also, 
that appears to me precarious and transcendental. Nor do I consider 
that there is any advantage in expedients for changing the pitch of the 
screw, whether self-acting or otherwise : for when a vessel is brought 
up in her speed by a head wind, or other similar impediment, the screw 
will go with the same speed, or nearly so, whatever increase of pitch 
may be given to it ; and what is wanted is not a change of pitch, but 
such an increase of diameter or immersion as will enable a greater force 
of steam to be applied to it. In screw vessels, as in paddle vessels, it 
is important to be able, under favourable circumstances of wind and 
water, to work the engines very expansively ; and under adverse cir- 
cumstances, with full pressure of steam throughout the stroke ; and a 
screw is wanted of such a quality as to be able to resist this increased 
pressure without a wasteful amount of slip." 

Another species of propeller, 
which has been employed to some 
extent on the Continent, is the 
parabolic propeller, a representa- 
tion of which is given in fig. 13. 
The purpose of this configuration 
of the screw is to counteract the 
centrifugal force. Whenacommon 
screw is put into revolution, the 
water is projected backwards from 
it in a somewhat conical direction, 
and part of the effect is lost thereby. 
In this screw the arms are so bent 
back, as to give the projected water 
a disposition to converge in apoint; 
and this convergent tendency just 
balances the divergent tendency 
produced by the centrifugal action, 
and the water is projected back- 
wards in a cylindrical column. 

The third chapter of Mr. Bourne's work is devoted to an exposition 
of the scientific principles concerned in the operation of screw vessels ; 
and here we find that in the received doctrines relative to fluid resistance 
there are several vigorous errors in common acceptation. One of these 
errors is, that the force of impact of a column of moving water upon a 
plane surface is equal to the pressure of a column of water high enotigh 
to produce that velocity; whereas, it really is very much greater. The 
action of the wind on the sails, as well as of the water on the vessel, 
is investigated in this chapter, and an inquiry is instituted as to the 
amount, of friction of the screw. The laws of positive and negative slip, 
and the centrifugal action of the screw, are also considered. 

The fourth chapter is devoted to the consideration of the comparative 
merits of the screw and paddle as a propeller ; and the results of the 
experiments with the Archimedes and Widgeon, the Rattler and Alecto, 
and the Niger and Basilisk are recapitulated with considerable fulness 
of detail. The Archimedes, Rattler, and Niger, it may be explained, 
are screw vessels, and the Widgeon,, Alecto, and Basilisk paddle vessels. 
The general result derived from these experiments was as follows : — 
At medium immersions the screw and paddle were equally efficient as 
propellers, and at light immersions the paddle was the best, and at deep 
immersions the screw. When the vessels were tied stern to stern, 
the screw vessel always exhibited the most tractive force, but, at the 
same time, it used more engine power. These conditions, however, 
only continued to apply in the absence of wind. In the case of head 




Fig. 13. 



winds, the speed of both vessels was about equal, but the screw vessel 
consumed the most power; and the same result ensued when the vessels 
were employed in towing. The fact appears to be, that the screw can 
act in one of two ways — either by advancing in the water, or by passing 
sideways through the water, — and if its forward progress be resisted, 
its speed of rotation will not be materially diminished, but an immense 
amount of lateral slip will ensue. Under sails and steam together, no 
veiy material difference in the efficiency of the two kinds of vessels was 
found to exist. 

The fifth chapter treats of the comparative merits of screws of differ- 
ent kinds; and the results of the experiments made to illustrate this 
question in the Rattler, Dwarf, Minx, and Pelican are very fully re- 
corded. The proper relations of the pitch, diameter, length, and 
number of blades to one another are here investigated ; and rules and 
instructions are given for the determination of the proportions which 
will make the performance a maximum, in any particular case. We 
may here mention, as one of the general laws laid down, that, in order to 
obtain a satisfactory performance, the pitch of the screw must increase 
with the number of blades ; and screws of many blades should, there- 
fore, always be made with a coarse pitch. Screws of two blades, four 
blades, and six blades appear to be about equally efficient, if this con- 
dition be observed, so that the question of the number of blades is 
mainly a question of the velocity with which it is desired that the engine 
should work. These are important points of information ; and Mr. Bourne 
further shows that the thrust or forward pressure which any screw driven 
by an engine of a given power is capable of imparting to the vessel is 
dependent mainly upon the pitch of the screw, the thrust being greater 
in the proportion of the smallness of the pitch. This appears to be a very 
obvious conclusion when it is pointed out ; but we are not aware that 
it has been announced before, and scarcely any attempts have been 
made to predicate what the thrust of a given screw would be, as that 
was considered to be a problem of great difficulty and complication. 
Mr. Bourne, however, shows that, if we compute the thrust of the screw 
on the principle of virtual velocities, or, in other words, if we take it 
at the amount at which it would stand if it were working in a solid nut, 
and deduct one-fourth for the force intercepted by friction, we shall 
have a near approach to the thrust actually exerted in the case of 
vessels of good form ; but one-third of the theoretical thrust must be 
deducted to represent the actual thrust, in the case of vessels of bad 
form. 

Chapter the sixth treats of screw vessels with full power ; and here 
Mr. Bourne points out the existence of some very mischievous errors in 
the results of the experiments made by Mr. Murray on the screw 
steamer Dwarf, and which probably arose from the defective adjust- 
ment of the dynamometer. Having shown what is the limit of the 
theoretical thrust, and having further shown that the actual thrust 
must always fall short of the theoretical by a certain amount, Mr. Bourne 
proceeds to apply this canon to the experiments of the Dwarf, as re- 
corded by Mr. Murray, and he finds that the alleged actual thrust 
exceeds the theoretical, which is, of course, an impossible condition. 
Mr. Bourne, therefore gives a corrected table, showing what the actual 
thrust of the screw probably was in the case of the Dwarf's experiments, 
and we think it would be rendering a useful service if the Admiralty 
would cause those experiments to be repeated with better instruments, 
or a more skilful observer. In this chapter Mr. Bourne gives ex- 
pression to some new views relative to the resistance of vessels, and, as 
it would appear from Mr. Holm's letter, given in our last number, that 
there has been some misconception respecting them, we shall here 
extract Mr. Bourne's observations on the subject : — 

" In considering the amount of power necessary to be given to a 
screw vessel to propel her through the water with any given velocity, 
it is necessary first to settle the type of vessel, and next her size. When 



, ,'v;. :/:;., ,,-.,' "i:-v/i I I:, I \ :i r ':.: <>l JV1' Utim l) y ■ 







W K Whytehead CE ctires 



[HE riRTr-AN JOURNAL 1853. 



1853.] 



Screw Propeller. 



15 



these points are determined, it will be easy, by selecting from the tables 
of screw vessels given in the appendix a vessel of the shape most nearly 
resembling that of the intended vessel, to tell the amount of power 
necessary to propel that vessel at any given speed, on the supposition 
that the two are of the same size. The co-efficient of performance of 
the vessel which the new vessel resembles will be found by turning to 
the appendix, page iii. ; and the number of horses power necessary to 
accomplish any different speed, either of this vessel or of the new vessel, 
may be ascertained by multiplying the cube of the intended speed by 
the number of square feet of immersed section, and dividing by the 
coefficient proper for this particular case. The result thus obtained, 
however, supposes that the new vessel is of the same size as the similar 
vessel ; but if she be smaller than the model vessel the speed will be 
less, and if she be larger the speed will be more in the proportion of 
the square roots of the length, or some other linear dimension, of the 
two vessels. If s be the speed of the vessel in knots, a the area of the 
immersed midship section in square feet, c a numerical co- efficient, 
varying with the form of the vessel, and p the indicated horse power, 



s 3 A 

then p = , c = 

c 



S"A 



3 /PC 



, and s = V . By means of these 

p A 

equations, therefore, the power, p, necessary for the accomplishment of 
any prescribed speed, and the speed, s, whicli will be realised by the 
application of any given power, may be approximately determined. If 
the new speed be higher than the old, however, then the actual speed 
will be somewhat less than the theoretical speed as thus ascertained, 
since this rule proceeds upon the assumption that the resistance varies 
as the square of the speed, whereas, in the case of vessels of a moderate 
sharpness, the resistance varies in a somewhat higher ratio than the 
square of the speed, as has already been explained. 

" To illustrate the influence of size upon the resistance or speed of a 
vessel, I shall compare the performance of the Minx with that of the 
Rattler, the two vessels being of about the same sharpness, but of a 
different size, and also a different proportionate immersion. The length 
of the Minx is 131 feet, and the extreme breadth is 22 feet 1 inch. 
The length of the Rattler is 176 feet 6 inches, and the extreme breadth 
is 32 feet 8^ inches. The draught of water, however, in the Rattler is 
more than twice as great as the draught of water in the Minx, so that 
the Minx has by much the largest amount of the rubbing surface per 
square foot of immersed section. At a speed of 10 knots the resistance 
of the Rattler was found by the dynamometer to be 25 lbs. per square 
foot of immersed section ; and at a speed of 8 - 445 knots the resistance 
of the Minx was found to be 41 lbs. per square root of immersed sec- 
tion. If, therefore, the resistance be supposed to increase as the square 
of the velocity, the resistance per square foot of immersed section of the 
Minx would be about 71§ lbs., at a speed of 10 knots. This is con- 
siderably more than the amount of resistance that would have been ex- 
perienced if the vessels had been of precisely the same form. The 
immersed section of the Minx in the experiment to which the speed 
and dynamometer pressure given above refer, was 83 square feet ; and 
the square root of 83 is 9 - l. The immersed section of the Rattler was 
about 380 square feet, the square root of which is 19'4. Now, in similar 
vessels, the square root of the sectional area will vary in the same pro- 
portion as any other linear dimension, and the speed will therefore vary 
inversely as the square root of that dimension ; but if the speed vary 
as the square root of a dimension, and the resistance vary as the square 
of the speed, the resistance will vary as that dimension. In similar 
vessels, therefore, the resistance will vary inversely as the square root 
of the sectional area, or as 19"4 to 9-1, or 213 to 1 in the case under 
consideration. The resistance, therefore, per square foot, in the im- 
mersed section of the Minx, would, according to this mode of computa- 
tion, be 53*25 lbs., whereas it appears to be more nearly 71'5 lbs. It 



may hence be inferred that flat and shallow vessels are very difficult to 
propel, and that the perimeter, or outline of the cross section in contact 
with the water should be of the least possible length." 

The seventh chapter treats of screw vessels with auxiliary power, and 
here an investigation is gone into respecting the comparative cost of 
carrying merchandise in paddle vessels of full power, screw vessels of 
auxiliary power, and sailing ships without engine power at all. The 
result of this comparison is very favourable to the screw vessels, and 
numerous cases are recited to substantiate the accuracy of the results 
arrived at, by the evidences afforded by actual practice. Some very 
novel views respecting the rigging of ships, and the arrangements for the 
construction of the hull, which will best reconcile lightness with strength, 
are also propounded in this chapter. 

The eighth chapter treats of screw vessels on canals; the ninth chap- 
ter is devoted to a comparison of different kinds of screw engines ; the 
tenth chapter treats of the details of construction of screw engines and 
ships; the eleventh chapter of the screw and paddles combined; and 
the twelfth and last chapter gives a recapitulation of doctrines and con- 
clusions. There is also a voluminous appendix, containing an account 
of the dimensions and performance of the screw steam-vessels of the 
navy, results of the experiments made upon the French steam-packet 
Pelican, remarks on the screw and paddle vessels on the Atlantic, on 
the United States' war-steamers San Jacinto and Saranac, on the use 
of feathering screws, on the introduction and progressive increase of 
screw propulsion in the navy, and on the comparative merits of wooden 
and iron ships. The appendix concludes with a specification of a screw 
steam vessel. 

It is of course impossible, in the limits within which these remarks 
must be restricted, to follow Mr. Bourne into all of these important 
questions, and we must now content ourselves with a few specimens of 
the work, taken almost at random. The following are Mr. Bourne's 
remarks respecting the engines of the Amphion : — 

" Engines of the 'Amphion.' — These engines, represented in plate II., 

(3S 




Fig. 14. 



are a species of steeple engine laid upon its side. Two piston rods 



16 



Screw Propeller. 



[January, 



emerge from the cylinder in different vertical planes, and also in differ- 
ent horizontal planes, and these piston rods are connected to a cross 
head moving in guides, from which the connecting rod proceeds. An 
eye projecting upwards from the cross bead receives the top of one pis- 
ton rod, and an eye projecting downwards from the cross head receives 
the top of the other piston rod. Fig. 13 is a cross section of one of 
the cylinders and its valves. The two piston rods, it will be observed, 
are attached to the pistons by means of cutters ; and the packing of the 
piston is metallic, consisting of an eccentric ring, with a V block at the 
joining, pressed forward by a flat spring. The valve is of the usual 
three-ported description, but is made in two parts bolted together, in 
order that a perforated plate may be introduced as an expansion valve, 
which is worked by a separate rod, passing through the valve cover. 
There is a ring applied to the back of the valve which moves steam-tight 
upon the back of the valve casing, and thus takes the pressure off the 
valve face, a communication between the space within this ring and the 
condenser being maintained by means of a small pipe shown in the 
figure, which is introduced for that purpose." 

The following respecting air-pump valves is also of interest :• — 
" Air-pump valves. — The first improvement in the valves of the air 
pump to enable the engines to maintain a higher rate of speed, was the 
introduction of canvas valves of the same size as the previous brass 
valves ; and to these speedily succeed numerous small disc valves of 
india-rubber, which act so satisfactorily as to leave nothing further to 
be desired. Fig. 15 represents the valves introduced in H. M. S. 




Figs. 16 and 17. 



Amphion, the first screw vessel constructed in this country, with the 
engines below the water line and with the pistons maintaining a con- 
siderable rate of speed. The seats of these valves are kept in their 
places by means of rods screwed through cross heads extending from 
side to side of the condenser. 

"Fig. 16 is a section and fig. 
17 a ground-plan of the species 
of valve used for the air pump by 
Messrs. Penn. The air pump is 
double acting, and is fitted with a 
solid piston, and for each foot 
valve and each delivery valve a 
plate is introduced with a number 
of grated perforations, such as in 
fig. 17, over each of which an 
india-rubber disc is fitted, as 
shown in section in fig. 1G. 
The bent arrows show the direc- 
tion followed by the water, and as 
the area afforded for the escape of 
the water by such numerous per- 
forations is very great, the discs 
will be lifted only a correspond- 




Fi S . 18. 



ingly small distance from the plate. The number of these discs applied 
in substitution of each valve will vary with the size of the engine, but in 
an engine of 400 horse power the number will be about eight or nine. 
In such an engine, therefore, as there are two foot valves and two de- 
livery valves to each air pump, and two air pumps to each engine, the 
total number of discs would be about sixty-four. Fig. 18 represents 

the kind of disc used by Messrs. 
Maudslay, and the only difference 
it presents is a somewhat different 
configuration of the guard. The 
guard should be so made as to 
come into contact with the metal 
of the grated plate when the bolt is screwed up, as it will not answer to 
put the strain of the bolt upon the india-rubber, else a piece will be 
punched out. The india-rubber discs are generally about six inches 
in diameter and about five eighths of an inch thick." 

We add the following, on the modes of receiving the thrust of the 
screw : — 

" Modes of receiving the thrust of the screw. — The mode of receiving 
the thrust of the screw by the interposition of a series of moveable discs 
between the end of the shaft and some fixed point within the vessel has 
been already explained, and in fig. 19 a representation is given of such 





a combination. A cast-iron box, attached to any convenient part of 
the bottom of the ship, has another box fitted within it, so as to be 
capable of sliding backwards and forwards, and to be adjusted in any 
position by the key b. Within this box a series of discs, a, are set, 
composed of brass and iron alternately, and upon these discs the end of 
the shaft presses. The cistern may then be filled up with oil. When 
this mode of receiving the thrust is employed, it is necessary to apply a 
plate to the stern-post, to receive the thrust when the engine is backed, 
and it is advisable that there should be at least one disc there also. A 
more usual way, however, of receiving the thrust of the shaft, than by 
the application of the discs, is by the use of a number of projecting 
collars formed on the shaft, and which fit into a plummer block pro- 
perly hollowed for their reception, as has been already explained in 
describing the engines of the Wasp. A perspective representation of a 
bearing of this description is given in fig. 20, and the same bearing 
with the cap removed is shown in fig. 21. In fig. 21 is represented a 
portion of the shaft itself with its projecting collars. These collars are 
formed by turning out of the solid iron the intervening depressions. 
They are each about an inch high, with about an inch of distance be- 
tween them, and they are somewhat rounded at the corners instead of 
being cut quite square. Each collar is supplied with oil by means of a 
wick connected with an oil cistern on the top of the plummer block, 
and a groove is cut across the top of the upper brass to enable the 



1853.] 



Clark's Hallway Machinery. 



17 



several compartments to communicate, so that if one fails in its supply 
of oil, it may be recruited from the next adjoining. This bearing, and 
indeed, all others, about screw engines moving with any considerable 
speed, is usually lined with Babitt's metal. With this arrangement for 



CLARK'S RAILWAY MACHINERY.* 

A new epoch appears to have arrived in engineering literature. At 
no very distant date, the books which were produced upon any depart- 
ment of engineering science, though, perhaps, manifesting eminent 






Fig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 



receiving the thrust, a backing plate on the rudder post is not required; 
nevertheless, it will be useful to apply one if the bearing for receiving 
the thrust be made moveable, as is sometimes done, to enable the shaft 
to be drawn easily on end ; for the plummer block might accidentally 
slip back if the engine be moved after the catch is detached, and the end 
of the screw shaft would then bore into the rudder post, and, of course, 
occasion injury. 

We cannot further extend our extracts, and must now take our leave 
of Mr. Bourne. We think, in the composition of the present work, he 
has rendered a useful service to the public, and has, perhaps, in some 
measure, also added to his own reputation. A large part of his present 
performance is, it is true, merely a work of compilation, which needs for 
its accomplishment diligence rather than skill. But some skill is also 
necessary to determine what should be selected and what discarded in 
the heap of heterogeneous materials with which Mr. Bourne had to 
deal. We believe that most of what is known in any quarter respecting 
the screw propeller is here set down ; and some vigorous attempts are 
also manifested to extend the limits of existing knowledge, and to mark 
out the course which future improvement must follow. How far these 
efforts will be productive of useful results time only can declare. 



A Treatise on Screw Propellers and their Steam Engines, with practical 
Rules and Examples how to calculate and construct the same for 
any Description of Vessels, accompanied with a Treatise on Bodies 
in Motion in Fluid; also a full Description of a Calculating Ma- 
chine. By J. W. Nystrom. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird. 
London : Triibner and Co. 1852. 

This work is a reprint of certain papers on screw propulsion which 
have lately appeared in the Journal of the Franklin Institute, and then- 
main design appears.to be to commend to public acceptation a form of 
screw, and also an arrangement of engine, which Mr. Nystrom has pro- 
jected. The screw may be described as a screw with an increasing 
pitch, both in the direction of its length and in the direction of its 
diameter ; and the arms are at the same time bent slightly towards the 
stern of the vessel, so as to communicate a centripetal motion to the 
water that will counteract the centrifugal action of the screw ; at the 
same time the screw blades are bent sideways, so that their edges have 
the outline of a scimitar. The suggested arrangement of screw en- 
gines we will notice in our next number. This work cannot be 
regarded to be what it professes— a practical work; it is too full of 
formulae, and too deficient in practical instruction of a trustworthy 
character. Nevertheless, it is useful as a collection of suggestions, the 
value of which the reader must determine for himself. 
3 



mathematical attainments or distinguished literary capacity, carried 
very little useful information to the persons mainly concerned in making 
themselves masters of the subject ; and fallacies were servilely repeated 
and facts left unexplored, until mechanical literature had fallen into 
contempt among all engineers of competent attainments. From this 
ignominious depth the literature of engineering is now beginning to 
emerge ; and for this amelioration of its destiny it is mainly indebted 
to the exertions of a few writers like Mr. Clark, who, rejecting the 
humiliating precedents before them, have refrained from writing upon 
any subject, unless they had something new or useful to communicate 
respecting it ; or, in other words, who have thought it necessary to in- 
vestigate any subject of which they have undertaken to treat, and to 
collect all the information, whether oral or written, existing respecting 
it, before presuming to instruct practical men, who are already well 
informed. Authors, like clergymen, are in constant danger of pitching 
their communications in too low a key — from underrating the intelligence 
of their audience ; but this error will be corrected when practical men 
themselves become authors, for they are perfectly cognisant of the level 
they must reach before their communications can be expected to carry 
much authority, or to add materially to the information of their readers. 
We think it the highest praise that we can bestow upon Mr. Clark's work, 
when we say that while its intimations will be readily intelligible to the 
merest tyro, they will, at the same time, add to the information of the 
most accomplished mechanic. In this particular department of engineer- 
ing Mr. Clark has diligently striven to accumulate all known facts, to 
deduce from them, as far as possible, general laws, and to systematise 
the heterogeneous materials presented to him, either by his own re- 
searches or by the communications of other observers. We do not say 
that there is no instance in which this might not have been better done, 
neither do we say that in the mere literary qualities of the work, Mr. 
Clark might not have been, in some cases, more graceful and perspicuous. 
We may add that we should not be disposed to ratify every conclusion 
at which Mr. Clark has arrived, or every doctrine he has propounded ; 
but this we do maintain, that by the present work Mr. Clark has 
rendered an eminent service to the cause of engineering literature, has 
advanced the branch of science he has undertaken to illustrate, and has 
earned for himself an illustrious position among engineering authors. 
It would greatly transcend the limits of this notice, to enter upon any 
enumeration of the important subjects which Mr. Clark has undertaken 
to discuss. That enumeration we reserve for a future occasion, when 
the work shall have been completed. But we have considered it to be 
only an act of justice to offer these incidental remarks to cheer on Mr. 
Clark in his useful career, and also to inform our readers of the im- 



* Railway Machinery : a Treali'f on the Mechanical Engineering of Railways. By D. K. 
Clakk, C.B. Parts 6 to 15. London : Blackie and Son. 



18 



Tomlinsorfs Cyclopaedia of the Arts. 



[January, 



portant practical knowledge which is being accumulated for their use, 
and of which we shall now proceed to present them with an example. 
With this view we shall extract from Mr. Clark's work the following 
observations : — 

Recapitulation. — The quantity or weight of water evaporable per hour, 
at a given rate of combustion, increases with the temperature at which the 
water is pumped into the boiler. 

2. Consequently, the equivalent weight of water evaporable from the stan- 
dard temperature, 62°, decreases as the initial temperature of the water ac- 
tually evaporated rises, at such a rate, that the equivalent weights fall 1 per 
cent, for every 10° rise of initial temperature. At this rate, only 85 per cent. 
of water evaporated from 212° would be evaporable from 62°. 

3. The equivalent volumes of water evaporable from 62° also decrease as 
the initial temperature rises ; but rather more slowly than the equivalent 
weights, inasmuch as water expands by heat; 88 per cent, of water evapo- 
rated at 212° would be evaporable at 62°. 

4. The evaporative efficiency of locomotives depends very much on the 
management of the fire. Low fires, in general, evaporate more water than 
deep fires, as there is less coke exposed to waste; the proper use of the ash- 
pan damper also promotes the economy of combustion, by regulating the 
draught to the requirements of the time. 

5. A poundage of water, equal to 9 lbs. per pound of coke, is adopted as 
the standard of economical consumption, in practice. 

6. The rate of evaporation per pound of fuel, or the poundage of water, is 
regulated by the area of the fire grate, the extent of heating surface, and the 
rate of consumption per hour. In general, the smaller the fire grate, the 
greater the heating surface; and the less the consumption per hour, within 
certain limits, the greater is the poundage of water. 

Conversely, the poundage of water falls nearly as the rate of evaporation 
is increased above the economic limit, involving a reduced efficiency, and a 
heavy sacrifice of fuel. 

7. The maximum economical hourly consumption increases directly as 
the grate area is reduced, even with the same heating surface; showing that 
the economic value of heating surface is increased by reducing the grate, 
and that by this simple expedient the same heating surface can economically 
evaporate larger quantities of water per hour. 

8. The economical hourly consumption increases directly as the square of 
the heating surface, with the same grate ; so that twice the surface would yield 
four times the consumption ; showing that the economic value of each foot 
of surface is increased by merely increasing the surface. 

9. The necessary heating surface increases only as the square root of the 
consumption, the grate being the same. 

10. The necessary heating surface increases as the square root of the 
grate, the consumption being the same. 

11. As the economic value of heating surface depends so much on the grate 
area being less as the area is greater, the grate should be kept as small as is 
consistent with the demands for steam, and the practicable rate of combustion. 
On the other hand, there can be no economical objection to any amount of 
heating surface which can be got into a boiler, even though greater than the 
economic limits. Thus there are two ways of meeting defective proportions 
— by increasing the heating surface, or by reducing the grate, either of which 
increases the economic value of the heating surface, — in other words, the 
economic evaporative power of the boiler. 

12. The relations of grate area, heating surface, and economical con- 
sumption are such that 

with heating surfaces, 30, 60, 90, 100 times the grate, 
the maximum economical j „ „ . . „ } cubic, feet of water per 
consumptions are I ' ' ' ' i hour per foot of grate, 

and 14, 55-6, 125, 153 pounds of coke. 

13. The amount of clearauce between the tubes affects the evaporative effi- 
ciency of the tube surface ; and it ought to be greater, the greater the number 
of tubes. For ordinary good practice, on which the foregoing conclusions 
are founded, clearance at the rate of £ inch for every 30 tubes is sufficient; 
for example, ^ inch for 120 tubes, § inch for 150 tubes, and J inch for 180 
tubes. 

14. The maximum rate of efficient combustion of good coke in the fire- 



box has been found in practice to be about 1 50 lbs. per hour per foot of 
grate; and of evaporation, about 22 cubic feet of water per hour per foot. 

15. The minimum rate of combustion worth anything for evaporation is 
probably about 14 lbs. per hour per foot of grate. 

16. The maximum rate of combustion recommended for locomotive boilers 
is 112 lbs., or 1 cwt. of coke per hour per foot of grate, when the grate has 
at least 8 feet of surface; and of evaporation, 16 cubic feet of water per hour 
per foot. 

17. These rates of consumption require a heating surface of 85 feet per 
foot of grate; and this is the lowest proportion that should be adopted for 
locomotive boilers. 

18. A grate area of 4 feet is probably the smallest that should be adopted 
for railway purposes; and as the smallest grates require the greatest attention 
in firing, a consumption of about 76 lbs. of coke, and 11 feet of water, per 
hour per foot of grate, is the highest duty for which 4 feet grates should be 
designed ; for larger grates the duty may be increased up to the standard 
for 8 feet grates. 

19. The evaporative capacity of locomotive boilers appears, so far as ex- 
perience goes, to be the same at all speeds.* 

20. The economic evaporative value of coal is, according to ordinary prac- 
tice, about two-thirds of that of coke. But as coal is not likely to come into 
more general use as fuel, and will continue to be used only as an auxiliary 
with coke, it is not necessary to reconsider the proportions of the locomotive 
boiler with any view to the increased employment of that fuel.f 

TOMLINSON'S CYCLOPEDIA OF THE ARTS. 

Cyclopcedia of the Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical Manufactures, 
Mining, and Engineering. Edited by Charles Tomlinson. 
Parts 5 to 27. London and New York : George Virtue. 

This work, of which we gave a brief notice in February last, has now 
reached its 27th number, the intention being, we believe, to complete 
it in 48 numbers altogether. The issue, therefore, has already been 
sufficiently large to enable a tolerably just estimate to be formed of the 
value of the entire work from the specimen before us, and we propose 
to communicate to our readers, in a few words, the impressions we have 
formed from its examination. 

The design of the undertaking is to present an epitome of all the 
information subsisting at the present time relative to the useful arts; to 
daguerreotype, as it were, the skill and information represented by the 
Great Exhibition, and to furnish a record of all material facts connected 
with the several arts, which will enable the reader to attain the latest 
point of improvement or discovery yet reached in connection with 
them. To work out a purpose of this kind in such a manner as to be 
free from exception would be almost an impossible task ; and, accord- 
ingly, we find that in the work before us there is some of the informa- 
tion which, if not altogether antiquated, is at least conventional, mani- 
festing a larger acquaintance with books than with things, and destitute 
of that vigorous and original treatment which characterises the produc- 
tions of those who are perfect masters of the subjects of which they 
treat. Perfections of this quality, however, it would hardly be reason- 
able to look for in any work which is professedly, to seme extent, a 
compilation ; and as a werk pretending to no very large amount of 
originality, but seeking merely to communicate information, of which 
the greater part may be found scattered about in other quarters, we are 
able to give it a high measure of commendation. The information is 
communicated in the clearest language, and in every instance we have 

* Assuming the efficiency of combu-tion to be the same, it might he deduced from pre- 
vious discussions of the relations of evaporative power, blast pressure, vacuum in the smoke 
box, and speed, that the maximum rate of evaporation should be the same for all speeds. 
This question will be duly considered when we have to construct a general theory of the 
locomotive from the materials supplied by experiment. 

t The author is gratified to find, from the later writings of Mr. Fairbairn of Manchester, 
and Mr. Buchanan of Glasgow, that his views of the economy of combustion and evaporation 
harmonise with those of these authorities. Mr. Fairbairn has, in his paper " On the Con- 
sumption of Fuel and the Prevention of Smoke" (1851), repeatedly recognised and set 
forth the value of a ,: large heating surface as opposed to a small grate," and the author is 
not sure but his formulas for economic proportions might apply to ordinary land or marine 
boilers. He feels certain that at least the principles on which the formulas are based will 
be found to apply to other classes of boilers. 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



19 



examined is brought down to the present time; so that we have a just 
representation not of the state of any art some years ago, but of its 
condition in the present year. The most full and elaborate of the 
articles are on the following subjects : — bridge, candle, coal, copper, 
cotton, distillation, drainage, files, filter, flax, fuel, gas-lighting, glass, 
graduation, horology, iron, lead, leather, life-boat, light, lighthouse, 
lock, magnetism, marble, matches, metallurgy, mining, and mortars 
and cements. The article on drainage brings the work up to Part 11 
where is commenced an historical and descriptive essay on the Great 
Exhibition and a catalogue of its contents. The first volume ends in 
Part 21. As a specimen of the manner of execution of the work we 
have extracted an article on page 8. 

Our limits do not enable us in the present number to give any further 
specimen here of this interesting work. It is a cheap work, and one 
of great value to the industrial classes, and, indeed, to every one who is 
desirous — and who is not? — of obtaining a just and comprehensive ac- 
quaintance with the industrial arts. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SLIP OF THE SCREW. 

To the Editor of the Artizan. 

Sir, — On looking over the Artizan for September, 1852, I find an 
extract from the Franklin Journal, headed, " Remarks on H.B.M. 
Screw Steamer ' Arrogant,' by Chief-Engineer B. T. Isherwood, U.S. 
Navy," and at the conclusion of which the following passage occurs : 
" To say that, in a vessel propelled by a screw alone, the vessel's speed 
could surpass that of the screw, would be to say that, in the case of a 
man wheeling a wheelbarrow, the speed of the wheelbarrow surpassed 
that of the man." 

Although I am quite prepared to admit the wisdom of the observa- 
tion you have made in one of the recent numbers of your journal — and 
which coincides with the remarks which are to be found at page 39, 
vol. ix. of the Artizan — that what is wanted, in regard to the screw 
propeller, is a collection of facts, and not algebra, yet it does not ap- 
pear altogether unreasonable to suppose that, if such facts, after having 
been collected, could be satisfactorily arranged and explained, the con- 
sequences would not necessarily prove injurious to the practical man; 
provided always, that any arguments which might lead into a labyrinth 
of algebra be carefully avoided. It is upon -this supposition and under- 
standing that I take the liberty of submitting to you what I think may 
be called an explanation of the causes of both the negative and the 
positive " slip;" an explanation in which, I hope, no doubtful doctrines 
are involved, and which will show that the comparison with the man 
and wheelbarrow does not apply to screw steamers. 

For argument's sake, I shall select a screw of 10 feet diameter and 
11 feet pitch, and I shall also suppose a force equal to 3,000 lbs. acting 
at the circumference of the screw, to turn it round. If this screw were 
to work in a fixed and solid nut, it would evidently be capable (neglect- 
ing friction), during one revolution, of moving a weight of 8,568 lbs. 
the distance of 11 feet in the direction of its axis, for 10 X 3T,416 X 
3,000 = 11 X 3,568 = 94,248. But a ship passing through the water 
will find its own resistance ; and, if we assume the same screw to be in 
connection with a ship whose resistance, at the unit of velocity =40 lbs., 
and, suppose the engine capable of turning the screw at the rate of 100 

11 X 100 

revolutions per minute, since = 18'333 (18'333) 2 X 40 == 

60 
13,439-6, and 11 X 13,439-6 = 147,835-6, it is evident that the ship 
cannot be propelled the distance of 1 1 feet for every turn of the screw. 

9-467 X 100 

The effective pitch will, in fact, only be 9'467 feet, for ■ 

60 



= 15-777 (15-777)' X 40 = 9,956-6, and 9-467 X 9,956-6 = 94,248 
nearly. The difference between 11 and 9 - 467 would, in this case, 
represent what is called the " positive slip ;" and this positive slip in- 
creases with the resistance ; that is, the worse the ship for given dimen- 
sions, or the greater the opposing forces, the greater will be the positive 
slip, the screw remaining the same. 

On the other hand, if the same screw, under the same circumstances 
as to power and speed of the engine, were connected with a ship whose 
resistance, at the unit of velocity = 1 5 lbs. only, the ship again could 
not be propelled the distance of 11 feet for every turn of the screw. 
The effective pitch must evidently be greater, viz., 13 - 126 feet, for 
13-126 X 100 
= 21-876 (21-876) 2 X 15 = 7,178, and 7,178 X 13-126 



60 
= 94,248 nearly. The difference between 11 and 13-126 would, in this 
case, represent what is called the " negative slip ;" and this negative slip 
increases as the resistance of the ship decreases ; that is, the better the 
ship for given dimensions, or the greater the forces acting in favour of 
its forward motion, the greater will be the negative slip, the screw re- 
maining the same. 

I believe I have not deviated from the accepted rule by assuming 
the total resistance of the ship to be the product of the square of its 
velocity in feet per second, into the resistance at the unit of velocity in 
pounds ; and by ascertaining the velocity in feet per second, by divid- 
ing the product of the effective pitch into the number of revolutions of 
the engine per minute, by 60. 

If I were asked, What causes the resistance developed by the screw, 
as it revolves in the water, so as to balance the force applied by the 
engine? I should say that I consider the blades of the screw as inclined 
planes, whose resistance varies with their area and angles of incidence. 
I am, however, quite as ready to admit, upon satisfactory proof, that I 
am in error upon this point, as the Editor of the Artizan himself could 
be, under similar circumstances. 

Your obedient servant, 

R. BODMER. 

London, December 16, 1852. 

[We invite remark on the foregoing from our correspondents. We 
shall afterwards express our own opinion.] 

DEADENING THE FLOORS OF ROOMS. 
To the Editor of the Artizan. 
Sir,— I have been called upon to take some method of preventing the 
noise in a room over head being heard in the room below, the ceiling of 
which cannot be broken into. A false ceiling must therefore he resorted to ; 
and I suppose the question is, What article introduced between the two 
ceilings would best produce the desired effect? The horsehair felt used 
round steam boilers has been resorted to, but it does not succeed. Informa- 
tion on this point would greatly oblige 

Yours obediently, 

An Old Subscriber. 
[We should think that a good thick coating of loose wool or cotton inter- 
posed between the two ceilings would have the desired effect, and would be 
easily applied. Felt is too thin and too hard. The texture of the stratum 
should be loose, and the thickness considerable.] 



INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS IN FRANCE. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

Illuminated Clock. — The theatre and museum of Havre are both 
fitted with illuminated clocks, the invention of M. Dorey, which, from their 
novelty, may interest some of your readers. The face of the clock is of 
polished glass, which allows the light to pass through it without radiation. 
The lights, therefore, which are placed below the centre of the clock, and 
inside it, do not produce any sensible light on the face of the clock, to the 



20 



Notes from our American Contemporaries. 



[January, 



spectator. But the figures, which are not polished, are seen illuminated, as 
are also the hands, which are likewise of rough glass. The position of the 
hands is much more readily discovered on this plan than when they are 
black, as in ordinary clocks. A black curtain furnishes a background for 
the glass dial in the day time. 

Square Steam Engines. — I was going to write— square cylinders — hut 
a6 that would he a bull, I will leave it to your readers to find a better word 
for the recipient of the piston, if circumstances should ever render the word 
cylinder, inadmissible, which I rather doubt, although M. Decoster, an 
engineer at Paris, has shown the way. He has really constructed a steam 
engine on that principle for his shop, and it works, I am told, very satis- 
factorily, although what possible end is to be gained by the adoption of such 
a form, I am at a loss to imagine. It will cost more, weigh more, leak more, 
and radiate heat more. 

High-Pressure Marine Engines. — M. Mazeline, of Havre, has recently 
patented an arrangement of the Woolf engine as applied to drive the screw. 
The difficulty of using high-pressure steam on sea-going vessels is not in the 
engines but in the boilers, and I do not see anything in the boiler proposed 
that will obviate the usual dangers. The boiler is circular, and slightly 
conical, the larger diameter being above, to allow the steam to rise freely 
and give steam-chest room. The furnace is cylindrical, with upright fire- 
tubes rising from the top of the furnace, and terminating in a smoke-box 
with an arched top, stayed to the top of the boiler. A number of openings 
are provided round the circumference, which allow the smoke to pass from 
the smoke-box into an annular ring round the boiler, which ring is sur- 
rounded with a water-space, into which the feed-water is pumped. The 
smoke is taken off on one side. The defects of this form of boiler are, in 
my opinion, numerous and weighty. The tube-plate over the fire will be 
apt to crack; the lower ends of the tubes will be quickly burnt out; and, if 
an accident happens to any of the tubes, they can hardly be plugged up at 
the lower end without great trouble, whilst at the upper end they are quite 
inaccessible. The ordinary locomotive boiler is much superior in these 
respects, is lower, and has a better fire-box ; the number of stays re- 
quired being amply compensated for by its advantages. Neither can I 
say much for the engines, each of which has three cylinders— one con- 
densing and two high-pressure. The three stand transversely across the 
ship, the condensing one in the middle, having an oval trunk, to the bottom 
of which the connecting rod is attached. A ring, going round the top of 
the trunk, is prolonged on either side, to permit the piston-rods of the two 
high-pressure cylinders to be attached to it. The three pistons thus rise and 
fall simultaneously. There are two vertical air-pumps, worked off cranks 
driven by a bevel pinion on the main shaft, taking into two bevel-wheels on 
the air-pump shafts. A portion of the periphery of these wheels is made 
plain, so that they roll on one another, and take the thrust of the screw -shaft. 
I do not think it would require any very great engineering ability to devise 
a better plan than this for applying the Woolf principle to the screw. The 
friction and leakage of the six cylinders, the objection to the trunk, and the 
weight of the moving parts being all on the down-stroke, are scarcely ad- 
missible, when there are so many other arrangements possible. 

Messrs. Mazeline and Co. are making two pairs of engines, of 650 horse 
power, for the government, which, I understand, are not on the above prin- 
ciple. Messrs. Schneider and Co. are also making four pairs at their works 
at Creuzot. 

Screw Steamer, " Hunwick." A sensation has been created amongst 
the good people of Rouen, by the arrival of an English Screw Collier, the 
Hunwick. She has been visited by a large number of persons, and the 
Chamber of Commerce have requested M. Eugene Burel, C.E., to draw up 
a report on the practicability and advantages of the introduction of screw 
steamers to Rouen. The boat was built by Messrs. Vernon and Son, of 
Liverpool, and the engines are by Messrs. J. "Watt and Co. The engines 
are applied directly to the screw shaft, and the cylinders are inclined, like 
those described in the Artizan for December, 1851. They have single trunks, 
that is, the trunks only project on one side of the piston. The framing is of 
cast iron, and looks very strong. The air pump is sunk in the centre of the 
ship, and is worked off a crank on the end of the shaft. The slides have the 
link motion for reversing. A large donkey engine (petit cheval is the French 



term, and a more elegant one than the English) is fitted on deck, and is pro- 
vided with a separate locomotive boiler, so that it can be used independently 
of the large engines, for hoisting out the cargo, pumping, &c. It has not, 
however, been applied, as yet, to the former purpose. 

H.M.S. Grappler has just turned up on the coast of France in quite a new 
character. It will be remembered that she was built for the Admiralty, by 
Messrs. Fairbairn, on a patent system, the strakes of plates running up and 
down instead of lengthwise, — a plan which renders a vessel rather liable to 
break in halves. She was sold by the Admiralty, after seeing scarcely any 
service, at old-iron price, and is now the property of a large shipowner of 
Dunquerque, who has coated her with planking, and then coppered her. 
She is now named the Sacramento, and has just sailed from Havre with a 
valuable cargo, and full of passengers for Cowes, thence for California. She 
is fitted with a distilling apparatus, which produces a litre of fresh water per 
minute, or 13 gallons per hour. 

Paris Steamboat Company. — A new company has been established to 
run halfpenny steamboats on the Seine, and it is reported that the contract 
for eight boats of the Waterman class has been given to M. Normand, of 
Havre, who will employ Penn and Son, of London, to make the engines. 



NOTES FROM OUR AMERICAN CONTEMPORARIES. 

Granular Fuel — An odd idea, and one of which we do not see the 
utility. In the words of the inventor, Reuben Daniels, of Woodstock, Ver- 
mont, "I claim the granular fuel produced from brushwood and twigs, by 
cutting the same into lengths about equal to its average diameter." Is this 
to allow of its being shovelled on the fire with greater facility ? 

Derricks.— S. Hill and C. Dupuy, of New York, have patented an im- 
provement in derricks, which consists in placing the axis upon which the 
derrick or crane swings slightly out of the vertical position, so as to cause 
the jib to have a tendency to swing in that direction ; .and by applying the 
hoisting tackle in the opposite direction, the jib can be swung and controlled 
by the hoisting tackle whilst the weight is being raised. 

Ore Stampers, — or " stamp-heads," as we call them, are thrown aside 
before they are entirely worn out, because they become too light. T. Reaney, 
of Philadelphia, proposes to add weights above the stamper, as it lightens 
by wear, and thus enables it to be worn entirely out, on the " save-all" 
principle. 

Clocks. — S. R. AVilmot, of Newhaven, Connecticut, proposes to insulate 
the clock frame from the case, by washers of india-rubber, or other non- 
conductor of sound, to prevent the beat of the clock from being heard. 

Potato-Digger. — J. F. Foster, of New York, has invented a machine 
to dig potatoes, gather stones, or " do any other odd jobs" on a farm. It 
consists of " a roller, having a series of rows of pins in its periphery, and 
secured on the axletree of a cart, or other moving apparatus, in combination 
with an adjustable apron having teeth in it, and a discharging plate having 
teeth in it." An apron with teeth in it does not present a very intelligible 
idea to the mind, but we presume it serves the purpose of shaking and 
sifting the large particles from the small, the latter, as the claim states, being 
deposited in a box. 

Manufacture op Sheet Iron. — It has long been an object in the 
United States to rival the beautiful surface of the imported Russian sheet 
iron. H. M'Carty, of Pittsburg, announces that he has discovered the 
means of doing so, which simply consists in heating the sheets in a bath of 
molten lead instead of in an oven, whereby their surfaces are protected from 
oxidation. 

The New Steamboat Law embraces the following provisions: — Steam- 
boat inspectors are appointed, without whose certificate, no steamers can 
have a license to run. The boilers are to be attested by hydraulic pressure, 
at least once a year. The State finds instruments for the inspectors. All 
the spaces surrounding the boilers are to kept safe from ignition. Life pre- 
servers must be carried for every passenger, with metallic life-boats. From 
one to three force pumps must be fixed on deck, for extinguishing fires, and 
a sufficient number of buckets provided. Every engineer must be examined 
and receive a certificate of capability, before taking charge of a boat. We 



1853.] 



/f A 5T O 
LIBRARY 



Hecent American Patents. 



21 



hope that no managers of engine-shops have been appointed inspectors, or 
the inspection is of no use. When will they discontinue using 200 lbs. pressure 
on boilers with § inch shells and flues ? It is absurd to hunt about to find 
flaws in plates, to make an excuse for an explosion. 

— n g pr 

S> f RECENT fi]SliȣN PATENTS. 

For an improvement in banding pulleys ; Robert W. Parker, Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, February 17. 

" The nature of my invention consists in driving circular saws or other 
machinery by a peculiar arrangement of a belt and pulleys, by which the 
main driving pulley is made to pinch the band at the points in the interme- 
diate pulleys with any desired force; much of the friction attendant upon the 
ordinary mode of driving saws and other machinery is dispensed with, the 
arrangement is more economical, and it is more simple, and a greater 
effect, with the same expedition of the power, is obtained." 

Claim. — " Having thus described the nature and operation of my inven- 
tion, what I claim as new is, arranging the driving pulley, B, in reference to 
pulleys, E and E, that the band passing over these pulleys is not only pressed, 
with any desired force, against the periphery of the driver, B, but is also 
pinched between the pulleys, B E, and B E, they operating upon the band as 
feed rollers, substantially in the manner herein described." 

For an improvement in vessels for making ink ; Alexander Harrison, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, February 24. 

" The nature of my improvement consists in arranging a number of reser- 
voirs or vessels in succession, and so connecting them together, that the fluid 
from the top of the first shall be discharged into the second vessel near its 
bottom, the fluid from the top of the second into the third reservoir near its 
bottom, and so on, thus exposing the entire quantity of ink to the oxygen- 
ating action of the atrnosphere in each vessel successively, and at the same 
time drawing off from each cask into the successive one, only the pure por- 
tions of its contents." 

Claim. — " What I claim as my invention is, the arrangement and connect- 
ing together a series of vessels for manufacturing ink, in the manner and 
for the purposes herein set forth." 

For an improvement in the manufacture of zinc white ; Samuel T. Jones, 
City of New York, February 24. 
Claim. — " What I claim as my invention is, the use of a porous or fibrous 
bag, or receiving chamber, with porous sides or bottom, or an air-tight 
chamber, with a straining or porous bag adapted to the inside thereof, and 
used in connection either with a blowing or exhausting apparatus, so that 
the products of the distillation and oxygenation of zinc, or other volatile 
metals, may be separated from the accompanying air and gases, which latter 
will be forced or otherwise drawn through the pores of the cloth bag or 
chamber, and escape into the atmosphere." 



NOVELTIES. 

Accident to the Sanspareil. — The United Service Gazette states that 
" The Sanspareil, 81, Captain Dacres, arrived at Lisbon on the 27th ultimo, 
after experiencing much bad weather. She was 16 days making her passage 
from Plymouth. Her quarter-deck guns were under water during her very 
heavy rolls. She had been twice under steam, once on the 23rd, when a 
crank broke after about ten hours' work, and again on the 27th, when, just 
as the steam was up, one of the boilers burst. She leaks like a sieve; the 
bread-room being flooded, some quantity of bread has been destroyed. All 
the officers, with the exception of five, have been nearly washed out of their 
cabins. 

Purifying Gas by. Peat Charcoal. — Galignani says, An important 
improvement has just been made in the mode of purifying gas for lighting. In- 
stead of using lime, which removes only a portion of the offensive and injurious 
component parts of gas made from coal, the inventor uses peat charcoal and 
acids, which deprive the gas of the sulphur and ammonia, which are so de- 



structive of certain descriptions of goods, and which materially affect the 
lungs in theatres and other places where the ventilation is imperfect. The 
gas thus purified is said to have an addition of ten per cent, to its illuminat- 
ing power, and the materials used for the purification of the gas are converted 
into a manure so valuable, that it can be sold for more than the original 
cost (vide Artizan, 169, 201, vol. 1851). 

Modification of the Patent Law. — A bill to substitute stamp duties 
for fees on letters patent for inventions, and to provide for the purchase for 
the public use of certain indexes of specifications, has been printed by order 
of the House of Commons. Several clauses in the Patent Law Amendment 
Act, with the schedule of fees, are to be repealed. A similar schedule of 
fees is inserted in the present bill. It is declared that letters patent shall be 
subject to avoidance, on non-payment of the stamp duties. The duties are to 
be under the management of the Inland Eevenue Commissioners, who are to 
provide proper stamps for the purpose. It appears that Mr. Bennett Wood- 
croft has made several thousand of indexes of specifications, which are of 
value, and the bill is to empower the treasury to purchase the same for a sum 
not exceeding £1,000. 

Coals at the Cape. — The following is a correct description of the 
specimen of coal sent down to the Lieutenant-Governor, by Dr. White, of 
Swellendam, which was found by his brother, on his farm, on the Breede 
river in that district, the mouth of which is better known as Fort Beaufort. 
The coal is highly bituminous, sharp, conchoidal fracture, and of black 
colour ; it burns freely with a clear flame, leaving a light white ash ; the 
specific gravity of a specimen was 1.4. The coal was found near the surface, 
beneath a thin stratum of iron ore ; the place is about two miles from the 
banks of the river, which is navigable at that spot by vessels of from 200 to 
300 tons, there being an inclined plane between this place and the river. No 
accounts have yet come to hand, as to whether it exists in any quantity or 
not; but, from Dr. White's letter, it is supposed to exist in large quantities. 
Mr. Bain has been sent by Government to inspect the spot. In connection 
with the discovery of coal, it may be mentioned that the boring, under the 
superintendence of Messrs. Bain and Woodifield, is going on in the flats 
near Cape Town. — South African Advertiser, Nov. 6th. 



INCREASE OF OUR STEAM NAVY. 

Contracts have just been concluded with Messrs. Penn and Co.. and 
Messrs. Maudslays and Field, for eight pairs of screw engines of 400 horse- 
power each, which will be fitted to the following vessels. This list includes 
those already in hand by Messrs. Penn and Co. 

By Messrs. Penn and Co: — 



Guns. 
Royal Albert, 120 

Duke of Wellington, 140 
Royal George, 120 

Agamemnon, 90 

Euryalus, 50 

Imperieuse, 50 

Princess Royal, 90 

St. Jean d' Acre, 100 

By Messrs. James Watt and Co : — 
Sanspareil, 81 

By Messrs. Maudslays and Field: — 
Exmouth 90 

Clarence, 84 

Cressy, 80 

Majestic, 80 



building at Woolwich, 
fitting at Portsmouth, 
to be converted at Sheerness. 
fitting at Sheerness. 
building at Chatham, 
fitting at Woolwich, 
building at Portsmouth, 
building at Devonport. 

fitting at Devonport. 

building at Devonport. 
building at Devonport. 
building at Chatham, 
building at Chatham. 



Making a total of 



1175 guns of large calibre. 



The above list does not include any of the guard ships, or any of the ships 
now building, such as the Algiers, 90 guns, building at Devonport, the 
Hannibal, 90 guns, building at Deptford, and several others, ordered to be 
fitted with engines, already in stock. 



22 



Channels for Investment. 



[January, 



CHANNELS FOR INVESTMENT. 

LIST OF NEW COMPANIES RECENTLY ESTABLISHED 

OR PROPOSED. 



Amount of 
Shares. 



Albion Gold Mining Company 
(California) 

Barnet and Willesden Railway 

Brucutu Gold Mining Company 
(Brazil) 

Carmarthen and Cardigan Rail- 
way 

Cawnpoor and Agra Railway . . 

Chartered Australian Land, Min- 
ing, Importing, and Refining, 
Company 

City Railway Terminus 

Craig Ddu Silver Lead Mines. . 

Denbighshire Railway .. 

East Kent Railway 

Great Nugget Vein Gold Com- 
pany (Australia) 

London and Westminster Thames 
Railway 

Nuneaton, Hinckley, and Leices- 
ter Railway 

Portland Iron Company (Scot- 
land) 

Portsmouth Railway 

Salisbury and Basingstoke Rail- 
way 

South Derbyshire Railway 

South Midlands Union Railway 

The European and American 
Telegraph Company 

Tynemouth Docks and Morpeth 
and Shields Railway. . 



£1 

20 



No. of Shares. 

100,000 
11,000 

75,000 



20 . 


35,000 


20 . 


75,000 


5 


. 100,000 


10 


60,000 


105. . 


30,000 


£io . 


4,800 


25 


28,000 



20 

10 

2 
20 

20 
10 
20 



10 



100,000 
30,000 
15,000 

50,000 
20,000 

15,000 
20,000 
50,000 

40,000 

30,000 



Capital. 

£100,000 
220,000 

75,000 

700,000 
1,500,000 



500,000 

600,000 

15,000 

48,000 

700,000 

200,000 

300,000 

150,000 

100,000 
400,000 

300,000 

200,000 

1,000,000 

200,000 

300,000 



NOTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 



Exhibition Surplus Fund. We have an energetic protest from a 
" Contributor to the funds of the late Exhibition," against the proposed 
method of dealing with the surplus. He argues that the subscribers ought 
to have been consulted, and that the idea of removing the various societies 
to Kensington would totally destroy their usefulness. On the latter point 
we entirely agree with him. 

Ikon Casks are not new, but the method of making them may be. C. B. 

B. B. We are not aware of anything very new in the way of self-acting 
tools. Whitworth, of Manchester, and Smith, Beacock, and Tannett, of 
Leeds, are the most likely persons to have useful novelties. 

An Architect. The great evil of all the stoves, except Dr. Arnott's, 
has been, that sufficient radiating surface has not been provided. A large 
case of thin cast iron, with a fire-brick furnace open in front, and the draft 
carried down over a partition in the stove, forms a veiy economical and un- 
objectionable stove. By placing it well out in the room, a great economy of 
fuel is obtained over the ordinary fire-place. 

Books received.— Lardner on the Great Exhibition of 1851. Appleton's 
Mechanics' Magazine, Nos. 6 to 11, 1852. Journal of the Society of Arts, 
Nos. 1 to 4. Nystrom's Treatise on the Screw Propeller. 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS UNDER THE NEW LAW. 
Dated October 15, 1852. 

508. William James Matthias and Thomas Bailey. Improvements in clocks and watches. 

Dated October 23, 1852. 

509. James Brodie. Certain improvements in the construction of sea-going vessels 

510. John Taylor and James Slater. Certain improvements in machinery, apparatus, or 

implements for weaving. 



Dated October 25, 1852. 
513. Samuel Plim soil. An invention of more thoroughly and effectually cleansing, ex- 
tracting, and separating, or fining ale, beer, porter, bitter beer, India pale ale," and 
other malt liquors from the yeast, bottoms, barm, sediment, and other extraneous 
matters and impurities with which it may be in combination. 

Dated October 30, 1852. 

571. Thomas Sanders Bale and Frederick George Sanders. Certain improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for grinding and mixing clays, or other plastic materials. 

585. John Whitcomb and Richard Smith. Improvements in the manufacture of carpets, 
hearth-rugs, and other similar fabrics. 

587. James Rock, the youuger. Improvements in railway carriages. 

Dated November 3, 1852. 
622. George Williaai Ley. The manufacture of a material to be used for certain purposes 
instead of wood, leather, millboard or oil-cloth. 

624. Edward Lord. Improvements in certain machinery to be used in preparing, spinning, 

and weaving cotton and other fibrous substances. 

625. John Cameron. Improvements in boilers for generating steam, and iu feed pumps and 

apparatus connected therewith. 

626. Charles Phillips. Improvements in apparatus or machinery for reaping or cutting 

crops of corn, or other crops to the cutting of which reaping machines are appli- 
cable. 

627. Alfred Augustus de Reginald Hely. An improved shade or chimney for lamps, chan- 

deliers, gas and other burners. 

628. Alfred Sidebottom. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cutting books, 

paper, and other substances. 

629. Auguste Alexandre Tiesset. Improvements in apparatus for exhibiting notices and 

advertisements of various kinds. 

630. Henry Spencer and Edmund Taylor. Improvements in steam engines and boilers. 
631 Harrison Blair. Improvements in apparatus for supplying steam boilers with water. 

632. Nehemiah Hodge. An invention for discharging water from the hold of a navigable 

vessel. 

633. John Macintosh. Improvements in projectiles and cartridges. 

Dated November 4, 1852. 

634. Emily Petit. A musical instrument, which she calls a " Euphotine." 

635. Charles Pryse and Richard Redman. Improvements in a certain description of fire- 

arms. 

636. Elisha Thomas Archer. Improvements in the manufacture of coverings for walls. 

637. William Pope. Improvements in the ventilation of ships. 

638. Augustus Brackenbury. An invention for precipitating the muriate of soda more 
economically than the process now adopted. 

639. Joseph Raynaud. Certain improved means of imitating marbles and various coloured 

woods. 

Dated November 5, 1852. 

641. Collinson Hall. An apparatus to be used in the carriage of solid and liquid bodies. 

642. James Pilbrow. Certain improvements in obtaining motive power. 

643. Joseph Bunnett. Improvements in revolving iron or other metal shutters. 

644. George Shand and Andrew M'Lean. Improvements in obtaining products from tar. 

645. Peter Fairbairn. Certain improvements in self-acting reeling machinery for reeling 

flax and other yarns into hanks. 

646. George Fife. Improvements in steam and water gauges. 

647. John Henderson Porter. Improvements in the construction of portable buildings 

and other structures. 

648. John Frame. Improvements in looms for weaving. 

649. Andrew Lawson Knox. Improvements in the manufacture or production of orna- 

mental fabrics. 

650. James Wotherspoon. Improvements in the manufacture or production of confec- 

tionery, and in the machinery, apparatus, or means employed therein. 

651. Hesketh Hughes and William Thomas Denham. Certain machinery for the manu- 

facture of fancy ribbons, ornamental trimmings, chenilles, fringes, and gimps. 

652. James Hadden Young. Improvements in weaving. 

653. Charles Hampton. Improvements in pianofortes. 

654. Richard Wright. Improvements in shafts and plummer blocks. 

655. Robert Booty Cousens. Improvements in machinery for cutting cork. 

656. Admiral the Earl of Dundonald. Improving bituminous substances, thereby render 

ing them available for purposes to which they never heretofore have been success- 
fully applied. 

Dated November 6, 1852. 

657. John Melville. Improvements in the application of iron, and of wood combined with 

iron or other substances to buildings and other constructions. 

658. John Ryall Cony and James Barrett Corry. A new method of sewing gloves. 

659. John Edward and Charles Gosnell. Certain improvements in brushes. 

660. James Nicol. Certain improvements in the process of graining or ornamenting sur- 

faces and fabrics. 

661. Francis Bywater Frith. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for dressing, 

machining, and finishing velvets, velveteens, cords, beaverteens, and other descrip- 
tions of fustian goods. 

662. Peter Fairbairn and John Hargrave. Certain improvements in machinery for open- 

ing, combing, and drawing wool, flax, and other fibrous materials. 

663. Joseph Victor Augier. Improvements in the manufacture of gas, and in the machinery 

or apparatus employed therein. 

664. John Arthur Phillips. Improvements in purifying tin. 

665. Thomas Hicks Chandler. Improvements in hoes. 

666. Benjamin Baillie. Improvements in apparatus for drawing off and registering the 

flow of fluids. 

667. William Frederick De la Rue and George Waterston. Improvements in writing 

cases. 

668. Charles Frederick Day, and John Laylee. Certain improvements in sleeper.- and 

other parts of the permanent ways of railroads. 

669. Jacques Morel. Improvements in figure wearing. 

Dated November 8, 1852. 

670. Charles Troupeau. An improved diurnal reflector. 

671. George James Walker, Certain improvements in gigs and other carriages. 

672. Stephen Carey. Certain improvements in the construction of viaducts, arches, 

bridges, and other buildings, upon a non-expansion principle. 

673. James Brodie. Certain improvements in the propulsion of sea-going vessels. 

674. Peter Fairbairn. Certain improvements in the ordinary screw gill machinery, when 

applied to the purposes of drawing, combing and heckling fibrous materials. 

675. Jonathan Sparrow Crowley. Improvements in the means of, or apparatus for, 

working the signals and switches on railways. 

676. William Edward Newton. Improvements in the manufacture of carbonates of soda. 

677. Andrew Robeson, junior. An improved mode of bowking or bucking cloth. 

678. Robert Isaac Longbottom. Improvements in preventing vibration in railway a.id 

other carriages, and in axles. 

679. Stanislaus Hoga. An instrument for ascertaining the existence of gold in the earth. 



1853.] 



IAst of Patents. 



23 



Dated November 9, 1852. 

681. James Arnold Heathcote. Certain improvements in the mode of exhausting syphons 

or pipes, for drawing off fluid. 

682. Mark Newton. Certain improvements in the construction of carriages, and in the 

means of preventing the overturning of the same when horses take fright. 

683. Jean Jacques Ziegler. Certain improvements in machinery for preparing to be spun, 

cotton, wool, silk, silk waste, flax, tow, and other fibrous substances. 

685. Robert Knowles. Certain improvements in boilers and apparatusfor generating steam. 

686. Nelson McCarthy. Improvements in boots and shoes. 

687. Alfred Waterhouse. An improved filtering pot. 

688. George Shadforth Ogilvie. Improvements in candlesticks and lamps. 

689. Thomas Eevis. Improved single seed drilling or dibbling machinery. 

690. James C. Booth. Manufacturing chromate and bichromate of potash from chromic iron 

or chrome ore. 

691. William Gossage. Improvements in obtaining snlphur from certain metallic sul- 

phurets. 

692. William Edward Newton. Improvements in the construction of axles or axletrees. 

693. William Tudor Mabley. Improvements in ornamenting glass, and other transparent 

or partially transparent substances, for windows and for other purposes. 

694. Charles Griffin. Improvements in apparatus for fixing type or printing surfaces in a 

chase. 

695. Robert Buncombe Evans. Improvements in the manufacture of charcoal. 

696. John Down Gordon. Improvements in tuning pianofortes. 

697. Obed Hussey. Improvements in reaping machines. 

698. Oswald Dodd Hedley. Improvements in getting coals and other minerals. 

Dated November 10, 1852. 

699. Charles Fox. Improvements in the extraction or rendering of oil from fatty or 

oleaginous matters. 

700. William Johnson. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for sowing. (Being a 

communication . ) 

701. John G. Guinness. An improved mode of heating by air. 

702. Joseph Tringham Powell. Improvements in mixing, baking, and drying materials in 

the making of biscuits, and other articles where plastic materials are employed. 

703. Auguste Baboneau. An improved apparatus for melting and mixing asphalte with 

bitumen and other substances. 

704. Louis Gabriel GuCrin. Improvements in fire-places. 

Dated November 11, 1852. 

705. Robert Hawkins Nieholls. Stopping railway carriages. 

706. Ernst Luedeke. Improvements in obtaining and applying motive power. 

709. George Lucas. A composition for filling engraved cast or sunk letters, devices, or 

ornaments on or in brass, zinc, or other metallic plates. 

710. James Noble. Improvements in combing wool, and other fibres. 

711. Colin Mather and William Wilkinson Piatt. Improvements in machinery for finishing 

linen, cotton, and other fabrics. 

712. Christian Sharps. Improvements in breech-loading fire-arms. 

713. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for sewing and 

stitching. (Being a communication.) 

714. Henry Huart. Improvements in storing and preservation of grain. 

715. James Cowan Wyper. Improvements in the figuring and ornamentation of book- 

bindings, and covers of a similar character. 

717. William Davis. Improvements in machinery for cutting files. 

Dated November 12, 1852. 

718. William Edward Middleton. A new or improved circular saw-bench. 

719. Sir Charles Fox. Improvements in roads. 

720. Henry Fletcher. Improvements in the application of electro-magnetism for the pro- 

duction of motive power. 

721. Caleb Bloomer. Improvements in the manufacture of anchors. 

722. George Kendall. Certain improvements in apparatus to facilitate the manufacturing 

of mould candles. 

723. Daniel Henwood. Improvements in machinery for registering the number of pas- 

sengers or persons entering public vehicles or vessels, theatres, bridges, or other 
places where it may be desirable to ascertain the number of persons entering therein. 

724. Charles Seaton. Improvements in the manufacture of metal tubes, and in the ma- 

chinery employed therein. 

725. Julian Frangois Belleville. Improvements in generating steam for producing motive 

power or heat. 

726. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in reaping-machines, and in apparatus con- 

nected therewith. 

727. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in measuring and registering the flow of fluids. 

728. George Stenson. Improvements in apparatus for separating gold from auriferous sand 

and earth. 

729. Thomas Day. Improvements in landing and screening coals, and delivering them 

into sacks. 

Dated November 13,1852. 

730. George Philcox. Improvements in marine chronometers and other time-keepers. 

731. Edward Davy. Improvements in the preparation of flax and hemp. 

733. John Caborn. Improvements in corn thrashing and dressing machines. 

734. Professor Andrew Crestadoro. Improvements in rapid communications between dis- 

tant places and countries. 

735. Robert Lucas. Improved machinery to be used in the preparation of cotton and other 

fibrous materials for spinning. 

736. Somerville Dear. Certain improvements in the arrangement and apparatus of looms 

for weaving centre or other large pattsrns or designs in linen, cotton, silk, wool, or 
other fibrous materials. 

737. John Paterson. Improvements in apparatus for shaping collars, and oth r similar 

linen and cotton articles. 

738. Richard Coad and John Peers Coad. Improvements in flre-places and means of ap- 

plying heat. 

739. Amory Hawkesworth. Improvements in life-boats. 

7 iu. Admiral the Earl of Dundonald. Improvements in apparatus for laying telegraphic or 

galvanic wires in the earth. 
711. Samuel Sedgwick. Improvements in lamps. 

742. Hugh Greaves. Improvements in the permanent way of railways. 

743. Peter Forbes. Improvements in sowing or depositing seeds in the earth. 

Dated November 15, 1852. 

744. Gray Denison Edmeston and Thomas Edmeston. Certain improvements in steam 

engines, which improvements are also applicable to the regulating of water-wheels 
or similar machinery 

745. James Hogg, junior. Certain improvements in machinery for producing glazed or 

smoothed surfaces on paper and other vegetable fabrics. 

746. Joseph Cowen and Thomas Richardson. Improvements in the manufacture of sul- 

phuric acid. 

747. RobertEeyburn. Improvements in the composition of lozenges and other confections. 

748. Constant Jouffroy DumSry. Certain improvements in the manufacture of metallic 

pipes and tubes, and in the machinery employed therein. 

749. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford. Improvements in apparatus for inhaling iodine. 



750. John Mirand. Certain improvements in the construction of electric apparatus for 

transmitting intelligence. 

75 1 . Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau. Certain improvements in lamps. 

752. George Berry. An improved method of roasting coffee. 

753. Robert Sandiford. Certain improvements in apparatus for block printing. 

754. William Fraser Rae. Improvements in gas-heating and cooking apparatus. 

755. James Robertson. Improvements in the manufacture of casks and other wooden 

vessels. 

756. Francis Montgomery Jennings. Improvements in preparing flax, hemp, China-grasn, 

and other vegetable fibrous substances. 

757. Thomas Taylor. Improvements in apparatus for measming water and other fluids, 

which apparatus is also applicable to the purpose of obtaining motive power. 

758. William Edward Newton. Improvements in knitting-machinery. 

759. Abraham Rogers. Improvements in apparatus used for forming sewers, tunnels, and 

ways. 

760. John Dent Goodman. Improvements in the boxes and axles for carriages. 

761. Samuel Holt. Improvements in weaving cut piled fabrics. 

762. Joseph Burley. Improvements in apparatus for cutting fustians and other fabrics, to 

obtain a cut pile surface. 

Dated November 16, 1852. 

763. Joseph Slatterie Edwards. A self-acting pea kiln or apparatus for moving grain, 

pulse, seeds, malt, or any similar substances while drying, which insures a more 
rapid desiccation, and requires scarcely any of the manual labour now employed in 
kilns, to be propelled by steam, water, or horse power. 

764. Thomas Chrippes, the younger. Improvements in the means of tilling land. 

765. Joseph Johnson. An improved mode of producing ornamental articles, such as 

brooches, bracelets, dressing and other cases, work or other boxes, or other like ar- 
ticles, from a certain kind of wood. 

766. William Marsden. Certain improvements in and applicable to looms for weaving. 

767. John Ramsbottom. Certain improvements in steam engines. 

768. John Wheely Lea and William Hunt. Improvements in utilising the waste heat of 

coke furnaces. 

769. Francois Vallee. Improvements in preparing, spinning, and doubling flax, cotton , 

wool, silk, and other fibrous materials." 

770. John O'Keefe. A method of making watch cases by machinery. 

Dated November 17, 1852. 

771. John Thomas Way and John Manwaring Paine. Improvements in the manufacture of 

burned and fired ware. 

772. Isaac Lowthian Bell. Improvements in the treatment of certain compounds of iron 

and sulphur. 

773. Henry Russell. Improvements in piano-fortes. 

774. John Hinchcliff and Ralph Salt. Improvements in steam engines. 

775. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau. Certain improvements in weaving 

elastic tissues. 

776. Francis Bresson. A new and improved mode of propelling on land and water. 

777. William Watt. Improvements in preparing for weaving and in weaving flax, and other 

textile materials. 

778. Henry Vernon Physick. Improvements in electric telegraphic apparatus, and in ma- 

chinery or apparatus for constructing the same. 

Dated November 19, 1852. 

779. James Rock, the younger. Improvements in buffers. 

780. James Potter. Improvements in machinery for spinning cotton and other fibrous 

substances. 

781. James Hume. Improvements in water-elosets. 

782. John Venables Vernon and John Edge. Improvements in apparatus and machinery 

for engraving rollers of glass, copper, brass, and other metallic compounds. 

783. George Hamilton. Improvements in spreading or distributing starch, gum, and other 

semi-fluid matters. 

785. Peter Carmichael. Improvements in machinery for winding yarn or thread. 

786. John Burgess. An improvement in dyeing wool. 

787. Moses Poole. Improvements in the manufacture of seamless garments and other 

seamless fabrics. (A communication.) 

788. William Williams. Improvements in electric telegraphs. 

789. George Perry Tewksbury. An improved life-preserving seat. 

790. Benjamin Nickels. Improvements in the manufacture of adhesive plaster. 

791. Richard Kemsley Day. Improvements in the manufacture of fuel for lighting fires. 

792. Charles de Bergue. Improvements in the permanent way of railways. 

793. John Robert Johnson. Improvements in the manufacture of type or raised surfaces 

for printing. 

794. Moses Poole. Improvements in cementing matters in the production of ornamental 

and other forms and surfaces. (A communication.) 

795. Henry Bessemer. Improvements in apparatus for concentrating cane Juices and 

other saccharine solutions, and in the treatment of such fluids. 

796. Henry Bessemer. Improvements in the crystalization and manufacture of sugar. 

797. Henry Bessemer. Improvements in the treatment of washed or cleansed sugar. 

798. Jean Joseph Jules Pierrard. Improvements iu preparing wool and other fibrous sub- 

stances for combing. 

799. Henry Bessemer. Improvements in apparatus for concentrating saccharine fluids. 

Dated November 20, 1852. 

800. Richard Taylor. Improvements in heating dye-cisterns and soap-cisterns, used in 

the process of calico printing. 

801. John Trestrail. Improvements in raising sunken vessels or other materials from 

under the water or in the sea, or to prevent them from sinking. 

802. John Brettell Collins. An new improved flooring cramp or lifting jack. 

803. James Nasmyth. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for packing and 

compressing cotton, wool, and other substances. 

804. Thomas Ellis, senr. An improvement or improvements in constructing a metalli* 

band or bands for raising and lowering heavy weights, and other like purposes. 

805. Joseph Edwards. Au improved envelope, ar.tl tlic means of affording additional secu- 

rity to the same. 

806. William Dray. Improvements in machinery for crushing, bruising, and pulverizing. 

807. Charles Goty. Improvements in pumps for raising and forcing liquids. 

808. George Wilson. An improved manufacture of glass bottles and jars. 

809. William Green. Improvements in the manufacture of textile fabrics, and in machinery 

or apparatus for effecting the same, parts of which improvements are also applicable 
to printing and embossing generally. 

Dated November 22, 1852. 

810. Edwin Bates. The revolver, a perfect self-righting whale-fishing, pilot, or other boat, 

to be called " Bates' Life-Boat." (No. 1 of a series of naval architecture ) 

811. Benjamin Walker and William Bestwick. Improvements in the manufacture of braid 

and the machinery or apparatus employed therein. 

812. William Crosskill. Improvements in clod-crushers, or rollers for rolling, crushing 

or pressing land. 

813. John Weems. Improvements in obtaining motive power. 

814. Robert Heggie. Improvements in railway brakes. 

815. John Wheely Lea and William Hunt. Improvements in the manufacture of iron. 



24 



List of Patents. 



[January, 1853. 



816. William Edward Newton. Improvements in the manufacture of paper. (A communi- 

cation.) 

817. John Pepper, junior. A new or improved machine for knitting ribbed work. 

818. William Hedges. Improvements in carriages. 

819. James Eoose. Improvements in the manufacture of welded iron tubes. 

820. Samuel Hunter. Improvements in anchors. 

821. Joseph Blain. A new system of corking. 

Dated November 23, 1852. 

822. George Eade. A surface and subaqueous floating breakwater. 

824. John Winter. Improvements in the mode of combining bars of iron so as to form 

larger masses or pieces of iron applicable in the manufacture of axles, shafts, columns 
beams, cannon, and other articles. 

825. John Winter. Improvements in the manufacture of wheels. 

826. Francis Bywater Frith. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for dressing, 

machining, and finishing velvets, velveteens, cords, beaverteens, and other similar 
fabrics composed of cotton, silk, wool, and other fibrous materials. 

827. John Kilner. Certain improvements in the means of insulating the wires of electric 

telegraphs. 

828. Michael Leopold Parnell. An improvement in the construction of box staples and 

striking plates. 

829. John Edward Grisdale. Improvements in steering ships or vessels. 

830. James Armitage and Charles Thaxter. Improvements in dies for moulding plastic 

materials. 

831 . William Edward Newton. Improvements in the construction of and method of apply- 

ing brakes to railroad carriages, engines, and tenders, for the purpose of preventing 
collisions. (A communication.) 

832. John Beale. An improved arrangement of steam engine, and an improved packing to 

be used therein. 

833. John Frearson. Improvements in the manufacture of hooks for garments. 

834. Charles Watt. Improvements in obtaining currents of electricity. 

835. John Barker. Improvements in separating gold from quartz or matters containing 

that metal. 

Dated November 24, 1852. 

836. William Oldham. An improved dibble drill. 

837. Augustus Turk Forder. Improvements in fenders for railway carriages. 

838. James Carter. Improvements in the manufacture of certain articles of dress or 

apparel. 

839. James Higgin. Improvements in the manufacture of certain mordants used in pre- 

paring woven or textile fabrics for printing, staining, or dyeing them, and in the 
mode or method of using the same or other mordants for the said purposes. 

840. John Gedge. An improved self-regulating artificial incubator. (A communication.) 

841. Peter Armand Le Comtede Fontaine Moreau. Improvements in machinery for manu- 

facturing fishing and other nets. (A communication.) 

842. Augustus Brackenbury. Making an electrifying machine of materials not hitherto 

used for such a purpose. 

843. Henry Richards Caselli. Improvements in the construction of anchors. 

844. Richard Greenwood. Certain improvements in warming the upper rooms of houses. 

845. John Richard Cochrane. Improvements in the manufacture or production of orna- 

mental or figured fabrics. 

846. Joseph Henri Combres. Preventing the ill effects of dampness in walls and dwellings. 

(A communication.) 

847. Henry Thomson. Improvements in apparatus to be used in dyeing, bleaching, and 

other processes in which goods are operated upon in the piece. 

848. Charles Finlayson. Improvements in apparatus for heating, drying, and ventilating. 

849. Achille Jean Louis Hypolite Tourteau Comte de Septeuil. Improvements in the con- 

struction of electro-magnetic engines and in batteries. 

850. William Henry Winchester. Improvements in splints. 

851. William Wilkinson. Improvements in the manufacture of looped and textile fabrics, 

and in machinery for producing the same. 

852. Alphonse Joly. Certain improvements in steam engines. 

853. Stephen Spalding. An apparatus or machine for the manufacture of pantiles used 

in building purposes. 

854. Edward Aitchison and John Evans. Improvements in furnaces. 

855. Robert Mortimer Glover. Improvements in coating the bottoms and other parts of 

ships and vessels, in order to prevent animal and vegetable growth in contact there- 
with. 

Dated November 25, 1852. 

856. Richard Dudgeon. An invention for raising heavy weights, by means of a portable 

hydraulic press. 

858. John Tatham and David Cheetham. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 

preparing, spinning, and doubling cotton and other fibrous substances. 

859. Thomas Bennett. Improvements in heating air for blast furnaces. 

860. William Hall. Improvements in rotary steam engines, governors, and apparatus for 

supplying boilers with water, and for regulating the same. 

861. James Murdoch. An improved machine for shaping staves for casks, vats, and other 

similar vessels. (A communication.) 

862. Andrew Jeffrey. Improvements in reaping machines. 

863. Henry Holland. Improvements in the manufacture of umbrellas and parasols. 

864. Maximilian Frangois Joseph Delfosse. Improvements in preserving wood, stuffs, and 

other fabrics, and in rendering them uninflammable. (A communication.) 

865. Charles Harford. Improvements in rotatory engines. 

866. James Robertson. Improvements in furnaces or fireplaces. 

867. Charles Isles. Improvements in the manufacture of chimney pieces. 

Dated November 26, 1852. 

868. Amedee Frangois Remond. A new or improved lock. (A communication.) 

869. Adam Ogden and John Ogden. Improvements in machinery for spinning cotton or 

wool. 

870. James Ward Hoby and John Kinniburgh. Improvements in the manufacture of metal 

castings. 

871. James Taylor. Certain improvements in, and applicable to, floating graving-docks 

for repairing and building ships. 

872. Auguste Edward Laradoux Belford. Improvements in the manufacture of bricks. 

(A communication.) 

873. Charles Claud Glover. A system of stoppering instantaneously bottles and other 

vessels used for containing aerated liquids. 

874. Paul Sormani. An improved travelling case. 

875. Armand Jean Constantin Hudault. An improved leaven. 

877. Thomas Ainsley Cook. Improvements in bleaching. 

878. Thomas Charles Medwin. Improvements in water gauges, or instruments for indicat- 

ing the height of water in boilers. 

879. Jean Ambroise Oudart. Improvements in presses for obtaining copies of letters, and 

other like purposes. 

880. Alexander Turiff . Improvements in moulding or shaping metals. 

881. Henry Bollmann Condy. Improvements in the manufacture of acetic acid and 

acetates. 

882. Antonio Fedele Cossus. Improvements in lubricating apparatus. 



887 



899. 
900, 

901. 
902. 

903, 
904, 

905. 
906. 

907. 
908. 

909. 



William Massingham. Improvements in carriages and apparatus for carrying the 
dead. 

Robert Barnard Feather. Improvements in the construction of ships, and in rendering 
ships and boats impervious to shot. 

George Augustus Huddart. Certain improvements in tools for cutting or abrading 
metallic and other surfaces. 

Edwin Lewis Brundage. Improvements in apparatus for drawing off fluids from 
animal bodies. (A communication.) 

Thomas Wood. Improvements in the mode of obtaining motive power. 

George Augustus Huddart. Improvements in facilitating combustion in steam-boiler 
furnaces. 

George Augustus Huddart. An improved manufacture of artificial flies. 

Mathurin Jean Prudent Moriceau. Improvements in sharpening and dressing the 
cards of carding machines, and the clippers and cylinders of shearing machines. 
Dated November 27 ', 1852. 

John Lotsky. Improved playthings, hereby denominated Pestallozzian Gymnastic 
Playthings. 

William Joseph Curtis. Certain improvements in the formation of tramroads or rail- 
roads, and carriages that run thereon. 

Emile Martin. Certain improvements in the mode of extracting gluten from wheat, 
and for preparing and drying the same by mixing to several degrees of concentration. 

John Gilmore. An improved mode or means of extinguishing fires in ships or other 
vessels. 

George Houghton. Improvements in the manufacture of college caps. 

William Edward Schottlander. Improvements in machinery for boring the ground, 
stone, or rocks, for the formation of drains and sewers for the laying of pipes under- 
ground, and for removing obstructions therein, also in the manufacture of pipes to be 
used in connection with such machinery, and in instruments for surveying and 
levelling preparatory to the boring operations. (A communication.) 
Dated November 29, 1852. 

Frederick Westbrook. Improvements in clasps for books. 

Samuel Cunliffe Lister and James Warburton. Improvements in the manufacture of 
yarn from fibrous materials. 

ThomasDudgeon. Improvements in hydrostatic propulsion. 

William Fowler and William McCollin. A machine constructed and adapted for a 
clod-crusher and land cultivator. 

William Pink. An improved construction of stirrup-bar for saddles. 

EugSne Nicholle. Improvements in apparatus for damping, cutting, and attaching 
stamps and labels. 

Matthew Samuel Kendrick. Improvements in grates and fire-places. 

Matthew Samuel Kendrick. Improvements in lamps and burners, and in the apparata 
to be used therewith. 

Jean David Schneiter. Improvements in maps and charts. 

Francis William Ellington. Improvements in the making of screws for collapsible 
and other vessels. 

William Brown. Improvements in electric telegraph instruments. 



PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS DEPOSITED. 

Richard Prosser. Improvements in making of metal tubes. November 1 1 . 

Richard Prosser. Improvements in rolling metals. November 11. 

Richard Barnes. Improvements in cocks or plugs for water or other fluids. Novem- 
ber 11. 

Robert John Smith. Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for steering ships 
and other vessels. November 13. 

John Gedge. Improvements in the mechanism of looms for weaving. (A communication .) 
November 26. 

Jean Hyppolite Salvan ainS. Certain improvements in the manufacture of paletots and . 
other articles of dress, the said improvements being obtained by an improved process of 
felting and fulling. November 26. 

Daniel Woodall. Improvements in canal boats. November 27. 

Jules Barse and Paul Gage. Improvements in apparatus for manufacturing soda-water 
and other aerated liquids, and likewise in the preparation of the substances employed 
therein. November 29. 

Andrew Edmund Brae. An apparatus for stopping and detaining, or releasing and 
setting free, cords, tapes, chains, ropes, or other flexible lines, or strings. November 30. 



LIST OF ENGLISH PATENTS, 
From 25th of November, to 15th of December, 1852. 



Six months allowed for enrolment, unless otherwise expressed. 

Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn, for improvements in the 
construction of springs for railway and other carriages. (Being a communication.) Novem- 
ber 25. 

Moses Poole, of London, gentleman, for improvements in the elastic ribs, sticks, strips, 
and fillets used in the manufacture of umbrellas, parasols, and various other articles in 
substitution of whalebone and steel heretofore employed. (A communication.) Nov. 27. 

Lewis Pocock, of Gloucester-road, Regent's-park, Middlesex, gentleman, for improve- 
ments in rendei ing sea and other water pure. November 27. 

Pierre Jules Lamaille, of Paris, France, manufacturer, for certain improvements in the 
preservation of Japanned leather. December 1. 

William Gorman, of Glasgow, Lanark, engineer, for improvements in obtaining motive 
power, which improvements, or pai ts thereof, are applicable for measuring and transmitting 
aeriform bodies and fluids. December 8. 

William Hodgson, of Skircoat, York, engineer, for improvements in the manufacture of 
woven, textile, and looped fabrics, and in the machinery employed therein. September 
30.-N.B. This patent being opposed at the Great Seal, was not sealed till December 15, 
but bears date the 30th of September last, the day it would have been sealed but for the 
said opposition. 



Not 


17, 




22, 


j, 


24, 


Nov. 


26, 




26, 


, 


29, 


Dec. 


9, 




10, 




10, 


„ 


13, 


„ 


14, 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY, 
From the 17th of November, to the 14th of December, 1852. 

3390, William Redgrave, Grafton-street, Fitzroy-square, " Cricket guard." 

3391, James Horsfall, Birmingham, "Annealing-pot." 

3392, Thomas Crump, Derby, " Self-acting service cistern for water-closets." 

3393, F. G. Yates, East- road, City-road, " Winder for string boxes." 

3394, T. Fallows, Manchester, " Connector of flyers to spindles." 

3395, J. Toulmin, Size-lane, City, " Despatch box." 

3396, W. Mitcheson and Sons, Garford-street, Limehouse, " Anchor." 

3397, John Worrall, Bernard-lane, Sheffield, " Tackle." 

3398, Thomas Carr, Chrowbent, Manchester, " Spinner's bobbin and nail coat." 

3399, John C, Boucher, Birmingham, " Coat." 

3400, Frederick Johnson and William Farrar, Castle-street, Holborn, " Venetian 

ventilator." 



THE ARTIZAN. 



No. CXXL— Vol. XI.— FEBRUARY 1st, 1853. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



The event to which the mechanical world has been looking forward 
with great interest — the trial of the caloric ship Ericsson — has at length 
taken place ; and although we are not yet in possession of such accurate 
data as could be wished, as to the actual power developed by the 
engines, we presume that we may take for granted the leading fact, that 
sufficient power has been obtained to drive a vessel of 40 feet beam, 
and drawing upwards of 16 feet of water, at 7 to 8 knots through the 
water (the accounts say 12 knots, with wind and tide), with a consump- 
tion of 5 cwt. of coal per hour, or one-fifth only of the fuel used for 
similar steam power. Although this speed falls far short of that which 
it was at first announced was anticipated, we, in common, probably, 
with all who have had any experience of the carrying out of new inven- 
tions, shall be quite satisfied if it is maintained through an Atlantic 
voyage. The new world will indeed have paid back to the old a 
goodly price for the invention of the steam engine, that powerful agent 
which has contributed to such a large extent in developing the natural 
resources of the United States. 

The probable effects of even the most perfect and immediate success 
of this invention on our mechanical trades will, probably, be much over- 
rated by all newspaper writers on the subject. We do not entertain 
any fears that our engineers will have to burn all their patterns and begin 
engineering afresh, although we have heard such an argument advanced 
by over zealous and not well informed advocates, as a reason why 
engineers refuse to take up some pet scheme of their own, which has 
more of ingenuity than utility to reeommend it. However this may be, 
it is in ocean steam navigation that the effects of saving 80 per cent, of 
fuel will be first felt. If, instead of the Orinoco requiring 1,200 tons of 
coals to cany her to the West Indies, 240 tons will suffice, the 960 
tons additional of cargo which can be carried will afford a large profit 
to the company, without reckoning the value of the coal, the saving 
in stokers' wages, wear and tear, &c. 

We may mention, in passing, that considerable ingenuity has been 
displayed by Mr. Ericsson in constructing the enormous pistons, 168 
inches diameter. They are, we are informed by an engineer who has 
just arrived from the United States, built up of wrought iron, surrounded 
by cast iron rings at the periphery. Two girders run across the piston, 
with a boss in the centre, in which a gudgeon is fixed. To this gudgeon 
the connecting rod is attached, the cylinders being without any covers, 
and similar to those constructed by Messrs. Seaward and Co. for the 
Wonder. We need not repeat the general description of Mr. Ericsson's 
principle, which is fully described and illustrated in The Ariizan for 
August, 1851. 

Meanwhile, steam navigation progresses rapidly on all sides. The 
Liverpool and North American Screw Company have been defeated, for 
the present, in their attempt to obtain a charter with limited liability, 
but it is said that this will not prevent their proceeding. 

4 



An Australian Direct Steam Navigation Company, to run via Panama; 
has been provisionally registered, with a good board of directors. They 
have secured the services of Mr. Alexander Gordon, as consulting engi- 
neer. They propose to run first-class vessels to Chagres, there make 
use of the railway across the isthmus, which will be completed in 
September next; and thence, by another line of steamers, calling at 
Otaheite or other convenient spot, to Sydney and Port Philip. The 
passage is estimated at fifty days only, out or home. It will be re- 
marked that this project is marked with singular boldness, since not 
only does it compete directly with the highly-paid West India Mail 
Company to Chagres, but also with the Australian and Pacific Com- 
pany from Chagres to Sydney. The latter company will have its boats 
ready very shortly, and will get the start, but the new company may 
imagine that " there is gold enough for all." The mismanagement of 
the West India Mail Company is sufficient to provoke competition on 
this side. It will hardly be believed that the Parana now goes better 
with common wheels than she did at first with feathering ones, and 
that the Orinoco and Magdalena are about to be altered in the same 
way. This reflects little credit on the engineering advisers of the com- 
pany. When the public pay, they have a right to inquire how the 
money goes ; and we believe the sad truth to be, that the new ships 
are utterly inefficient. In spite of their enormous cost, their speed is 
very low, and their consumption of fuel enormous. 

Since we penned Our remark s on street railways, which we see has 
amused one of our contemporaries, who seems to prefer a joke to an 
argument, Mr. Parsons has announced a magnificent scheme for a 
suburban railway, of which the following is an outline : — ■ 

"The proposed line is intended to commence at Brentford, where itforms ajunction with 
the loop line of the South Western, leading to Isleworth, Hounslow, Staines, and Windsor. 
From this point it proceeds in an easterly direction, skirting Turnham Green and Chiswick 
[thus taking up the North and South Western Extension], and so on to Hammersmith, 
crossing the Broadway ; thence, by North End, to the junction with the West London, which 
connects it to the London and North Western and Great Western. It then proceeds along 
the south side of the Kensington -road to Brompton, crossing through vacant ground to the 
lower part of Chelsea and Fimlico ; and then, crossing the Vauxhall-bridge-road, it passes close 
to the New Bridewell, through vacant ground, and across Victoria-street, through a low part 
of Westminster, from thence crossing the south end of Great George-street, or the north 
end, close to Storey's-gate, hy the alternative line, King-street and Parliament-street, to the 
bank of the Thames, between the Board of Control and Richmond-terrace. From this point 
the main line is continued, on a viaduct and an embankment [much after the manner of 
the London and Westminster Thames, buton a higher level], by an easy curve, passing close 
against the inside of the first pier of Hungerford Bridge, and under the first arch of Waterloo 
Bridge, enclosing all that immense flat comprised in the bend of the river between its north 
bank and the nearest pier of Hungerford Bridge. 

" It is here that it is proposed to place the grand central station, the site for it being formed 
by making a solid embankment of as much of this large area as may be necessary, together 
with one or two detached blocks of houses (if required), and that piece cf ground in Scotland- 
yard lying between the river and the garden of Northumberland-house, now used as yards, 
and containing only a few sheds and outhouses of inconsiderable value. The general ar- 
rangement of the centra! station would be somewhat as follows : — Its principal facade would 
be in Great Scotland-yard, in the rear of Northumberland-house, sufficient room being left 
for the arrival and departure of carriages bringing passengers to the trains. It would have 
a frontage of about 800 feet, with numerous entrances and exits, those at the Whitehall or 
south end being for passengers by the London and North Western, Great Western, and 
South Western, those at the Strand or north end (or passengers by the Brighton, South 
Eastern, Eastern Counties, and Great Northern, with separate entrances at each end, lead- 
ing by covered ways to the platforms on the main line for the local passengers. The main 
entrances would lead into a spacious hall about 300 feet long, and facing them wouid be a 
range of pay offices, with the names of each railway above, having doors between them, 
communicating with a general platform, with the usual appendages of waiting, refreshment, 
and luggage rooms, &c, attached, From this would branch off, nearly at right angles, eight 
separate departure platforms, each averaging 080 feet in length, also with the names of the 



26 



Industrial Progress m France. 



[February, 



particular railway above ; and outside these, and parallel to them, eight separate arrival 
platforms, averaging about 560 feet in length, and each having a midway for carriages, ex- 
tending its whole length, as well as a communication to the general departure platforms and 
booking offices, for the convenience of those who, arriving by one train, might wish to de- 
part by another without delay. The lines to the arrival and departure platforms all turn 
out of a siding from the main line, and leave it perfectly clear for the through and local 
traffic, which is accommodated by two platforms, one about 560 feet, and the other 1,600 
feet in length, forming also a pier for steam-boats. The triangular space in the centre would 
afford ample room for spare carriages, while the space outside could be appropriated to the 
attendant and pilot, engines, and to light goods and parcel traffic. The total length of de- 
parture platform obtained by this arrangement would be about 4,6o» ieer, and that ot the 
arrival about 4,470 feet, together with about 1 ,620 feet for the local traffic, making altogether 
about 10 745 feet, or upwards of two miles of platforms; and the total length of line for 
spare carriages would be about 15,000 feet, or near three miles. The total area of the 
station woukl be about 18 acres, exclusive of about 4 ,} acres of the enclosed space appro- 
priated to a floating basin for the accommodation of the wharves between the Adelphi and 
Waterloo Bridge and the traffic of the proposed railway, and which would also provide 
superior wharfage accommodation in exchange for that taken at Hungcrford. The whole, 
however could be added at anv time, if required to increase the station, by purchasing the 
wharves' and embanking it solid. The entrance to the floating basin would be a short dis- 
tance below Waterloo Bridge, where the viaduct, to be afterwards described, rises so as to 
allow a clear headway of 16 feet at high water. 

" From the central station the main line is continued along the north hank of the nver, 
under the north arch of Waterloo Bridge; it then rises to high level, and passes over the 
foot of Blaekfriars and South wark Bridges. At this point it separates into two branches, one 
of which, crossing King William-street, Fish-street-hill, Pudding and Botolph-lanes, St. Mary- 
at-hill, Great Tower-street, Mincing and Mark-lanes, unites it to the Black wall and West 
India Dock Junction, and by them to the Eastern Counties and Great Northern. The other, 
by means of a skew bridge across the river, and a viaduct passing round Alderman Hum- 
phrey's warehouse and St. Saviour's Church, and across the Borough and St. Thomas-street, 
connects it with the Brighton, the South Eastern, North Kent and Greenwich ; or by the 
alternative line crossing the foot of London Bridge, the coiner of Duke-street, and over 
Joiner and Dean-streets, &e. This portion of the line (that is, between Westminster and 
the City) would be constructed with four lines of rails, two for the short or local traffic, and 
t«o for the traffic from the existing railways." 

INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS IN FRANCE. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

Transatlantic Steam Navigation. — An important project, which 
has been long in ovo in France, seems at length to be approaching 
development. I allude to the establishment of various lines of mail 
steamers to run to the United States, the Brazils, La Plata, and the 
West Indies. France is at present destitute of ocean steamers, with 
the exception of those on the Mediterranean and the Levant, the pro- 
perty of the Messageries Nationales, which are comparatively insignifi- 
cant in size. This company, I may mention, is the great conveyance 
company of France, having most of the old internal channels of com- 
munication in its hands. Finding the railways too powerful for it on 
land, it is wisely endeavouring to extend its maritime operations, and it 
has large works at La Ciotat, near Marseilles, which were under the 
management of the late Mr. Barnes, a memoir of whom lately appeared 
in your Journal. 

The foreign trade of France has long demanded a system of steam 
communication with its foreign customers. When it is recollected that 
a large proportion of French exports consists of articles of luxury, which 
will bear high freights, it is not surprising that so large a quantity of 
goods find their way, via Havre and Liverpool, to the United States, 
by the Cunard, and Collins steamers. The Cunard Company have 
very judiciously fostered this trade, as a feeder to their main line; and, 
judging from the fact that the Cambria, 1,500 tons and 500 horse 
power, is now filling rapidly in Havre with goods, it seems probable that 
they would be justified in putting some of their new screw steamers 
on to this line. This trade, too, it will be observed, has rapidly risen 
entirely independent of the American boats Humboldt and Franklin, 
which have been found quite inadequate to the requirements of the 
traffic. It seems a contradiction that these two boats should have been 
withdrawn by the company to which they belong; but the reason is to 
be found in their desire to get an increased subvention from the United 
States government, after the example of the Collins line. If it will 
pay to carry goods from Havre to Liverpool, and thence to New York, 
it will surely pay at least as well to convey them direct. Judging from 
the existing trade, therefore, there is ample room for a direct line from 
France to the United States. 

As regards the South American trade, the prospects are equally good. 
Perhaps the best proof is the great improvement which has taken place 
in the size and build of the vessels employed. There are some clipper 
ships, of 900 tons, now in Havre, which, for lines, will compare with 



anything on your side of the channel. But there is a stronger motive 
still for the establishment of a line of first-class steam-ships, namely, 
the conveyance of the mails, which at present have to pass from all 
parts of the Continent through England to reach their various destina- 
tions. With a reduced rate of postage, the revenue from this source 
could not fail to be very considerable, whilst the commerce of the coun- 
try at large would be stimulated by its being made the channel for 
passengers. 

The operations proposed are on a scale of commensurate magnitude. 
I have already mentioned the Messageries Nationales, which appears 
to have amalgamated with a rival company, founded by M. Levavasseur, 
a large shipowner, and deputy for Itouen, who, in combination, have 
propounded the following scheme : — 

First, A line to New York, consisting of five vessels of 1000 horse 
power each, with departures twice a month, and an average sea speed 
of at least 11 knots. 

Second, A line to the Antilles and Mexico, consisting of five vessels 
of 500 horse power each, departing twice a month for Martinique, 
whence branch lines of steamers of 250 horse power each would run to 
Cayenne, Guadaloupe, St'. Domingo, Cuba, New Orleans, &c. 

Thirdly, A line to the Brazils, consisting of three vessels of 800 horse 
power each, departing once a month, and calling at Lisbon, Madeira, 
Goree (the French settlement on the coast of Africa), and Rio de 
Janeiro. From this latter place, branch steamers of 250 horse power 
would run to Monte Video, Buenos Ayres, &c. 

These plans are as yet only on paper, but they involve the employ- 
ment of from 20 to 30 vessels in all. The subvention demanded by 
! the company is 1000 francs (^40) per annum per horse power, for the 
New York line, and 1200 francs (<j£48) for the remainder, which, on 
the most moderate computation, would amount to 17 millions of francs 
(,£6S0,000) per annum. It is to be feared that this project is on too 
magnificent a scale to be carried out in its integrity. Steam vessels 
of 1000 horse power are not to be improvised in a moment, and it 
would seem a wiser and a safer course for the government, and its re- 
presentatives — the company — to concentrate their energies on one line 
to begin with. 

It is understood that the final decision of the government will not be 
much longer withheld, and the commerce of France waits that decision 
with impatience. In my next letter I will notice the discussions which 
have taken place as to the choice of a port as the point of departure 
and arrival. Cherbourg is said to be the favoured spot, but there are 
many grave reasons against turning the trade out of its existing chan- 
nels, which can hardly fail to influence the government in the difficult 
task of operation. 

DIBLE'S PATENT VENTILATING APPARATUS FOR STEAM 
AND SAILING VESSELS. 

(Illustrated by Plate iii.) 

The want of an efficient means of ventilating the cabins of steam 
and sailing vessels is so notorious, that we need not disgust the reader 
who has ever been sea-sick (and who has not in these travelling days?), 
by bringing to his recollection that nauseous effluvia from which the 
unhappy passenger has no escape, except by braving the weather on 
deck, — a source unavailing, except in fine weather and on very short 
trips. In bad weather, with battened-down hatches, it is still worse, 
and the restless traveller undergoes all the horrors of the " Black hole 
of Calcutta ; " his sufferings mocked by the gaudy papier-mache and 
crystal ornaments of his prison, luxuries which he would gladly ex- 
change for a taste of the free breath of heaven. 

With all the outlay lavished on their vessels by many of our steam 
navigation companies, it must be confessed that very little has been 
done in this direction, which we attribute, in a great measure, to the 
want of example. This excuse, we are happy to say, has at length been 



(So, 



W 



C=3 



pq 
> 

o 

i — i 

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! 1 

< 

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1853.] 



Hart's Patent Brick- Making Machine. 



27 



entirely removed, and we are now able to present our readers with a 
description of a system of ventilation which has been actually applied, 
and which, we are informed on excellent authority, is highly efficacious. 
This system has been patented by Mr. Dible, and has been applied 
to the Courier and Despatch steamers, belonging to the South Western 
Steam Packet Company. It consists in bringing down pure air from 
the deck by suitable pipes, which convey it to a space under the cabin 
floor, whence it is distributed, by means of regulators," throughout the 
cabins and berths. The heated and impure air is conveyed away from 
the highest point in the cabins to the deck. With these remarks, the 
following references will be readily understood. 

A large pipe, a, is fixed on deck, with a mouth-piece adapted for 
catching the wind, on the principle of a wind-sail, and which can be 
adjusted to any point of the wind. The branch pipes, b, b, b, which 
may be made of wood or metal, distribute the pure air to the cabins 
through openings in the floor, or round the skirting. These openings 
are provided with revolving gratings, c, c, c, by turning which the 
quantity of air admitted may be increased or diminished at pleasure. 
These gratings are also shown detached, on a large scale. The heated 
and impure air is carried off through the pipes d, d, d, the tops of which 
may be protected from spray by being carried up under the seats on 
deck, e. An increased exhaustive effect may be obtained in a steamboat 
by carrying a pipe, connecting d, d, d, to the chimney. Perhaps the most 
complete way of effecting this would be to put a casing round the chim- 
ney for nearly the whole of its height, into which these pipes could be 
led, and this casing would also tend to improve the draft in the boiler, 
by preserving the chimney from being cooled down in its rapid passage 
through the cold air. 

In the Courier and Despatch (the cabins of which accommodate 100 
to 150 passengers) one pipe forward and one aft, of 15 inches internal 
diameter, are found amply sufficient to ventilate every part of the 
vessel. The branch pipes, b, b, b, are of wood, about 4 inches by 8 
inches, hut, if more convenient, they could be as readily made round, 
and in zinc, copper, or iron. 

When full open, the current of air through the revolving gratings 
is found to be very great, even when the vessel is in harbour and sta- 
tionary, and is quite as much through those at the greatest distance 
from the main pipe, a, as in the others nearest to it. 

The inventor proposes fitting a cock, or valve, 7* (in the transverse 
section, fig. 3), to the ship's side, in communication with the branch 
pipes, I, b, b, so that, in case of fire, the cabins, floors, &c , may be 
flooded with water ; and this cock can be opened from the deck by a 
key or handle. 

Or, he says, the cabins can be supplied with warm air, by placing 
the branch pipes in communication with a stove, or other suitable appa- 
ratus for warming air. 

The whole expense of the apparatus is very trifling, as a vessel of 
300 or 400 tons could, generally speaking, be fitted for about £50 or 
,£60, and the work can, in most cases, be done by the carpenter of the 
vessel. 

The apparatus has been at work for some time in the two vessels 
before mentioned, and will be also fitted to the whole of that com- 
pany's vessels. 

Messrs. Goodridge and Babot, the commanders of the vessels to 
which this apparatus has been fitted, speak in high terms of its effi- 
ciency, and say, " The saloons and cabins of our vessels are now (even 
when crowded with passengers, and in bad weather, with hatches and 
skylights down) always fresh, and free from smells, which, formerly, 
was not the case. - We also find our cabins are drier, from the free cir- 
culation of air, than before, and in hot summer weather cooler and 
more agreeable to the passengers in every respect." Mr. W. Green, 
the manager of the company, reports it " to be decidedly successful." 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

The Smithfield Show. — We had prepared some notes, the re- 
sult of a visit to this exhibition of cattle and implements, for our last 
number, but they were postponed to make room for other marter. In- 
deed, there is but little novel to remark on, since our agricultural engi- 
neers reserve their strength for the meetings of the Royal and other 
Agricultural Societies, where prizes are given for their productions, and 
where actual trial of the implements in the field affords a better oppor- 
tunity of showing their merits. 

Winton's Steel Digging Forks.— Although the superiority of 
the fork over the spade for digging up hard and heavy land has long 
been known, it is a curious instance of our aptness to overlook the 
utilities nearest to us. They were, for a long time, made very clumsily, 
and it is only lately that their merit has been fully appreciated. With 
a spade, not only is great exertion necessary to make it enter the soil, 
but its weight and that of the soil, have to be lifted at every stroke to 
a considerable height. The sharp and slightly flexible steel fork, on 
the contrary, enters the most stony or clayey soil with facility, and is 
moved through it with equal ease, "breaking up our heavy clays and 
mixing the soil in an extraordinary manner, facilitating labour quite 20 
per cent.," says Mr. Mechi, and he is a pretty good judge. Have these 
forks reached our distressed sugar planters yet? 



Hart's Patent Brick-Making Machine. 

The application of machinery to the manufacture of bricks has long 
engaged the attention of many of our most able mechanicians, but 
although many inventions for this object have been announced, but very 
few have given such results in practice as would command their general 
adoption. The usual term " brick-making machine," is not sufficiently 
exact ; it should rather be " brick-moulding machine," for the brick is 
very far from made when it is merely moulded. The overlooking of 
this fact has been one cause, probably, of the failures which have dis- 
appointed inventors. They have been too apt to forget that all the 
profit made on the moulding may be lost in the subsequent operations, 
if all the conditions of success are not complied with. Thus, various 
machines have failed from the clay being too much compressed, which 
causes them to lose their shape in the drying — a fatal objection. Others, 
again, have required extraordinary care to be taken in the preparation 
of the clay, and have limited the brickmaker to some certain descriptions 
of clay. Nobody, perhaps, but a practical brickmaker, can properly 
appreciate all the difficulties of treating that material by machine, which 
appears so obedient to the hand. 

The abolition of the excise on bricks has given a great impulse to the 
trade, and created a demand which machinery alone ought to supply. 
Amongst other claimants for patronage is Hart's patent brick-making 
machine, which is, perhaps, tbe most perfectly automatic which has yet 
been invented. An idea of its arrangement may be easily conveyed to 
the reader, hy supposing an endless chain of moulds, which, in their 
passage under a reservoir of clay, are filled, and deliver their contents 
into the hands of an attendant. The annexed engraving, with a refer- 
ence to the details, will show how this principle is carried out. 

On the top of the machine, which is portable, and may be placed in 
any convenient spot, is a large hopper, into which the clay, after being 
due and watered, is thrown. This hopper is provided with two hori- 
zontal revolving shafts, the knives on which effectually cut up and work 
the clay. Under this hopper travel, side by side, two endless chains, 
composed of a series of flat plates, shown in the sketch, the spectator 
being supposed to be standing at the end where the bricks are delivered. 
Each link of the chain forms the bottom of a mould, the two nearest 
of which are just ready to be taken off by the attendant. These moulds 
are of iron, and are formed in a peculiar manner, being made to open, 
so that the brick is very readily delivered. 



28 



myth's Manure Distributor. 



[February, 




HART'S BRICK- MAKING MACHINE. 



As soon as the mould is emptied, the attendant lays it on an inclined 
plane, formed of two bars of iron, on his left hand, where it slides down 
to the other end of the machine, ready to be again hung upon the end- 
less chain by a boy attending for that purpose. To ensure the filling 
of the moulds, they pass, after receiving the clay, under a pair of rollers, 
which press the clay home into them without compressing it. Any 
superfluous clay in the moulds is scraped off by two revolving scrapers, 
as they pass along. These scrapers are kept wet and free from clay, 
by a constant stream of water from a tank shown in front of the hopper. 
The chains are also washed by a whalebone brush revolving beneath 
them in a small tank of water. The moulds are sanded, to prevent the 
clay adhering, by a perforated cylindrical box, which sprinkles them 
vith sand as soon as they are hung upon the chain. All these move- 
ments are automatic, so that the minimum of manual labour is re- 
quired. 

The advantages, claimed for this machine are thus summed up : — 
First. The clay is thoroughly amalgamated, and a brick of uniform 
density is obtained. 

Secondly. The clay can be worked with less preparation, and in a 
much drier state than it can possibly be by hand, and the brick is, con- 
seqin ntly, all the sooner ready to be burned. 

Thirdly. Each brick is formed and removed in a separate mould (not 
cut off in lengths by wires), so that a sharp arris is preserved ; and the 
moulds being hinged and made to open, the bricks are not damaged by 
handling. 

Fourthly. It is self-acting, and requires no skilled labour, and but 
few hands, six men and four boys being all that are required to attend 
upon it. 

Fifthly. It is warranted to produce 2,000 good sound bricks per hour, 
with only two-horse power to drive it, and it will give one-half more 
under favourable circumstances. 

The minimum saving resulting from the use of the machine is esti- 
mated at three shillings per thousand in the cost of moulding and pre- 



paring the clay, without taking into account the economy arising from 
the greater expedition of the machine in drying, and the saving thereby 
effected in the space required for hacks. 

We may mention that this machine received a prize medal at the 
show of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society on the 7th of August last, 
ou which occasion it made 2,700 bricks within the hour. 



Blyth's Manure Distributor. 

The invention of an instrument to distribute manure evenly over 
the ground, followed, as might be expected, in the wake of the seed 
drill; but the irregular and often cohesive character of the manures, 
offered much greater difficulties to the implement maker, than the dry 
seed had done. Various arrangements have been invented and patented, 
but the clogging, and consequently the irregular delivery, of the manure, 
has never, we believe, been entirely overcome. Numerous devices have 
been employed to ensure the cleaning of the delivering cups, such as 
revolving brushes, which, although efficient when new, are very liable 
to decay when not in use, and to be corroded by the manures. 

A machine designed to overcome these objections, has been invented 
by H. Blytb, Esq., of Sussex Farm, Burnham, Norfolk, who has put it 
into the hands of the well-known agricultural engineers, Messrs. R. 
Garrett and Son, of Leiston Works, whose productions we have often 
had occasion to commend. This machine is represented in the ac- 
companying sketch, the tail-board being partly broken off to show the 
interior. The manure is carried in a box of the ordinary construction, 
containing a barrel, to which motion is communicated from the carrying 
wheels of the machine by gearing, in the usual manner, as shown. 
This shaft is fitted with prongs, which carry up the manure, as the 
shaft revolves, and the prongs coming in contact with a series of loose 
teeth, or scrapers, they are swept clean, and the manure thrown down 
through the conductor at the back of the machine. To effect a perfect 
subdivision of the particles, the conductor is furnished with rows of 






1853.] 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanistp. 



29 



wire rods, arranged like the teeth of a harrow, which break up the 
manure as it falls. 

The conductor shown on the machine is adapted for sowjng the manure 



former of the above supposed cases, the motion of the bobbins driven 
by tbe wheel/ will be uniform with that of the wheel e, and in the 
latter that the bobbins will have no motion at all. Now, by driving 




BLYTH'S MANURE DISTRIBUTOR. 



broadcast. When it is desired to sow the manure in rows, an additional 
piece is fixed on the bottom, provided with three or more spouts, which 
deliver the manure after the fashion of a seed drill. 



COTTON AND ITS MANUFACTURING MECHANISM, 
By Robert Scott Burn, M.E., M.S. A. 

Illustrated by Plate xvi., vol. x. 
(Continued from page 5.) 

The mechanism for regulating the revolutions of the bobbins with 
reference to their increased diameter, the speed of the spindles and 
flyer being uniform, is next to be described. This is effected by the 
very beautiful mechanism known as the " differential motion." Mr. 
Houldsworth, of Manchester, being the first to apply it to the roving 
frame, a brief description of this is now offered. Let a a. (fio-. 1) he 

the main driving-shaft. 
A toothed wheel, a, re- 
volves loosely on this, as 
well as the bevel wheel, 
d, carrying the boss, c, 
and spur wheel, /. The 
bevel wheel, c, is fixed on 
the shaft a, and partakes, 
consequently, of its mo- 
tion. The bevel wheel, 
b b, has its bearing in the 
plane of the wheel a, its 
axis being at right angles 
to the main driving shaft, 
a a. On the supposition 
that the wheel a is stopped in its revolution, the shaft, a a, re- 
volving, and along with it the bevel wheel, c, will, through the wheel 
b b, communicate motion to the wheel d in a contrary direction, 
but at the same speed. Now, if the wheel a is made to revolve 
in the same direction as c, and at the same speed, it is obvious 
that no motion will be communicated to d. As the wheel d is con- 
nected with the wheel/ by the hollow boss, it will be seen that, in the 




the wheel a in the same direction as the driving shaft, A A, but at a 
slower speed, the wheel d and boss, e, with its wheel /, communi- 
cating motion to the bobbins, will have a motion imparted equal to the 
difference between the velocities of the wheel a and bevel wheel c. 
The wheel a is driven by a small pinion, h, which in its turn receives 
motion from the shaft of the conical pulley in fig. 4 (p. 4). The motion 
of the wheel / is communicated to the bobbins as follows : — As before 
described, the bobbins receive motion from a horizontal shaft, having 
its bearing on the copping rail. As this has an up-and-down motion 
given to it, in order to lay tbe cotton uniformly on the bobbin, as 
already explained, the driving mechanism for communicating motion 
to the horizontal shaft driving the bobbins is kept in gear by the 
following method : — The shaft, a (fig. 2), derives its motion by means 
of a wheel driven by the wheel /(fig. 1); at the other extremity of 
this shaft a wheel, b (fig. 2), is fixed, gearing into another, e e, having 
its centre of motion at the place where the two arms, c c, join. These 
arms have their centre of motion on the shafts, a a and h h (the bob- 
bin-driving shaft, seen in fig. 3). As the copping rail ascends and 





Fig. 2. 



HP 

Fig. 3. 

descends, the arms, c c, move round their respective centres; thus 
keeping the wheels, b, e e, and d, continually in gear. As before de- 
scribed, the mangle-wheel motion, regulating the traverse of the cop- 
ping rail, derives its movement from the shaft of the conical pulley in 
fig. 4 (p. 4). The train of wheels to effect the motion of the traverse, 
and the differential movements of the copping rail and bobbins, are 



30 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanism. 



[February, 



; 



thus driven by the conical pulley shaft ; its motion is therefore given at 
once to the two grand movements; and the beautiful adaptation and 
adjustment of the various motions requisite one to another is thus pro- 
vided for. We have as closely as possible followed the order of the 
movements in their general sequence, so that a recapitulation of these 
would only result in taking up space. On the machine starting with 
the empty bobbins, the driving belt is at the small end of the cone. On 
the bobbins being filled, the attendant lifts the outer extremity of the 
cone shaft, which allows the driving belt to slide to the small end. The 
rack, a a (fig. 5, p. 4), is pulled back to its original position, as well as 
the frame, g g (fig. 4, p. 4), by means of a winch and bevel wheels 
turning a small drum, on which is wound the chain attached to the 
frame, g g, by means of which it is pulled up. In order that each set 
of bobbins may receive the exact determinate quantity allotted to each, 
simple self-acting mechanism is adopted, by which the driving shaft is 
thrown out of gear; the rack, on arriving at the end of its slide, 
striking on a projecting pin, which causes a lever to act on the drivin°- 
belt, passing it from the fast to the loose pulley. The mechanism we 
have described is applicable to the roving frame, in which the cotton is 

wound on bobbins of the shape 
in fig. 4, on which the cotton is 
wound uniformly from end to 
end, giving an equality of dia- 
meter throughout. Where the 
bobbins are made to assume 
the form as shown at a a in 
fig. 5, the cotton is wound on a 
cylindrical roller wooden tube 
without ends, as in fig. 4. 
They are known as " presser 
bobbins," from the cotton being 
compressed on the bobbin by 
the action of the spring, g g, 
which keeps the delivering 
finger, f, pressed against the 
roving on the surface of the 
bobbin. Fig. 6 is a plan of 
fig. 5, which is an elevation of 
the form of "presser" known as " Teed's double centrifugal press." 

Mr. Mason has patented a double centrifugal press, which in con- 
struction is very similar to Teed's, but the principle of which is, altering 
the direction of the presser," and making the bobbin lead the flyer, so 
that the end does not fly off when broken ; by this plan less waste is 
caused than by the ordinary method, in which the flyer leads the bob- 
bin, In roving frames for presser bobbins the mechanism for moving 
the copping rail is different from that we have described, as the traverse 
has obviously to be unequal, in order to lay the cotton on the bobbin 
in the conical form shown in fig. 5. 

The method by which the range of traverse, or extent of up-and-down 
motion of the copping rail, was effected by Mr. Houldsworth in his 
" fly-frame," is as follows : — The arrangements of rack, sliding pulley, 
and cone pulley are the same as already described, with some altera- 




Fig.5. 



Fig. 6. 



a: 



Fig. 7. 



tions ; thus, to the under side of the rack, a a 
(fig. 7), an arm, b, is attached, provided with a 
slot, to which the lever, d d, having its centre of 
motion at c, can be attached at any part, by 
bolt and nut. The upper extremity of d d is 
connected with the sliding pulley, which moves 
the belt up the cone pulley by means of a rod, 
/, a counterpoise weight being added in the 
opposite direction, as explained in p. 4. The 
pauls of the rack are disengaged alternately by 



means of a rod perpendicular to the under side of the rack. This rod 
is acted upon at the proper intervals as follows : — To the under side of 
the copping rail a slotted arm, a (fig. 8), is attached. A lever, b, having 






Fig. 10. 



Fig. 8. 

a curved slotted piece, is attached to the horizontal slot in a by means of 
a bolt. The lever, b, slides in the hollow piece, c, which also moves on 
the centre, d. The lever, b, is, therefore, capable of two motions, one in 
j the hollow piece, c, like the piston-rod of a steam-engine in its stuffing- 
: box, as shown by the arrows, and another (circular) in the centre, d, as 
shown by the dotted arc at e. The arm, d (fig. /), is attached to the 
curved slot of b (fig. 8) by a stud, as shown. When, therefore, the 
lever, d (fig. 8), is moved by the sliding of the rack in its slot, the lever, 
b (fig. 8), is made to slide, either in or out, in the hollow piece, c, as 
the case may be. To the same centre in which the hollow piece, d, 
oscillates (fig. 8), a catch, or tumbling-lever, a (fig. 9), weighed at its 

upper extremity, moves. This is 
provided with a curved arm, b, 
having a slot in it of the same 
radius, and provided with two pro- 
jecting pins, as shown by the black 
marks. The lower extremity of 
the lever, a (in fig. 9), is notched. 
In this the end, a, of the bell-crank 
(fig. 10) works, so that, as the 
lever, a (fig. 9), moves on its centre, it alternately moves the crank 
lever (in fig. 10) on its centre, b, from left to right, and vice versd. 
To the extremity of the arm, c, the rod, d, is attached by a 
movable joint ; this rod is thus made to disengage alternately the 
pauls or clicks in the upper and under sides of the rack. The move- 
ment of the lever, a (fig. 9), to the side, is caused by the rising 
of the copping rail and slotted arm, a (fig. 8), making the lever, 
b, press against the uppermost of the pins fixed in the curved 
slotted arm, b, of the lever in fig. 9. As soon as the pin is 
lifted up a certain height, it throws the upper end of the lever, 
with the weight attached, so that it passes the centre of gravity, 
and, consequently, tumbles over. The movement of the lever, a 
(fig. 9), to the other side, is effected by the descent of the copping 
rail acting upon the lever and pins, as above described. As the lever, d 
(fig. 7), is attached to the rack, it shares in its movement as soon as it 
is allowed to slide in its slot, by a disengagement of the required paul or 
click, by means of the rod d (fig. 10). This movement of the rod d 
(fig. 7), or / (fig. 8), causes the lever, b (fig. 8), to slide in its hollow 
piece, d, outwards towards m. The consequence of this arrangement is, 
that as the extent of the oscillation of the curved arm of b becomes less 
and less each ascent and descent of the copping rail, the pins in the 
curved slotted arm, b (fig. 9), are more frequently struck, and the tum- 
bling lever, a a (fig. 9), more frequently moved from side to side. When 
we note that this lever, a a (fig. 9), causes the movement of the traverse 
of the copping rail to be more frequently changed, that is, the ascent 
of one turn to follow the descent quicker than the previous, it will be 
at once obvious bow these movements we have just described cause the 
copping rail and bobbins thereon to have a less and less vertical ascent 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



31 



and descent the longer the machine is in operation, and how this gradual 
decrease of the traverse makes the bobbin, when filled, assume a conical 
shape (as in fig. 5). It now remains for us to describe the method by 
which the traverse of the copping rail is effected, and how the lever in- 
fluences the extent of this. By means of appropriate gearing the vertical 
shaft a, and mitre wheel is driven by the cone-pulley shaft. By means 
of the rod, d (fig. 11), the wheels b and c are thrown alternately into 




Fig. 11. 

gear with the wheel on the shaft a, thus causing the shaft g to move 
alternately in different directions. At the extremity of g, a small pinion, 
e, is fixed, which works into the wheel/. On the shaft of this, the small 
pinion is attached which works into the vertical rack of the copping rail. 
It will thus be seen that, by giving a motion alternately to the right and 
left, to the rod d (fig. 11), the copping rail will make it ascend and de- 
scend, and, also, that the more frequent the change of the rod d, the 
more frequent the up-and-down movement of the copping rail, and, 
consequently, the less the extent of its traverse. When we explain how 
the rod, d (fig. 11), is actuated by the tumbling lever, a a (fig. 9), the 
various movements will be completed. To the face of b (fig. 12), a 
double catch, a a, is fastened ; to the tumbling lever, a a (fig. 9), a pro- 
jecting pin is attached; this pin working between the faces of the catch, 
a a (fig. 12), as shown by the small circle, c. As the lever, a a (fig. 9), 
moves from side to side, the pin, c, catches the sides of a a alternately, 
and thus moves the rod, d, in like manner, which rod is that which causes 
the wheels b aud c (fig. 11) to be alternately thrown into gear with a. 
All the other movements of this form of roving frame are the same as 
that already described. 

COKKESPONBENCE. 



POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SLIP OF THE SCREW. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — The case of a screw working in a solid nut is not, as Mr. Bod- 
mer seems to imagine, analogous to that of a screw working in the 
water. In the former case, the work done in turning the screw is equal 
to that done in overcoming the resistance, if friction be neglected; but 
in the latter case, the screw has, so to speak, to make a nut for itself, 
by displacing the water, and a not insignificant portion of the work of 
the engine is thus expended. The water is theoreticalry supposed to be 
absolutely at rest, and therefore moving relatively to the ship, with the 
ship's velocity ; and on the supposition that the resistance of a surface 
varies as the square of the velocity with which it strikes the water in the 
normal direction, the work expended on the screw by the resistance of 
the water will vary as the square of the velocity of the screw in advance, 
minus the velocity of the vessel. In this respect, therefore, there is a 
second great difference between the screw working in a solid nut and 
in the water, viz., that in the first case the resistance that can be over- 
come is independent of the velocity of the screw, and is limited only by 
the strength of the materials of which it is composed; in the latter, 
there is a necessary connection between this resistance, the speed of the 
screw, and the speed of the vessel. 

The investigation founded on these principles leads to the following 



result :— If v be the velocity of the screw in the direction of the ship's 

motion, u the ship's velocity, h its effective midship section, and a the 

• v-u i/h v—u i/ h 
enective resisting area of the screw, = and = ■ - 

at v ~ w , ,. « 1/a e i/ai/+h 

Now = the slip of the screw. 

v 

Hence, while the common supposition that there is no absolute motion 
of the water holds good x there must be positive slip. 

Mr. Bodmer's second supposition that, while the resistance to the 
vessel's progress is, diminished, the same circumstances, as to power 
and speed of engine, can exist is manifestly erroneous. If the same 
power of the engine be exerted, since the speed of the vessel is in- 
creased, the speed of the engine must be increased also, in accordance 
with the formula which I have expressed above. If the engine make only 
the same number of revolutions, the horse power must be diminished. 
Every practical man knows that when, by lengthening a ship, its effective 
resistance has been diminished, and with the same engine, with the same 
pressure of steam, the ship's velocity has been increased, this has always 
been accompanied by an increase in the number of revolutions of the 
screw. 

The formula shows that, by diminishing h, the effective resisting area 
of the vessel, the slip is diminished, but it can never become zero while 
h is finite. 

In all those cases where negative slip has been observed, it is manifest 
that one of two inferences must be just, — either the resistance to the 
screw blade does not vary as the square of the relative normal velocity 
of the screw and the ship, which it were unphilosophical to admit, since 
it so admirably accords with the general results of experience, — or the 
water in which, the screw works is not absolutely at rest, but has a motion 
in the same direction as the vessel, so as to diminish u, the velocity of 
the stream of water on which the screw impinges. This is the supposi- 
tion to which I incline. I do not know any well-authenticated case of 
negative slip where the screw has been the sole impelling power. There 
have been several cases well authenticated {e.g., H.M.S. Encounter, at 
Lisbon), when force of the wind has been combined with that of the 
screw. The effect of such combination may be to produce a motion of 
the water in the wake of the vessel (in which the screw acts), such as 
I have supposed ; but in our present state of ignorance of the physical 
laws which fluids under such circumstances obey, it were rash to hazard 
any opinion other than conjectural. 

Mr. Isherwood's opinion, with respect to negative slip, in a vessel 
impelled by the screw alone, is one, the correctness of which I, for one, 
see no reason to impugn, until the existence of negative slip under such 
circumstances has been established on evidence that cannot be disputed. 

Your obedient servant, 

Portsmouth, January Y]th, 1853. W. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — If I am not mistaken, Mr. Bodmer has propounded an egre- 
gious fallacy in the shape of an explanation of the " slip" of the pro- 
peller-screw. 

In the first place, his " explanation" requires further elucidation ; 
he either includes actual slip in what he terms resistance to the ship, 
or would infer that it does not exist at all. 

In the case of " negative slip" he assumes that the propeller revolves 
at a certain rate, and that a certain power is developed by the engines, 
which power is more than equivalent to the ship's resistance when 
going only at the rate of the pitch per revolution of the screw. 

Now, Mr. Bourne, in his treatise, very clearly explains that the screw 
will always attain such velocity as that the resistance met by its blades 
will just balance the pressure on the pistons ; and it is quite evident, in 
the case assumed by Mr. Bodmer — other things unconsidered — that 



32 



Correspondence. 



[February, 



though the ship would go faster than the assumed rate, yet the screw 
would revolve faster too ; the speed of the vessel and screw would in- 
crease until the resistance just balanced the pressure on the pistons. It 
is not to be argued from this that negative slip does not exist, it merely 
shows that Mr. Bodiaer's explanation is a fallacy. 

It would have been quite another thing if he had assumed that the 
screw, in turning, met with a greater resistance in the axial line than 
the ship ; for, in such case, the phenomena of negative slip must ensue ; 
but that brings us back to the old explanation of the following current 
— for a following current might occasion just such a surplus resistance 
to the screw-blades. 

In the ease of positive slip assumed by Mr. Bodmer, if there were no 
actual slips the velocity of the screw would be " pulled up" just in 
proportion to the surplus head resistance. 

I agree with Mr. Bodmer on one point, that is, if I correctly infer 
that he thinks the general explanation of the " after current" unsatis- 
factory. 

For negative slip to occur, the screw must cause an axial reaction, or 
meet a resistance -greater than the ship's resistance. If the ship is 
assisted by wind, an after current may arise, and occasion such surplus 
of resistance ; but with a vessel under steam alone, such after current, 
if it existed, would be as much an element of resistance to the ship as 
to the screw blades, and there would, therefore, not be the difference of 
resistance necessary to originate negative slip. 

I think, however, a difference of resistance may be caused without 
any " after current." A screw may be so proportioned as at a given 
velocity to produce a greater thrust than is necessary to overcome the 
resistance the ship meets with at a speed equal to what it would be if 
the screw worked in a solid nut, and a negative slip would be the 
result. 

If the propeller-screw worked without slip, it should transfer aft, for 
every revolution, a cylinder of water of the diameter of the screw, and 
of the length of the pitch ; the progress of the vessel will always bear 
a certain proportion to the volume of water transferred aft, and the 
slip will always bear a certain proportion to the entire cylinder, and to 
the obliquity of the blades. These ratios will vary with the mode of 
applying the power, with the shape of the vessel, and with the speed ; 
but if " slip" were calculated with reference to such considerations, we 
should never hear of " negative" nor even of " no" slip. 

Yours, respectfully, 

Goose-Qoill. 

Glasgow, January, 1853. 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — In accordance with your invitation, I beg to offer a few remarks 
on what Mr. Bodmer thinks is an explanation of the causes of positive 
and negative slip of the screw. 

He selects a screw of 10 feet diameter and 11 feet pitch, which, with 
a force of 3,000 lbs. acting at its circumference, to turn it round, will be 
capable of moving a weight of 8,568 lbs. in the direction of its axis ; so 
far so good, but not 1 1 feet only, but so long as the power is applied. 
The term, therefore, 11 X 8,568 lbs. = 94 - 248 does not express any 
power, capability or condition of the screw ; nor does the changing of 
the same screw into a vessel of finer lines or lesser resistance constitute 
an analogy from which to deduce its negative slip in its own vessel. 

However, if you have space for a few more remarks, I will endeavour 
to illustrate an analogy between the resistance of the ship and the 
resistance of the screw, arid deduce therefrom the probable causes of 
slip. 

For example, let us take a ship, the resisting surface of which has an 
angle of incidence to the line of resistance of 15 degrees in every direc- 
tion, and let its area of resisting surface equal 800 square feet, and, 



taking a screw 9 - 555 feet diameter and 10 feet pitch, and making 120 
revolutions per minute, we have for the speed at the unit of velocity 
10 x 120 

■ ■ = 20 feet, and let the resistance at the unit of velocity 

60 

= 80 lbs., then the total resistance = 20 3 X 80 = 32,000 lbs.; and 
this power is the product of three conditions as they are actually pro- 
duced by a ship, viz., the velocity of the resisting surface, the angle of 
incidence, and the area of resisting surface ; and, for the terms of the 
analogous equation expressing the power of the screw, we have for the 
angle of incidence 15 degrees also; for (it may be observed), although 
the total thrust of the screw is in the direction of its axis, nevertheless, 
the line of resistance to the blades in their revolution is a line trans- 
verse to the axis. Let the area of the screw (blade-resisting surface) be 
100 feet, its pressure, therefore, at the unit of velocity = 10 lbs., because 
the angles of incidence are equal, and the pressure in pounds at the unit 
of velocity is l-10th of the area in feet ; and let the velocity of the sum 
of the units of its resisting surface — 56'568 feet per second, then for the 
total force exercised by the screw we have 56*568 8 X 10 = 32,000 lbs. 
Here, then, we have a force, the product of three conditions as they are 
actually developed by the screw, equal to another force, the product of 
three conditions precisely analogous and as they are actually produced 
by the ship, and the action is therefore equal to the reaction. 

Now this I think is an accurate analogy of the two resistances, and 
if a ship and screw fulfilling the above proportions, the ship would be 
propelled without any positive slip of the screw, that is, if the screw 
were submerged to such a depth that an equal column of water would 
press on a surface equal to the surface of the screw with a force equal 
to the force of the screw at its maximum velocity. 

The continuous thread aud solid nut analogy would be equally correct, 
in such a case, since the screw has no alternative but to continue in the 
track of its pitch ; but the screw is never submerged to such a depth, its 
blades are seldom a continuous thread, nor is the medium in which it 
works a solid, therefore the analogy is not a fair one, however predis- 
posed we may be to give it that license by virtue of its being a regular 
or part of a regular screw; for, let us suppose the same screw to be 
submerged to a depth of 6 feet at the centre, the greatest force which 
the screw will now be able to exercise will be 6 X 62'5 X 100 =: 
37,500 lbs. on the blades; but the blades form an angle of 75 degrees to 
the axis or line of thrust, the force, therefore, in a line with the axis will 
be as 90 : 37,500 : : 75 = 31,250 lbs., and the speed of the ship will, 



31-250 



therefore be reduced to 



80 



1/390625 = 19-/6 feet per second 



instead of 20 feet as before, or a positive slip of T2 per cent. 

Positive slips will therefore arise when the product of the three con- 
ditions, as produced by the ship, is disproportionate to the three similar 
conditions as developed by the screw, and also by an imperfectly con- 
structed screw. It is obvious that those screws which are made with a 
considerable elongation on one side of the blade will have a tendency 
to spring into a lesser pitch at high velocities (if the material is on the 
latter part of the blade), and thus create an apparent positive slip. The 
purpose sought by such a construction is, no doubt, that of creating a 
greater amount of blade-resisting surface, without at the same time 
creating an arm resistance; but I think it will be allowed that the 
material ought to be balanced on the arm (if so it can be called). 

Negative slip (I think) is an impossible effect, except from some such 
cause as that suggested by Mr. Isherwood, that an inert body should 
be moved with a velocity exceeding its moving cause is contrary to all 
mechanical laws. 

I am afraid that I have trespassed on your indulgence by too long a 
letter. This is a subject we are much beut upon at present; it is a fine 
field for investigation, and the readers of The Artizan will (I have no 
doubt) reap some benefit from the correspondence on the opinions of 
each other on the subject. 

Your obedient servant, 

Navaxis. 

London, January 17, 1852. 



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1853.] 



Lighthouses. 



33 



ON THE APPLICATION OF THE DIOPTEIC SYSTEM TO 
LIGHTHOUSES.* 

In the catoptric system the light is reflected from a surface formed in 
such a way as to cause all the rays to proceed in one and the same required 
direction. In the dioptric system the rays are made to pass through lenses, 
by which they are lent or refracted from their natural course into that 
which is desired. The same object is attained by either system, only in 
the one case the light is reflected, and in the other case it is refracted. 

One of the earliest notices of the application of lenses to lighthouses is by 
Smeaton, in his narrative of the Eddystone Lighthouse, where it is mentioned 
that a London optician proposed to grind the glass of the lantern to a radius 
of 7£ feet. But before this lenses had actually been tried in several light- 
houses in the north of England, and in particular at the South Foreland in 
1752; but their imperfect figure, and the quantity of light absorbed by the 
glass, rendered their effects so much inferior to that of the p.aroboloidal re- 
flectors, as to lead to their being abandoned for a time. Indeed, the obstacles 
in the way of forming accurate lenses of large size and in one piece may be 
fairly pronounced insurmountable ; for, in the first place, pure flint glass, 
free from stria, knots, tJireads, and tears, cannot be produced in sufficient 
abundance for a large solid lens ; secondly, it cannot be cast into a lenticular 
form without flaws and impurities which grinding and polishing will not 
remove ; thirdly, the great increase of thickness in the centre consequent on 
an increase in diameter of the lens, opposes the transmission of the luminous 
rays, and, by increasing the aberration, dissipates the rays at the focal point. 
In order to get rid of these objections, Buffon proposed that a solid lens of 
large size having been formed, the parts not necessary to the general optical 
effects should be cut away. For example, in the solid lens of the section, 
a m p b b d A (fig. 1), it was proposed to cut out all the glass left white in 
the figure, namely, the portions between mp and n o, and between n o and 
the left-hand surface of d e. A lens thus constructed would be incomparably 
superior to the solid one ; but it would be very difficult to polish the surfaces 
A m, ~b p, c n, f o, and the left-hand surface of d e; and, after all, some of 
the greatest blemishes in the glass might be left in the lens thus formed. It 
was, therefore, a capital suggestion to build up lenses of any size of separate 




zones or rings, each of which might be composed of separate segments, as 
shown in the front view of the lens (fig. 2).f Such a lens is composed of one 
central lens, a b c d, corresponding with its section, de (fig. \) ; of a middle 
ring, gels, corresponding to c d e b (fig. 1), and consisting of four seg- 
ments ; and another ring, n p m t, corresponding to a c p b, and consisting 
of eight segments. Such lenses, named by Sir David Brewster polyzonal, 
can be formed of large size, and, by making the foci of each zone coincide, 
the spherical aberration can be corrected, or nearly so. This invention was 
followed up by Fresnel, who, in conjunction with Arago and Mathieu, placed 
a powerful lamp in the focus of the lens, and applied it to the practical pur- 
pose of a lighthouse. Presnel also determined the radius and centre of the 
curvature of the generating arcs of each zone — centres which continually re- 
cede from the vertex of the lens in proportion as the zones to which they 
refer are removed from its centre; and the surfaces of the zones, consequently 
are not, as in BufFon's lens, parts of concentric spheres. It deserves notice, 
that the first lenses constructed for Presnel by M. Soleil had their zones 

* Tomlinson's Cyclopedia of Useful Arts. London : Virtue & Co. 

t This suggestion was first made by Condorcet, in his Eloge de Buffon, publishedin 1773 ; 
secondly, by Sir David Brewster, in 18 1 1 ; and, thirdly, by Fresnel, in 1822. They all appear 
to have been perfectly original and independent suggestions. 



polygonal, so that the surfaces were not annular — a form which Fresnel 
considered less accommodated to the ordinary resources of the optician. 
He also, with his habitual penetration, preferred the plano-convex to the 
double-convex form, as more easily executed. After mature consideration, 
he finally adopted crown glass, which, notwithstanding its greenish colour, 
he preferred to flint glass, as being more free from striae. All his calcula- 
tions were made in reference to an index of refraction of l'ol, which he 
verified by repeated experiments. The instruments have received the name 
of annular lenses, from the figure cf the surface of the zones. 

The Dutch first followed the French in introducing the system of Fresnel 
into their lighthouses. In 1824 the Commissioners of the Northern Light- 
houses sent their engineer, Mr. Robert Stevenson, to France, and to report 
upon the lights of that country, which he did within the same year, and also 
procured lenses from France for the purpose of instituting experiments. In 
a report dated 30th December, 1825, he recommended the adoption of lenses. 
It was not, however, until 1834 that the commissioners took decisive steps 
for deciding the comparative merits of the catoptric and dioptric systems. 
In that year Mr. Alan Stevenson was commissioned to visit France, and 
make himself perfectly acquainted with the dioptric system; and the result of 
his report was such, that on his return the commissioners authorised him to 
remove the reflecting apparatus of the revolving light at Iuchkeith, and to 
substitute dioptric instruments in its place, a change which was completed 
and the light exhibited on the evening of the 1st October, 1835. The light 
was so highly satisfactory, that a similar change was made at the fixed light 
of the Isle of May. The Trinity House next adopted the system for Eng- 
land, and employed Mr. Alan Stevenson to superintend the construction of 
a revolving dioptric light of the first order, which was afterwards erected at 
the Start Point in Devonshire. After this time the system became common. 

Eeferring to our article Light for a notice of the laws of refraction and 
the action of lenses upon luminous rays, it will be sufficient to remind the 
reader of the following properties of a plano-convex lens, such asL I (fig. 3). 
f a r is the optical axis of the lens, or the line in which a ray of light passes 
through the lens without any change of 
direction, in consequence of its being nor- 
mal to both surfaces, f is the principal 
fpcus or the point where the rays, r r r, 
which fall parallel to the optic axis on the 
outer face of the lens, meet after refraction 
at the two faces. Or, if we suppose f to be 

a point of light, the rays proceeding from it in their naturally divergent 
course fall on the inner surface l a I of the lens, and are so changed by re- 
fraction there and at the outer face, that they finally emerge parallel to the 
optic axis in the direction Lr,I r. A spherical lens collects truly into the 
focus only those rays which are incident near the axis, and hence it is of 
importance to employ as a lens only a small segment of a sphere. This cir- 
cumstance, among others, led to the suggestion of building np lenses in se- 
parate'pieces, and Presnel, as already noticed, showed how the subdivision 
was. to be made. In his large lens, employed in lights of the first order, the 
focal distance of which is 920 millimetres, or 36 - 22 inches, the central disc is 
about 11 inches in diameter, and the annular rings which surround it gra- 
dually decrease in breadth as they recede from the axis, from 2| to \\ 





Fig. i. — AHSCIAK IENS OF IDE FIBST OBDEB. 



34* 



Lighthouses. 



[February, 



inches. The breadth of any zone or ring may, however, be left to choice, 
but no part of the lens should be much thicker than the rest, otherwise there 
would be inconvenient projections on its surface, and the loss of light by 
absorption would be unequal. In the first lenses the zones were united by 
means of small dowels or joggles of copper passing from the one zone into 
the other, but the French artists have now attained such exactness in their 
work as to dispense with such fixtures, and the various parts of the com- 
pound lens, weighing upwards of 100 lbs. and presenting about 1,300 square 
inches of surface, are now bound together solely by a metallic frame (fig. 4), 
and the close union between the concentric faces of the rings, although the 
surfaces in contact with each other are only \ inch in depth. 

As to the illuminating power of the lenses, Mr. Stevenson says, " We 
shall not greatly err if we consider the quotient of the surface of the lens 
divided by the surface of the flame, as the increased power of illumination 
by the use of the lens. The illuminating effect of the great lens, as mea- 
sured at moderate distances, has generally been taken at 3.000 Argand 
flames, the value of the great flame in its focus being about 16, thus giving 
its increasing power as nearly equal to 180. The more perfect lenses have 
produced a considerably greater effect." 

In the application of lenses to lighthouses, they are arranged round a central 
lamp placed on the level of their focal plane, as shown in fig. 1 * plate iv,, 
thus forming by their union a right octagonal hollow prism circulating 
round the fixed central flame, and showing to a distant observer successive 
flashes or blazes of light whenever one of its faces crosses a line joining his 
eye and the lamp. Thus the action is somewhat similar to that of the 
mirrors; but the blaze produced by the lens is of greater intensity and shorter 
duration, the latter quality being proportional to the divergence of the re- 
sultant beam. Each lens subtends a central horizontal pyramid of light of 
about 46° of inclination, beyond which limits the lenticular action could not 
be advantageously pushed, owing to the extreme obliquity of the incidence 
of light; but Fresnel at once conceived the idea of pressing into the service 
of the mariner, by means of two very simple expedients, the light which 
would otherwise have uselessly escaped above and below the lenses. For 
intercepting the upper portion of the light, he employed eight smaller lenses 
of 500 mm. focal distance (19 - 68 inches) inclined inwards towards the lamp, 
which is also their common focus, and thus forming by their union a frustium 
of a hollow octagonal pyramid of 50° of inclination. The light falling on 
those lenses is formed into eight beams rising upwards at an angle of 50° 
inclination. Above them are arranged eight plane mirrors, so inclined (see 
fig. 1, plate iv.), as to project the beams transmitted by the small lenses into 
the horizontal direction, and thus finally to increase the effect of the light. In 
placing those upper lenses, it is generally thought advisable to give their axes 
a horizontal direction of 7" or 8° from that of the great lenses, and in the 
direction contrary to that of the revolution of the frame which carries the 
lenticular apparatus. By this arrangement, the flashes of the smaller lenses 
precede those of the larger ones, and thus tend to correct the chief practical 
defect of revolving lenticular lights, by prolonging the bright periods. . . . 
Owing to certain arrangements of the apparatus, which are necessary for the 
efficiency of the lamp, but a small portion of those rays which escape from 
below the lenses can be rendered available for the purposes of a lighthouse; 
and any attempt to subject them to lenticular action, so as to add them to 
the periodic flashes, would have led to a most inconvenient complication of 
the apparatus. Fresnel adopted the more natural and simple course of 
transmitting them to the horizon in the form of flat rings of light, or rather of 
divergent pencils, directed to various points of the horizon. This he effected 
by means of small curved mirrors, disposed on tiers one above another, like 
the leaves of a Venetian blind, an arrangement which he also adopted for 
intercepting the light which escapes above as well as below the dioptric belt 
in fixed lights. The mirrors are plates of glass silvered on the back, and set 
in flat cases of sheet brass. They are suspended on a circular frame by means 
of screws, which being attached to the backs of the brass cases, afford the 
means of adjusting them to their true inclination, so that they may reflect 
objects on the horizon of the lighthouse to an observer's ej'e placed in the 
common focus of the system. 

Fig. 1 , plate iv., represents a revolving dioptric apparatus, in which f is the 
focal point in which the flame is placed; h L, large annular lenses forming 
by their union an octagonal prism, with the lamp in its axis, and projecting- 



in horizontal beams the light which they receive from the focus, l' l' are 
the upper lenses, forming by their union a frustrum of an octagonal pyramid 
of 50° of inclination, and having their foci corresponding in the point f. 
They parallelise the rays of light which pass over the lenses, m m are the 
plane mirrors placed above the pyramidal lenses, l' if, and so inclined as to 
project the beams reflected from them in planes parallel to the horizon. 
z z are the lower zones, substituted by Mr. Stevenson for the curved mirrors, 
as will be further noticed presently. The lower part shows the movable 
framework, which carries the lenses and mirrors, and the rollers on which it 
circulates, with the clock-work for giving motion to the whole. 

Fig. 2, plate iv., represents & fixed catadioptric apparatus. In this as well 
as in the former case the lamp is, of course, in the centre, but in the first case 
the lenses form an octagonal liollow prism circulating round the flame; and in 
the second case, a polygonal hoop, consisting of a series of refractors infi- 
nitely smaller in their length, and having their axes in planes parallel to 
the horizon. Such a continuation of vertical sections, by refracting the 
rays proceeding from the focus only in the vertical direction, must distribute 
a zone of light equally brilliant in every part of the horizon. This effect 
will be easily understood by considering the middle vertical section of one of 
the great annular lenses already described, abstractedly from its relation to 
the rest of the instrument. It will readily be perceived that this section 
possesses the property of simply refracting the rays in one plane coincident 
with the line of the section, and in a direction parallel to the horizon, and 
cannot collect the rays from either side of the vertical line ; and if this sec- 
tion by its revolution about a vertical axis becomes the generating line of the 
enveloping hoop above noticed^ such a hoop will of course possess the pro- 
perty of refracting an equally diffused zone of light round the horizon. 
The difficulty, however, of forming this apparatus appeared so great, that 
Fresnel determined to substitute for it a vertical polygon composed of what 
have been improperly called cylimlric lenses, but which in reality are mix- 
tilinear prisms placed horizontally, and distributing the light which they 
receive from the focus almost equally over the horizontal sector which they 
subtend. This polygon has a sufficient number of sides to enable it to give, 
at the angle formed by the junction of two of them, a light not very much 
inferior to what is produced in the centre of one of the sides ; and the upper 
and lower courses of curved mirrors are always so placed as partly to make 
up for the deficiency of the light at the angles. The effect sought for in a 
fixed light is thus obtained in a much more perfect manner than by any 
conceivable combination of paraboloidal mirrors. . . . The disadvantage of 
the polygon lies in the excess of the radius of the circumscribing circle over 
that of the inscribed circle, which occasions an unequal distribution of light 
between its angles and the centre of each of its sides ; and this fault can only 
be fully remedied by constructing a cylindric belt, whose generating line is 
the middle mixtilinear section of an annular lens revolving about a vertical 
axis passing through its principal focus. This is, in fact, the only form 
which can possibly produce an equal diffusion of the incident light over 
every part of the horizon. Such an apparatus as is here indicated was 
constructed under the directions of Mr. Alan Stevenson for the Isle of May 
light. It was of a truly cylindric form, with its central belt in one piece, 
and the joints of each panel inclined to the horizon at such an angle as 
to render the light perfectly equal in every azimuth. See fig. 2, plate iv. 

Another improvement, which we owe to Mr. Stevenson, was the substitu- 
tion of totally reflecting prisms for the mirrors before employed in conjunc- 
tion with the lenses. Mirrors have the objection of occasioning loss of light 
by reflection, and of being composed of perishable materials as regards their 
polish. Such a catadioptric apparatus was constructed by M. Soleil, at 
Paris, and tested by M. Leonor Fresnel, at the Eoyal Observatory of that 
city, when the illuminating effect of the cupola of zones was found to be 
that of the seven upper tiers of mirrors of the first order, as 140 to 87. This 
apparatus, which was fitted up in the Skerryvore Lighthouse, and is repre- 
sented in fig. 2, plate iv., consists of a central dioptric belt of refractors, d e f, 
forming a hollow cylinder of 6 feet in diameter and 30 inches high. Below 
it are six triangular rings of glass, a' b' c', or catadioptric zones, ranged 
in a cylindrical form, and above, a crown of 13 rings of glass, a b c, the 
whole forming by their union a hollow cage composed of polished glass 10 
feet high and 6 in diameter. In the lower catadioptric zones one division is 
omitted, to allow free aecess to the lamp, f is the focus with the lamp- 



1853.] 



Lighthouses. 



35 



flame, x x x are diagonal supports for the upper catadioptric zones ; h h, a 
service-table, on which the lamp rests, and on whieh the keeper stands to trim 
the burner: this table is supported by a pillar resting on the light-room floor. 
The single central lamp required for dioptric apparatus must be so con- 
structed as to afford a large volume of flame, for which purpose the burner 
is made to consist of four concentric wicks, as shown in plan and sectional 
elevation (figs. 5 and 6). The intervals between the wicks, which admit cur- 
rents of air, diminish a little in width as they recede from the centre. 





Fig. 6. 



Fig. 5. 

c c' c" c'" are the rack handles for raising or depressing the wicks. A b is 
the horizontal duct which leads the oil to the four wicks :hl are small tin 
plates, by which the burners are soldered to each other, so placed as not to 
hinder the free passage of air : p is a clamping screw for maintaining at its 

proper level the gallery, r k, 
which carries the glass chimney, 
b (fig. 7,); above which is a 
sheet-iron cylinder, r, which 
serves to increase the height of 
the chimney; and within it is a 
small damper, d, capable of 
being turned by a handle for 
regulating the draught : b is 
the pipe which conveys oil to 
the wicks. The excessive heat 
which would be produced by 
the concentric flames is checked 
by means of a superabundant 
supply of oil thrown up from a 
cistern below by a clock-work 
movement, and made constantly to overflow the wicks, as in the mechanical 
lamp of Carcel. By this means the wicks are prevented from rapid carbon- 
isation ; and when kept well supplied with colza oil, they 
have been known to maintain for seventeen hours a full 
flame without requiring to be touched. The only risk 
in using such a lamp arises from the liability to occa- 
sional derangement of the leather valves, that force the 
oil by means of clock-work. This may lead to the ex- 
tinction of the lamp ; and in order to warn the keeper 
of so serious an accident, there is attached to the lamp 
an alarum, consisting of a small cup pierced in the 
bottom, which receives part of the overflowing oil from 
the wicks, and when full, balances a weight placed at 
the opposite end of a lever. The moment the machinery 
stops, the cup ceases to receive the supply of oil, and 
the remainder running out at the bottom, the equili- 
brium of the lever is destroyed, so that it falls and dis- 
engages a spring, which rings a bell sufficiently loud to 
waken the keeper, should he happen to be asleep. Mr. 
Stevenson, thinking it not unlikely that this alarum 
might tempt the keepers to relax in their watchful- 
ness and fall asleep, has adopted in all the lamps of 
the dioptric lights on the Scotch coast the converse 



.-o 



I 



•■& 



r 



inn 



1 



B 



Fig. 7. 



mode of causing the bell to cease ringing when the clock-work stops. 
Another precaution is to have in the light-room a square lamp, trimmed 
and adjusted to the height for the focus, which may be lighted and substituted 
for the other in case of accident. The most advantageous heights for the 
flames in dioptric lights vary from 4 - 33 to 3*15 inches. The lamp-pumps 
should raise four times the quantity of oil actually consumed in maintaining 
the flame during a given time, to prevent tlje wick from being carbonised 
too quickly. 

The expense 0i the various parts of the dioptric apparatus is as follows: — 
great lens of first order, £58 (8 of which are required) ; pyramidal lens and 
mirror, £14 12s. (8 of which are required); catadioptric cupola for 360° of 
horizon, £480 ; catadioptric rings below lenses, £360 ; panel of dioptric belt 
for fixed lights of first order, £56 (of which 8 are required for the whole 
circle); apparatus of fourth order for a fixed light for the whole horizon, 
£128 ; apparatus of sixth order for a fixed light for whole horizon, £44. The 
expense of the mechanical lamp of the first order, with four wicks (with 
framed tripod and adjusting screws, as made for the Scotch lighthouses), 
is £30. 

The dioptric lights used in France are divided into six orders, which refer 
to their power and range, and not to their characteristic appearances. Lights 
of the first order have an interior radius of focal distance of 36'22 inches 
(92 cm.), and are lighted by a lamp of four concentric wicks, consuming 
570 gallons of oil per annum. Lights of the second order have an interior 
radius of 27 - 55 inches (70 cm.), and are lighted by a lamp of 3 concentric 
wicks, consuming 384 gallons of oil per annum. Tliird .order : focal dis- 
tance 19 -08 inches: the lamp has two concentric wicks, and the annual con- 
sumption of oil is 183 gallons. Fourth order or Jiarbour lights : internal 
radius 9 - 84 inches : lamp with two wicks; consumes about 130 gallons of oil 
per annum. Fifth order : focal distance 7"28 inches. Sixth order : internal 
radius 5 - 49 inches. The lamp has an Argand burner, and consumes 48 
gallons of oil per annum. Each order admits of certain combinations, which 
produce various appearances, and form the distinctions used for dioptric 
lights. The first order contains — 1, Lights producing once every minute a 
great flash, preceded by a smaller one, by the revolution of 8 great lenses 
and 8 smaller ones, combined with 8 mirrors. 2, Lights flashing once in 
every half-minute, and composed of 16 half lenses. The subsidiary parts of 
such lights may be simply catoptric or diacatoptric* 3, Fixed lights, com- 
posed of a combination of cylindric pieces with curved mirrors or catadi- 
optric zones ranged in tiers above and below them. The second order com- 
prises revolving lights with 16 or 12 lenses, which make flashes every half- 
minute ; and fixed lights varied by flashes once in every 4 minutes, an effect 
which is produced by the revolution of cylindric refractors with vertical axes 
ranged round the outside of the fixed light apparatus. The third order 
contains common fixed lights, and fixed lights varied by flashes once in every 
4 minutes. The fourth order contains simple fixed lights, and fixed lights 
varied by flashes once in 3 minutes. The fifth order has fixed lights varied 
by flashes once in every 3 minutes, and fixed lights of the common period. f 
The sixth order contains only fixed lights. In consequence of the great loss 
of light resulting from the application of coloured media, distinctions based 
upon colour have generally been discarded in the French lights. 

Having thus stated the chief characteristic features of the two systems of 
lights, we append a few general conclusions as to their comparative merits, 
referring to Mr. Stevenson's work for the facts and reasonings upon which 
they are based. It appears, 1st, That by placing 8 reflectors upon each face 
of a revolving frame a light may be obtained as brilliant as that derived 
from the great annular lens; and that in the case of a frame of 3 sides, the 
excess of expense by the reflecting mode would be £G3 18s., and in the case of 
a frame of 4 sides, the excess would amount to £225. 2nd, That, for burning 
oil economically in revolving lights which illumine every point of the horizon 
successively, the lens is more advantageous than the reflector, in the ratio of 
3 - 6 to 1. 3rd, That the divergence of the rays from the lens being less than 
from the reflector, it becomes difficult to produce by lenses the appearance 
which characterises the catoptric revolving lights, already so well known to 

* Mr. Stevenson refers the term diacatoptric to the arrangement of pyramidal lenses and 
plane mirrors, bv which the light is first refracted aud then reflected. 

t The term "fixed lights varied by flashes," has been changed for "fixed lights with 
short eclipses," because it lias been found that, at certain distances, a momentary celiac 
precedes the flash. 



36 



Irregular Motions of Locomotives. 



[February," 



British mariners; hence any change of existing lights would involve some 
practical objections, which, however, would not apply in the case of new 
lights. 4th, That the uncertainty in the management of the lamp renders it 
more difficult to maintain the revolving dioptric lights without risk of ex- 
tinction. 5th, That the extinction of one lamp in a revolving catoptric light 
is not only less probable, but leads to much less serious consequences than 
the extinction of the single lamp in a dioptric light; because, in the first case, 
the evil is limited to diminishing the power of one face by an eighth part ; 
while, in the second, the whole horizon is totally deprived of light. 

A comparison of the fixed dioptric and the fixed catoptric has led to the 
following summary of results: — 1st, It is impossible, by any practicable com- 
bination of paraboloidal reflectors, to distribute round the horizon a zone of 
light of exactly equal intensity ; but this may be easily effected by dioptric 
means. In other words, the qualities required in fixed lights cannot be so 
fully obtained by reflectors as by refractors. 2nd, The average light pro- 
duced in every azimuth by burning one gallon of oil in Argand lamps, with 
reflectors, is only about one -fourth of that produced by burning the same 
quantity in the dioptric apparatus, and the annual expenditure is £140 3s. 8d. 
less for the entire dioptric than for the catoptric light. 3rd, The character- 
istic appearance of the fixed reflecting light in any one azimuth would not 
be changed by the adoption of the dioptric method, although its increased 
mean power would render it visible at a greater distance in every direction. 
4th, From the equal distribution of the rays, the dioptric light would be ob- 
served at equal distances in every point of the horizon ; an effect which can- 
not be fully attained by any practicable combination of paraboloidal reflectors. 
5th, The fixed apparatus being more simple than the revolving, an accident 
to the mechanical lamp is sooner rectified. 6th, The extinction of a lamp in 
a catoptric apparatus leaves only 5 ' B th part of the horizon without light; but 
the extinction of the single lamp of the dioptric arrangement deprives the 
whole horizon of light. 7th, In certain situations a risk arises from irregu- 
larity in the distances at which the same fixed catoptric light can be seen in 
the different azimuths, a defect which does not exist in the dioptric light. 

It appears, therefore, that the dioptric system is in most cases to be pre- 
ferred to the catoptric. It has been already stated that, in the catoptric ar- 
rangement, the size of the flame, and its distance from the surface of the 
reflector, are of great importance, and that the divergence of the resultant 
beam materially affects its fitness for the purpose of a lighthouse. So, also, 
with the lens; unless the diameter of the flame of the lamp has to the focal 
distance a relation such as may cause an appreciable horizontal divergence of 
the rays refracted through it, it could not be usefully applied to a lighthouse : 
for, without this, the light would be in sight during so short a time that the 
seaman would have much difficulty in observing it. Nor must the con- 
sideration of vertical divergence be altogether overlooked. Although such 
divergence above the horizon involves a total loss of the light which escapes 
uselessly upwards into space, " yet if the sheet of light which reaches the most 
distant horizon of the lighthouse, however brilliant, were as thin as the absence 
of all vertical divergence, would imply, it would be practically useless; and 
some measure of dispersion in the arc below the horizon is therefore absolutely 
indispensable to constitute a really useful light. In the reflector, the greatest 
vertical divergence below the horizontal plane of the focus is 16° 8', and that 
of the lens is about 4° 30'. The powerful beam of light transmitted by the 
lens peculiarly fits it for- the great sea lights, which are intended to warn the 
mariner of his approach to a distant coast which he first makes on an over- 
sea voyage; and the deficiency of its divergence, whether horizontal or ver- 
tical, is not practically felt as an inconvenience in lights of that character, 
which seldom require to serve the double purpose of being visible at a great 
distance, and at the same time of acting as guides for danger near the shore. 
For such purposes the lens applies the light much more advantageously, as 
well as more economically, than the reflector; because, while the duration of 
its least divergent beam is nearly equal to that of the reflector, it is eight 
times more powerful. A revolving system of 8 lenses illuminates a horizontal 
arc of 32° with this bright beam. The reflector, on the other hand, spreads 
the light over a larger arc of the horizon; and while its least divergent beam 
is much less powerful than that of the lens, the light which is shed over its 
extreme arc is so feeble as to be practically of no use in lights of extensive 
range, even during clear weather. When a lighthouse is placed on a very 
high headland, however, the deficiency of divergence in the vertical direction 



is often found to be productive of some practical inconvenience; but this 
defect may be partially remedied by giving to the lenses a slight inclination 
outwards from the vertical plane of the focus, so as to cause the most bril- 
liant portion of the emergent beam to reach the visible horizon, which is due 
to the height of the lantern. It may be observed, also, that a lantern at the 
height of 150 feet, which (taking into account the common height of the ob- 
server's eye at sea) commands a range of upwards of 20 English miles, is 
sufficient for all the ordinary purposes of the navigator, and that the inter- 
mediate space is practically easily illuminated even to within a mile of the 
lighthouse by means of a slight inclination of the subsidiary mirrors, even 
where the light from the principal part of the apparatus passes over the sea- 
man's head. For the purpose of leading lights, in narrow channels, on the 
other hand, and for the illumination of certain narrow seas, there can be no 
doubt that reflectors are much more suitable and convenient. In such cases, 
the amount of vertical divergence below the horizon forms an important 
element in the question, because it is absolutely necessary that the mariner 
should keep sight of the lights, even when he is very near them; while there 
is not the same call for a very powerful beam, which exists in the case of sea 
lights. Yet, even in narrow seas, where low towers, corresponding to the 
extent of the range of the light, are adopted, but where it is at the same time 
necessary to illuminate the whole or the greater part of the horizon, the use 
of dioptric instruments will be found almost unavoidable, especially in fixed 
lights, as well from their equalising the distribution of the light in every 
azimuth, as from their much greater economy in situations where a large 
annual expenditure would often be disproportionate to the revenue at dis- 
posal. In such places, where certain peculiarities of the situation require 
the combination of a light equally diffused over the greater portion of the 
horizon, along with a greater vertical divergence in certain azimuths than 
dioptric instruments afford, I have found it convenient and economical to 
add to the fixed refracting apparatus a single paraboloidal reflector, in order 
to produce the desired effect instead of adapting the whole to the more ex- 
pensive plan for the sake of meeting the wants of a single narrow sector of 
its range. In other cases, where the whole horizon is to be illuminated, and 
great vertical divergence is at the same time desirable, a slight elevation of 
the burner, at the expense, no doubt, of a small loss of light, is sometimes 
resorted to, and is found to produce, with good effect, the requisite depression 
of the emergent rays." 

ON VARIOUS IRREGULAR MOTIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE 
ENGINES. 

By D. K. Clark, C.E. 
In these days of railway casualties, too frequently, we fear, improperly 
called accidents, no apology is necessary for introducing the following 
observations from Clark's Railway Machinery — reviewed in last month's 
Artizan ; and it is impossible to overrate their importance. As such, 
we invite to them the especial attention of our readers and contributors. 

Of the pitching movement. — The resistance to pitching, and thereby the 
stability, is promoted by shifting the driving axle backwards, towards the 
firebox, principally because it increases the mass of the machine in advance 
of the axle, or that which is submitted to the oblique action of the connect- 
ing rod ; the removal of the axle also, in so far as it lengthens the connect- 
ing rod, reduces the obliquity which is the source of the disturbance. In 
Crampton's engine, having the axle behind the firebox, the whole mass lies 
forward ; while, at the same time, the guide-bars, where the action takes 
place, are in the neighbourhood of the centre of gravity ; thus, the oblique 
action is entirely controlled, and the pitching is extinguished. 

Above all, the number and position of the points of support, mostly con- 
trol the pitching. The springs, also, particularly the fore and hind springs, 
should be as stiff as is consistent with the preservation of the frame and 
mechanism, to neutralise the oscillations which may arise from imperfections 
of the permanent way — such as loose sleepers, open joints, or want of cor- 
rect gauge; for if these oscillations should coincide with the action on the 
guide-bars, they increase the straining of the machine, and the liability of 
the leading wheels to mount the rails. Susceptible springs, also, for the 
same reason, increase the danger from accidental obstruction?. 

Vertical action by the centrifugal force of the revoking weight. — This 



1853.] 



Experiments in Locomotives. 



37 



action may be entirely neutralised by the application of suitable counter- 
weights. This question, however, belongs to the more general question of 
balancing all the revolving and reciprocating masses. 

The reduction of adhesion, by vertical action, explains the occasional 
slipping of the driving wheels at high speeds. It explains also the extra 
wear of driving wheel-tyres, when very much out of balance, next the crank- 
pin, where the pressure on the rail is greatest, — producing "flat places," and 
in consequence a vertical jolting of the engine while in motion. 

Longitudinal fore-and-aft motion. — It was found that in the sample 
engine a joint longitudinal action on the driving axle of above six tons, 
or three tons for each cylinder, was incurred at certain points of the 
stroke, at a speed of fifty miles, by the crank and the other moving masses. 
Now, the whole pressure of 100 lbs. steam on a fifteen-inch piston does not 
exceed eight tons; thus, the inertia of the mechanism alternately adds and 
subtracts three-eighths or 40 per cent, of this pressure, reducing the useful 
pressure to five tons, or 60 per cent., when the crank is at 45° during the 
first half-stroke; and raising it to eleven tons, or 140 per cent., at 135° in 
the second half-stroke. This example shows how very greatly the inertia of 
the machinery may affect the useful work of the engine. And, so long as 
the whole effective pressure in the cylinder exceeds this inertia, the coupling 
bars between engine and tender remain taut on their pins, though subject to 
oscillation with the coupling spring. But when the steam pressure is less, 
or altogether removed, — with a small train, or going down an incline, — they 
play fast and loose, owing to the fore-and-aft action, by which the machine 
is alternately thrown forward and backward on the tender. This explains 
the extra racket and jarring which takes place between an unbalanced 
engine and its tender immediately after shutting off the steam, in approach- 
ing stations, particularly where the nature of the coupling gear permits of 
some play. The shocks arising from these fore-and-aft vibrations are 
destructive to the coupling links and bolts, to the framing which carries 
them, and to the general connection of the whole machine, especially at the 
axleboxes and guardplates. And the greater the play of the parts of the 
engine, the more injurious is this action. 

To neutralise or soften the longitudinal action, it is usual to employ a 
traction- spring under the foot-plate of the engine or tender, to receive the 
shocks; it is either coupled to a draw-bar of a fixed length, under permanent 
tension between the draw-bolts, or adjustable by a double screw, right and 
left hand ; in either case, buffing blocks of wood are fixed at some distance 
apart laterally, upon the front beam of the tender-frame, to bear upon the 
engine- frame, as fulcrums for the action of the spring. With the object of 
softening the action still further, the buffing-blocks are in some cases made 
elastic within a limited compass, by the use of india-rubber springs. Coun- 
terweights, also, are applied to the wheels, and are efficient so far as they go; 
but they are, for the most part, much too light, as they are estimated for the 
revolving weight only. 

Of the sinuous movement.^-As this affection of the motion of the engine 
implies the lateral play of the fore and hind wheels upon the rails, the fric- 
tion of the tyres upon the rails, due to this lateral displacement, is opposed 
to the motion, and its tendency is therefore to steady the engine. Accord- 
ingly, in practice, at the lower speeds, and when the intensity of the disturb- 
ing forces is low, the machine, though unbalanced, runs sufficiently steady 
in respect of sinuous motion. At speeds above thirty miles, the greater dis- 
turbing forces overcome the resistance to their development, and the sinuous 
motion becomes more violent, the higher the speed. Even in Crampton's 
ordinary engines, sinuous action becomes sensible when the speed reaches 
sixty miles. 

Many things go to increase the sinuous motion to which engines may be 
predisposed by want of balance: such as a want of parallelism of the axles, 
unequal diameters of the wheels, the wear of ruts or hollows in the tyres, the 
wear of the axle-boxes and bushes, which gives rise to longitudinal and 
transverse play at the axle-guards and on the journals, the outline of the 
rails, and sometimes a want of accuracy in the adjustment of the draw-bars. 
When the axles are not parallel, but incline towards each other on one side 
of the engine, their disposition is to roll the engine forward in a curved 
path, and always towards the same side, causing perpetual collisions between 
the flanges and the rail. This oblique tendency is injurious enough on the 
straight parts of the line, but it is much worse on curves which diverge to- 



wards the other side, and increases the liability to get off the rails. The 
same tendency is caused by Wheels of unequal diameter on the same axle. 
Again, when the tyre wears hollow, the outer part, originally less, is left 
larger in diameter than the middle of the breadth of tyre. This state of 
wear reverses the action intended in coning the tyres, as the greatest dia- 
meter, instead of being next the flange, is shifted to the outside; and, 
whereas a properly-coned tyre constantly seeks to maintain the wheels in 
the centre of the track, a hollow tyre leads the engine continually astray, 
and subjects it to constant concussions against the rail. Play of the axles 
and axleboxes, by giving scope for irregular action, converts what without 
play would be a simple strain or flexure of the guards, into shocks upon the 
journals and wheels laterally. And it must be noted that though some de- 
gree of flexibility in the frame may be beneficial for the easy working and. 
adjustment of the machine to the rails, when in good order, it is a very 
dangerous accompaniment for a slack and unsteady engine. That these 
varieties of tear and wear are all productive of unsteadiness is proved by 
the superior stability of a new engine, with all its parts well up to their 
gauges, and all its bearings taut. 

The means employed to reduce the fore-and-aft movement operate also 
in reducing sinuous movement. A great extension of the wheel-base has 
also been employed with benefit, because it reduces the angular play of the 
wheels between the rails, and increases the command of the leading wheels 
in controlling erratic movements, by their frictional resistance transversely 
on the rails. In Crampton's engines, which carry out this principle to its 
limits, and impose the greatest loads upon the extreme wheels, the mass of 
matter in advance of the driving axle still further promotes the stability; 
and these engines, though they may not be balanced artificially, are prac- 
tically steady at sixty miles per hour. But the great spread of wheels, 
though beneficial on straight lines, is prejudicial on the curves, and particu- 
larly in passing into sidings; for it is plain that the farther apart the ex- 
treme axles, the greater is the angle at which the leading wheel-flange meets 
the outer rail on curves, and the more severe is the labour of guiding the 
engine. 

The springs between engine and tender, though useful for reducing the 
fore-and-aft motion, have been introduced chiefly to meet the horizontal 
oscillation. But, it is clear that, in so far as they, and all similar appliances, 
reduce this movement, they tend to consolidate the engine and tender, and 
injuriously to increase the length of fixed Wheel-base. A draw-spring be- 
tween engine and tender is no doubt a good thing; but it should be em- 
ployed rather as a mere carriage-spring, to soften the irregular motions of 
the tender itself. The wheel-bases , of locomotives are abundantly • long 
enough for the fair purposes of a cafriage, and it is mechanically unsound 
in principle, and inexpedient in practice, to divert them from their legiti- 
mate function; for, as M. le Chatelier most justly observes, " it is only in a 
direct manner — by attacking and destroying the cause itself — that we should 
seek to extinguish the lateral oscillation of locomotives." 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE BLAST AND EXHAUST PRESSURES 
IN LOCOMOTIVES. 
Of the influence of exhaust pressure on blast pressure. — The exhaust pres- 
sure at the point of release, as it is a measure of the quantity and force of 
steam discharged, is the most proper datum for comparison with blast pres- 
sure* It has been found that the back exhaust pressure in the cylinder varies 
simply as the pressure at the release point. It is thus probable that the blast 
pressure (at a greater distance) should vary in the same ratio. The mean 
results of numerous observations confirm this inference, and, as a sample of 
the evidence, we may quote the following from C. R. No. 124, all taken in 
the course of a single trip. 

TABLE No. XLI— RELATION OF BLAST PRESSURE TO RELEASE PRESSURE. 
C. R., No. 124 — 1st Notch. 





Exhaust Pressure 


at 


Blast Pressure in 


Speed". 


release. 




of Mercury. 


mph. 


lbs. 




ins. 


20 


15 




5* 


19 


83} 




H 


18 


28 




9 


19 


37 




12* 



38 



Experiments in Locomotives. 



[February, 



Each of these is a mean of two observations at nearly equal speeds and 
exhaust pressures, and it is plain that the blast pressure varies virtually as 
the pressure of exhaust at the release point. 

Of the influence of speed on blast pressure. — In so far as the elevation of 
the mercury is due to the intermittent impulses of the blast, it may be con- 
ceived to be directly as the frequency of these impulses, or as the speed sim- 
ply. Much of it is dependent also on the continuous expulsion of the residuary 
steam, and in so far it must vary as the square of the speed. The superior 
influence of the latter appears from the following observations selected to 
illustrate the influence of speed. The last column contains the blast pres- 
sures reduced for a mean uniform exhaust pressure at release, the reductions 
being made according to the law that the blast pressure is directly as the 
release pressure. 

TABLE No. XLII.— RELATION OF BLAST PRESSURE TO SPEED. 



Hos. of 
Observations. 


Mean 
Speeds of 


Mean 
release 


Mean 
blast 


Reduced blast Pressures. 




Engine. 


Pressures. 


Pressures, 






mph. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


ins. 




E. &G 


R. Hebe.- 


-4th Note 


h. 


1 

2 — 5 


13 
17 


11 

26 


1 
1 

i 


|] 


6 — 13 


21 


29 


i } for 20 lbs. release, 
ill 

4j 


14 — 17 


30 


21 


18 


40 


11 


2 



l 

2— 3 

4— 6 

7 — 14 

15 — 19 

20 — 23 



1— 2 

3— 5 

6— 9 

10 — 11 



C. R. No. 124.— 1st Notch. 
6 
11 
16 
20 
24 
30 



23 


4 


1 ~) 


38 


41 


39 


a 


4 1 

10 f 


25 


H 


30 


11 


11 


17 


3 4 


16*J 



for 30 lbs. release. 



C. R. No. 125.— 2nd Notch. 
12 
16 
20 
25 



20 


2 


19 


2 


19 


4 


15 


*4 



HI 



)>for 18 lbs. release. 



5fJ 



I 

2— 4 

5—11 

12 — 14 



Dc 


. 3rd Notch. 


11 


13 


s! 


20 


21 


24 


15 


4 


30 


19 . 


7 



64-J 



k for 1 7 lbs. release. 



16 
20 

27 
33 



Do. 4th Notch. 

12 

16 

13 

13 



1*1 

, 1 j-for 14 lbs. release. 



In each series of pressures in the last column, it is clear that, except in the 
last case, the blast pressures rise very rapidly with the speeds. Throwing 
them into curves, in the usual way, we obtain the following results, (fig. 1), 
for the respective examples noted. The last case, of No. 125, 4th notch, has 
been omitted, as the data are insufficiently distinct. The base lines contain 
the speed in miles per hour, and the perpendiculars express the blast pressures 
in inches of mercury. All the curves but the second follow the law of the 
variation of blast pressure as the square of the speed; the dot curve in the 
second case is constructed on this law, but it is plain that the true curve is 
flatter, and indicates a law of variation inferior to the square of the speed, 
but superior to the speed simply. The other cases so distinctly harmonise 
with the law, that it may be inferred generally that the mean pressure at the 
blast orifice varies as the square of the speed, though occasionally (in exposed 
cylinders), the variation does not proceed so rapidly ; but, in all cases, in a 
much higher ratio than the speed simply. 

Comparative value of blast pressure and the pressure of exhaust. — To com- 
pare these pressures directly, the former, indicated in inches of mercury, 
must be reduced to pounds ; and as 30 inches of mercury balance 14 - 7 lbs. 



pressure per inch, we shall adopt 1 lb. of pressure as an equivalent for 2 
inches of mercury. 



Kg. 1 • 



Hebe. 



No. 12*. 



No. 1?6. 

2d notch* 



Co. 

3d nutch. 




Rclcase-prownres. 
20 Ux. 



80 lbs. 



12 n». 



17 lis. 



Curves showing relation of Blast-Pressure to Speed. 

The mean blast pressure, as measured by the gauge, results from the 
average indicated pressure of exhaust in the cylinders, exerted from the re- 
lease point onwards to the point of compression. In each cylinder, usually, 
there is a perpetual exhaust, as the valve no sooner closes the exhaust for one 
end of the cylinder than it opens it for the other. There are, therefore, two 
constant exhausts in operation, yielding jointly the blast pressure observed. 
Each exhaust is derived from a series of explosions, and is therefore variable 
in intensity. The variation in the cylinder is indicated directly on the dia- 
gram, ranging from the pressure at release to the lowest back pressure, and 
this may be otherwise represented as follows : Let the line a b be the centre 
line of the engine, and the circle A b the path of the crank. This circle may 
be adopted for an ideal atmospheric line, upon which the exhaust pressure 
that exists throughout one revolution may be represented. To select No. 15 

diagram from the Great Britain, 
^8- 2 - for illustration, divide a b (fig. 

2) into 24 parts, as inches of 
stroke, and draw ordinates to 
meet the circumference. As- 
suming the crank pin to move 
in the direction of the arrow ; 
then, as the exhaust opens at 
the 20th inch of the stroke, the 
point a, where the 20th ordinate 
meets the circle, is the position 
of the crank pin at the time of 
release of the back stroke; and 
b, diametrically opposite, is the 
position for the front-stroke. 
From these points draw radial 
lines to c and d, representing 
the release pressure, 42 lbs., on 




Great Britain. — Sd notch.— Variation of Exhaust 
Pressure in one Cylinder, during one revolution. 



the diagram. Similarly, from the ends of the other ordinates for each suc- 
cessive inch of stroke, occurring within the semicircle a x b, draw radii equal 
to the successive exhaust pressures set forth on the diagram, terminating 
with b e, the back pressure of 11 lbs., at the point of compression. The 
curve traced through the extremities of these radii will represent the exhaust 
pressure for half a revolution due to the back end of the cylinder. The ter- 



1853.] 



Experiments in Locomotives. 



39f 



mination of this curve at e coincides with the commencement of the duplicate 
curve of exhaust pressure, df, for the front stroke; and it is clear that the 
pressure of exhaust, though perpetual, is abrupt and variable. 

To represent this pressure on a straight atmospheric line, we may conceive 
the circular line a b to be unrolled flat with its ordinates attached. The 



r-Mrt* 




b B 

Variation of Exhaust Pressure, for one Cylinder. 

diagram then assumes the appearance of fig. 3, in which the base line, A b a', 
is equal to the circumference of the circle, a b, in the previous figure, and re- 
presents the path of the crank pin through one revolution. The ordinates 
being drawn from the points already found for them, and connected by a 
curve, the curve so enclosed shows the exhaust pressure on a straight base 
line, for one cylinder, as before. The curve of exhaust pressure for the neigh- 
bouring cylinder is of course precisely of the same form; and the two may 
be shown conjointly on opposite sides of the base. As the cranks are set at 
right angles on the axle, the release points, represented at d and c, from one 
cylinder must occur at equal intervals between those from the other ; and 
therefore the four explosions that occur during one revolution should be 
placed at equal intervals on the base line, as in fig. 4. To simplify the 
diagram, the whole area of pressure may be thrown to one side of the base 
line (as in fig. 5), in which the ordinates from the second cylinder are 

Kg.*- 
First Cylinder. 




Second Cylinder. 
Variation of total Exhaust Pressure. — Compound Diagram for one revolution. 

superposed on the first series, and a heavy-lined curve is traced over all, to 
show the lump pressure of the exhaust steam from the two cylinders during 






-5$ 



Great Britain, 3d notch, 46 mph, — Previous Diagram simplified; 

one revolution, — deduced from the diagram No. 15 from the Great Britain. 
This figure clearly shows how far the joint pressure of exhaust may be re- 
duced to a uniform force at high speeds, approximating the action of the 
blast to that of a steady jet of steam. The joint pressure, in this case, never 
falls below 21 lbs. in the cylinder ; whereas, in fig. 6, showing the joint 
exhaust pressure in the same cylinders, at 11 miles per hour, drawn from 
No. 10 diagram, and projected in dot lining on fig. 2, we find the pres- 



sure developed in four distinct jets, each of which is isolated from its neigh- 

-50 







Great Britain, 3d notch, 11 mph.— Variation of Exhaust Pressure for two Cylinders, 11 my.iJ. 

hours, and is thoroughly exhausted before the succeeding release takes place. 
The following figure, 7, showing in the same Way the ordinary blast No. 




C. R., No. 73, 30 mph. — Variation of total Exhaust Pressure. 

73,- C. E., at 30 miles per hour, still more obviously declares the approxima- 
tion of the joint exhaust to a uniform pressure at high speeds. These illus- 
trations explain, on the one hand, the clear "spit" of a well-made engine 
with large ports and an easy orifice, proclaiming a rapid and efficient ex- 
haust; and, on the other hand, the throttled shouts of overloaded steam ways, 
distressed by deficient dimensions. 

The dot lines drawn in figs. 5 and 6, parallel to the base lines, indicate 
the mean exhaust pressures in the two cases, and measure respectively 33 lbs. 
and 1 1 lbs. Thus we perceive, in the latter case, a strong power of exhaust, 
capable of creating a blast without back pressure. A few examples of the 
proportional values of exhaust and blast pressures are contained in the fol- 
lowing table : — 

TABLE No. XLIII.— COMPARISON OF BLAST PRESSURE AND THE 
WHOLE PRESSURE OE EXHAUST IN THE CYLINDERS. 



No. of 
Diagram. 


Speed of 
EngiDe. 


Release 
Pressure. 


Mean total 
exhaust 
Pressure 


Mean back 
Pressure 

of 
Ex:haust 


Mean blast-Pressure 
for two Cylinders. 








Cylinder. 


for one 
Cylinder. 








mph. 


Its. 
C. E. J 


lbs. 
lb. 73.-2 


lbs. 
nd day. 


inches of 
mercury. 


lbs. 


1 


25 


41 


16 


10 


4 f 
4| 


2-4 


2 


32 


29 


11 


6 


2-4 


3 


32 


35 


16-5 


13 


H 


2-6 






Do. 3rd day. 








1 


24 


38 


20 


12 




1-25 


2 


30 


30 


15 


12 


1-4 


3 


34 


21 


9 


7 


0.6 


4 


39 


28 


12 


10 


4 


1-4 






C. E. No. 124.— 1st Notch. - 






1 


6 


23 


3 


2 


3 


0-4 


2 


12 


38 


7-5 


5 


7j 


375 


3 


16 


34 


9 


7 


n* 


5-75 


4 


18 


30 


12 


10 


9 


4-5 


5 


22 


34 


12 


10 


18 


9 


6 


24 


28 


12 


10 


121 


6-25 


7 


27 


12 


8 


7-5 


6i 


3-25 


8 


28 


20 


11 


10 


13 


6-5 



In the case of No. 73, the insignificance of the blast pressure, in respect of 
the mean exhaust, is striking. For example, on the second day, a mean 
exhaust pressure of 16 lbs. for one cylinder does not raise above 2£ lbs. of 
blast pressure for two; on the third day, still less. No. 124 yields higher 
values, as, with 12 lbs. mean pressure in each cylinder, it yields for the same 
speed of piston from 4| to 9 lbs. of joint blast pressure. 



40 



Manufacture of Lucifer Matches. 



[February, 



Again, a comparison of the blast pressure with the simple back pres- 
sure of exhaust, will abundantly prove how unlike the " resistance of the 
blast pipe" may be to the back pressure of the diagram. While No. 73 
shows back pressures of 12 and 13 lbs,, the blast does not in any case rise 
above 2 - 6 lbs., and is commonly but ^th to -^th of the other, reckoning even 
for one cylinder only. On the other hand, the blast of No. 124 is much more 
formidable, in some cases, as in No. 5 diagram, being nearly equal to the 
back pressure for one cylinder, and in general fully one-half. 

It was observed also, that during the experiments with the Orion, E. and 
G. E., the blast pressure remained almost unaltered at about f lb., while the 
back pressure ranged from about 8 lbs. with foul water, to nothing with 
clean water, in the boiler. These remarks are sufficient to show that the 
resistance at the blast orifice constitutes but a part, and in many cases a 
very small part, of the total back pressure on the piston. For this conclusion, 
now verified by actual experiment, we should be quite prepared by the in- 
vestigations on back exhaust pressure in the fifth chapter, where the influence 
of various circumstances was set forth. It was there inferred that the in- 
fluence of the blast area ou back pressure is sensibly nothing when it ex- 
ceeds the area of steam way, and only operates when it is smaller than any 
other part of the exhausting passage. This conclusion also is verified by the 
blast gauge; for we shall find that it is generally in the cases of the smallest 
orifice in proportion to the steam port, that the importance of blast pressure 
is greatest. Thus, in the following table, containing the mean results of 
above a hundred observations, it appears that in the Hebe and No. 124, in 
which the bias; orific3 is decidedly smaller than the steam port, the total 
blast pressure is about one-half of the back pressure in each cylinder; whereas 
in the Orion and No. 73, with wider orifices, the proportion of blast is sen- 
sibly small. 



TABLE No. XLIV.— MEAN RATIOS OF BLAST TO BACK EXHAUST PRESSURE. 




Ratios, that of Piston 


Mean observed Pres- 


Ratio of 


Name of Engine. 


being 1. 


sures. 


Blast to 
back 


Steam 


Blast 


Back 
Pressure 


Blast for 


Pressure 
in one 




Port. 


Orifice. 


for one 
Cylinder. 


Cylinders. 


Cylinder. 








ibs. 


lbs. 




E. & G. R. Hebe, 4th) 






2 


3 




Notch S 


TrS 


15 


4 


8 


E. & G. E. Orion, 5th 7 






8 


3 






1*7 


15-3 


4 


TT 


Do. do. clean water ... 









3 





C. E, No. 73, foul water... 


I 
T5-53 


l 
Til 


10 


2? 


1 
4 


Do. clean water ... 






10 


H 


I 
5 


C.E. No. 124, 1st Notch... 


1 
13-T 


I 

53-7 


8 


5 


i 



It is unnecessary to pursue this comparison further. We are only con- 
cerned in showing by direct experiment the fallacy of charging blast pipe 
resistance, without limitation, with all the back pressure that occurs in the 
cylinder. 

Recapitulation, — 1. The pressure of the blast, gauged at the orifice, is 
developed in pulsations, due to the alternate discharges of steam from the 
cylinder ; sharp and isolated at the slower speeds, and sensibly uniform at 
the higher. 

2. Blast pressure varies directly as the exhaust pressure in the cylinder at 
the point of release. 

3. Blast pressure varies, generall}', directly as the square of the speed. 

4. Blast pressure, gauged for two cylinders, is in all cases much smaller 
than the mean exhaust pressure, even for one cylinder. Also, it is in all 
cases smaller than even the back pressure of exhaust alone ; and in many 
cases it forms but an insignificant fraction of the back pressure. It has been 
observed to vary from -^th .to §ths of the back pressure in each cylinder. 
Blast pipe resistance, therefore, constitutes but a part, and commonly but a 
very small part, of the observed back pressure in the cylinder. 

5. The observation of blast pressure shows that the influence of the area of 
blast orifice on back pressure is sensibly nothing when it exceeds the area of 
the steam port, and only operates as a cause of back pressure when it is less 
than any other part of the exhausting passage. — Clark's Railway Machinery. 



MANUFACTURE OF LUCIFER MATCHES. 
The preparation of lucifer matches has been found to be productive of 
a painful disease in the workmen employed. The vapour evolved from 
the phosphorus acts upon the teeth and jaw-bones, in many cases pro- 
ducing caries ; but a new species of phosphorus, called amorphous 
phosphorus, has lately been discovered. The nature of the chemical 
difference, if any, between this phosphorus and common phosphorus 
is not at all understood. The amorphous phosphorus is prepared 
by melting common phosphorus in a peculiarly-constructed retort, 
and keeping it for some time at a temperature of 500° Fah. By this 
treatment the phosphorus becomes a soft, opaque mass, easily pul- 
verised, and so incombustible, that it may be handled, or even swallowed, 
with impunity. This species of phosphorus is found to be suitable for 
matches, and does not give out injurious fumes. We extract the follow- 
ing from Tomlinson's Cyclopedia of Useful Arts .- — 

" The wood employed in the manufacture of lucifers is the best pine plank, 
as free from knots as it can be procured. Each plank is cut across the fibres, 
by means of a circular saw, into 28 or 30 blocks, each measuring 11 inches 
long and \\ wide, and 3 inches thick. These blocks are cut up into splints 
by a machine of simple but ingenious construction, which we will endeavour 
to explain in a few words. To the extremity of the horizontal arm of a 
crank is attached a frame, which reciprocates to and fro with the motion of 
the crank through a space of about 4 inches. In this frame are fixed in a 
line some 30 or 40 lancets, with the points projecting upwards, and separated 
from each other by pieces of brass. The block of wood to be cut is inserted 
by the small end between uprights, and a lever placed upon it forces it down 
to a position such, that, as the lancet-points advance, the end of the wooden 
block is scored or cut in the direction of or parallel with the fibres, with as 
many lines as there are lancets. As the lancets are withdrawn by the motion 
of the crank, a scythe blade moving in a horizontal plane swings round, and 
cuts off the end of the block to the depth of the scores made by the lancets. 
The pieces thus cut off will evidently be four-sided splints, square in section, 
supposing, as is the case, that the lancets are equidistant, and that the 
horizontal knife cuts exactly to the depth of the lancet scores. AVhen the 
horizontal knife swings back, the block from which one layer of splints has 
thus been removed descends through a space equal to the depth of the sec- 
tion, the lancet-points again advance and recede, and the knife again docs 
its work. In this way the cutting is carried on with such rapidity, that from 
12 to 16 planks, each 12 feet long, 11 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, can be 
cut up into splints in a day of ten hours. Now, supposing 14 planks are thus 
cut up, and that each plank produces 30 blocks, we thus get 14 X 30 = 420 
blocks. Each block affords about 100 slices, which are cut off by the hori- 
zontal knife ; but as each slice, before being cut off, has been scored by 31 
lancet-points, we thus get 420 X 100 X 31 =. 1,302,000 splints; and as 
each splint makes two matches, we thus have 2,604,000 single match-splints 
per day. 

"When a circular, instead of a square section is required, the wood is cut 
into splints by means of a perforated metal plate, the perforations being so 
shaped as to cause the block of wood, when pressed against its face, to be 
properly divided. Fig 1 shows the face of the plate, and fig. 2 a vertical 
section of the same. The perforations are cylindrical throughout, except at 
their openings on the face, where they are slightly countersunk, for the pur- 
pose of presenting sharp-cutting edges to the wood, and affording a more 
easy entrance. The perforations are made as close together as possible, that 



Gooooo&oooooo 

COOOCOOOOOOO 

ooooooooooooo 
coo :ooo goqoo 

ooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooqo 

ooooooooooooo 

OOOOOOOOOOQO 
OOOOOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOCQOOOOO 

o_ r : cocor 

OOOCOOC 



J GOOD 
-•-- Oc> 
3 OOOO- 



xWJSBrjr&K 

OOOGOOOOQCo_, 
OOpqooOCOOOQp 
C CO O OOOOO O,0O : 

ooc oc - : oooooo 
ccoccc j o oopo 

OCOOCCOGOCOOO 

occ_oD.ooooog_o 

O^CCi-/. X .•■-COO 
CO.' JOOOOOOOO 

ooepoqpooo: :o 

OOOOCOOOoOOO 



Fig. 1. 



"II 


I;: 


It 




V 






II 


! 


I 


111 I 


Trfe.¥T 


dm 


'M 


il /m 


mnwi i:&" 



Fig 2. 

all the wood may be used, only sufficient metal bein{» left to afford the 
necessary strength for cutting. The plate has a steel face and a bell-metal 
back; it is 3 inches wide, 6 inches long, and about 1 inch thick. The back is 
fixed against a firm resisting block or bearing, with an aperture equal to the 
area of the perforations of the plate. The piece of wood being placed on 
end in the direction of the fibres, the plate is forced down upon it by means 
of a plunger or lever, when the splints appear at the back of the plate, whence 



1853.] 



Notes by a Practical Chemist, 



41 



they are removed before another block is applied. This plan was patented 
by Mr. Partridge in 1842. 

" We now return to the square match. As the splints fall off the end of 
the block by the action of the horizontal knife, they pass down a shoot im- 
mediately under the block into a room below, where they are tied up into 
bundles, each containing half a gross. For this purpose, a cradle or measure 
is formed, consisting of a section of a hollow cylinder, of the capacity of half 
a gross of splints of the proper size, either for the large splints, or the second 
size, called minnikins, these being the only two sizes made at this factory. 
The man begins by throwing a piece of string across the cradle, then taking 
up a number of splints from the confused heap, he ranges them in parallel 
order by a dextrous system of tossing, knocking, and jerking. Having 
filled his measure, he catches the two ends of the strings, ties up the bundle, 
throws it aside, and then proceeds to make another, the work being done 
with the rapidity and precision which practice alone can give. These bun- 
dles are piled up on the racks of a hot-room or drying-stove, and left for 
some hours, until moisture is expelled. 

" The next process is the sulphuring. The sulphur is melted in an iron 
pot over a stove, and, -when sufficiently fluid, the two ends of the bundles are 
successively dipped, the bundle being shaken after each dipping, in order to 
get rid of superfluous sulphur. When the sulphur is dry, a second string is 
tied round each bundle, so that, when divided by the circular saw, each bun- 
dle of double matches may make two bundles of single matches. Some of 
the matches, however, are not divided until after having been tipped with 
the phosphorous composition ; but this is merely a matter of convenience to 
the makers. 

" The matches are now ready for dipping in the phosphorous composition. 
We are not informed as to the precise ingredients of the composition, or the 
method of mixing. Each manufacturer professes to have his own recipe, 
which he regards as the best, and, therefore, keeps secret. The ingredients 
are, however, well known to chemists ; the principal one is phosphorus, 
which is made into an emulsion with glue or gum arabic, the former being 
preferable, since gum absorbs moisture. Some makers use nitre, others fine 
sand ; and all use colouring matter, which may be red ochre, red lead, smalt, 
or artificial ultramarine. 

" The following proportions have been found to answer : — 

Glue paste. Gum paste. 

Phosphorus 2*5 2"5 

Glue 2 Gum 2-5 

Water 4-5 3 

Pine sand 2 2 

Red ochre 0"5 0-5 

"Vermillion ^ 0.1 O'l 

" Instead of the last two colouring substauces, 0*05 of Prussian blue may 
be used. 

" When glue is used, it is of very inferior quality. It is broken into frag- 
ments and soaked for a few hours in cold water ; then dissolved in a large 
glue-pot, or copper, c (fig. 3), heated by a water bath, w. When it is per- 
fectly fluid, and at the temperature of 212°, the copper is withdrawn, and 
placed in the circular opening of the frame (fig. 4). The phosphorus is then 





Fig. 3. 

added by degrees; it melts immediately, and subsides, but is kept in agitation 
by means of the wooden stirrer, s, which is furnished at the lower part with 
projecting pegs, the object being, as the glue cools, to obtain an emulsion of 
phosphorus in a minutely divided state. The sand and colouring matters 
are added during the stirring. The paste is kept at the temperature of 
about 98°, sufficient to retain it in a fluid state by placing the vessel, c, in a 
water bath." 



NOTES BY A PKACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Analysis of Oils by means of Sulphuric Acid.— Fatty oils 
give off heat when mixed with sulphuric acid. This reaction may serve 
for distinguishing them, as it plainly separates the drying oils from those 
of an opposite nature. 
6 



Fifty grammes of olive oil are placed in a test glass ; a thermometer 
is then placed in the liquid, noting the degree. Ten cubic centimetres 
of sulphuric acid at 66" Beaume are then gradually dropped into the 
oil. The liquids are mixed by stirring with the thermometer, watching 
the rise of the mercury. The thermometer rose from 25° to 55° Cent., 
being an increase of 41° Cent. (75° Fah.) The mixture does not occupy 
more than two minutes, and the maximum temperature is reached in 
less than one. 

Fifty grammes of poppy oil are placed in another test glass, and 
treated in a similar manner. In this case the thermometer rose from 
41° to 100° Cent.— an augmentation of 59° (135° Fah.) In the case of 
the poppy oil there is observed a copious liberation of sulphurous acid, 
which does not happen with olive oil, and a considerable increase in 
bulk. These circumstances render the number 59° too low. The dif- 
ference between these two temperatures (75° and 135° Fah.) is sufficient 
to serve as a means of analysis. On repeating the experiment several 
times, olive oil gave on each occasion a rise of 7-5°. Further experi- 
ments showed that this result is constant, if the oil is pure, and the 
initial temperature the same. 

With poppy oil the result is likewise constant. This analytical pro- 
cess may be applied to the olive oils of commerce, which are frequently 
adulterated with poppy oil alone. The amount of this adulteration may 
be determined with much accuracy, if no other oil is present. Oil of 
ben and tallow oil give out nearly the same amount of heat as olive oil. 
Other oils generate a higher temperature, and may thus be readily dis- 
tinguished from olive oil. 

Drying oils produce much more heat than others, and may thus be 
easily detected. Oil of ben and tallow oil cannot be mixed with olive 
oil. Whenever, therefore, olive oil gives a rise of more than 75° Fah., 
when treated with sulphuric acid at an initial temperature of 77° Fah., 
it is impure. 

New Alloy of Silver.— In operating upon an argentiferous 
mineral from South America, M. Germain Barruel obtained an ingot, 
which, from the mode of treatment and its brilliant whiteness, appeared 
to consist of very fine silver, It was found, however, so hard, that it 
seemed to contain only 075 of silver, whilst an assay gave 0'994. Thus 
only - 006 of other metals sufficed to give it this extraordinary power 
of resistance, without destroying its malleability. It contained - 0035 
of iron, 0'002 of cobalt, and - 0005 of nickel. The author has repro- 
duced this alloy, varying the proportions, in order to increase or dimi- 
nish the degree of hardness. One of the best modifications consisted 
of equal parts of the three metals. Several knife-blades and a rasp of 
great hardness have been made from the original alloy. 

Detection and Estimation of Iodine, and its Separation 
from Bromine and Chlorine by means of Benzine, or 
Nitrate of Silver. — Benzine dissolves free iodine, forming abright 
red solution, which is deeper in colour in proportion as it contains more 
iodine. On exposure to the atmosphere the iodine gradually evaporates, 
and the liquid becomes colourless. 

If a few drops of hyponitric acid are poured into a solution containing 
an alkaline iodide, and 2 or 3 grammes of benzine added, after complete 
mixture, on the application of a strong heat, the benzine soon rises to 
the surface, holding the iodine in solution. This reaction renders it 
easily practicable to prove the presence of 1 milligramme of iodine in 4 
quarts of water. Neither ether nor essential oils, such as lavender, 
lemon, or turpentine, give results equally decisive in similar circum- 
stances. Chloroform, whether applied according to the method of 
Rabourdin or of Grange, is likewise inferior to benzine, both as regards 
delicacy and accuracy. The author, M. E. Moride, has been able, by 
this method, to detect iodine whenever it could be discovered by means 
of starch, and the use of benzine appeared to him to furnish more satis- 
factory results. 



42 



Life Boats. 



[February, 



It is very easy to determine, quantitively, small amounts of iodine, 
by means of nitrate of silver, or metallic mercury. 

The process is as follows :— After having washed the iodised benzine 
repeatedly in distilled water, it is removed with a pipette, and introduced 
into a sealed tube, in which it is agitated, either with a few drops of 
solution of nitrate of silver, or with a known weight of mercury, until 
the liquid is entirely colourless. 

The yellow precipitate of iodide of silver is washed with alcohol at 
33°, thrown upon a filter, and treated like chloride of silver which 
requires to be weighed. Otherwise, mercury, previously weighed, is 
agitated in the iodised solution, and the increase of weight observed. 
As a check upon the result, the iodide of mercury formed may be dis- 
solved by means of iodide of potassium in excess. 

Bromine and bromides, after the addition of nitric, hyponitric, or 
dilute hydrochloric acid, as also chlorine and the chlorides, do not 
colour benzine. Bromine and chlorine remain dissolved in the water 
used for washing the benzine, and may be precipitated by nitrate of 
silver. Benzine, removing iodine without possessing the property of 
dissolving either bromine or chlorine, enables us to separate these two 
bodies from iodide, and to ascertain their presence in commercial iodide 
of potassium. 

Temperature generated by the Combustion of Cinders. 
— M. Deville has succeeded in producing in this manner a heat com- 
parable to that given by the oxy-hydrogen blast. With due attention 
to the structure of the furnace and the nature of the fuel, he has melted 
and volatilised platinum, and melted pure silica. As the results may 
interest both the scientific chemist and the manufacturer, the following 
details are added : — 

The apparatus used is a common laboratory furnace, 30 centimetres 
high by 18 broad, supported by a plate of iron pierced with holes 
arranged in a circle, 5 centimetres from the centre. The whole is con- 
nected with the bellows of one of Enfer's forges. As the best crucibles 
at such elevated temperatures become a perfectly fluid glass, they were 
replaced by pieces of well-burnt lime, which are easily formed into 
thick crucibles, fitted with covers of the same material. The lime 
employed for this purpose should be slightly porous, containing a little 
silica. The fuel should be very divided and porous. The author uses 
the cinders which fall from the furnaces of the laboratory, which are 
heated with pit-coal. These cinders are sifted through an iron sieve. 
No other kind of fuel has yielded the same results. The temperature 
attains its maximum in a few minutes. The object to be fused must 
be placed upon a low support, as above the temperature diminishes 
rapidly. Amongst the specimens laid before the Academy were a 
platinum crucible, made from fragments of old platinum melted in 
lime ; the cover of a crucible on which may be seen globules of volati- 
lised platinum ; and a specimen of silica fused in graphite. 

answers to correspondents. 

" P. D." — Chloroform is frequently met with in an impure state. 
That prepared from alcohol is generally preferable to the kind obtained 
from pyroxilic spirit. 

" Rollo." — If you suspect that the carmine has been adulterated 
- with starch, pour liquid ammonia upon a sample. This will dissolve 
the carmine, and the starch will remain behind. 

" Precaution." — Persons employed about lead-works should pay the 
greatest'possible attention to cleanliness. The whole body should be 
washed, if practicable, daily, on concluding work. By this means the 
particles of lead adhering to the skin are removed before absorption. 
The internal use of dilute sulphuric acid (a few drops to the pint) will 
also be beneficial by converting any portion of the metal which has 
entered the system into the insoluble sulphate, in which state it is 
harmless. Tobacco is not of the slightest use. 



GAS COOKING APPARATUS. 

We are happy to observe every day that the advantages of gas are 
becoming more and more appreciated. In all the suburbs one cannot 
fail to notice, in passing along the streets of an evening, the number of 
private houses in which gas is used. Gas lights are soon followed by 
gas stoves, and there is no fear of the demand not being met. Messrs. 
Hare & Co. have lately submitted to us specimens of two patented 
arrangements which they have introduced. The first (fig. 1) we may 
call an " elementary stove," and consists of a single coil burner, which 
can be either a fixture, or attached with a flexible tube in any con- 




Fig. 1, 




Fig. 2. 

venient part of the kitchen. One of these, put over an ordinary 
parlour fire-place, forms an admirable impromptu fire for boiling a 
kettle in the summer, when a coal fire would be a nuisance. The 
second (fig. 2) is a step further in advance, and is called the " bachelor's 
gas oven." It is provided with one of the " elementaries" on the top, 
and another coil inside for roasting, baking, &c. It is made double, 
forming an air chamber all round, so as to prevent the loss of the heat 
by dispersion. When not used for cooking it will serve as an ironing 
stove, and for any purpose it is very economical in the consumption of 



LIFE BOATS. 

Northumberland Prize Boat. — Figs. 1 and 2 are the plan and sheer plan 
of this boat. The letters mark the fore-part of the boat, the figures the aft. 




Fig, 1. 



1853.-] 



Branded Cyclopaedia. 



43 



The dark parts of fig. 1 represent air, the light part, water. The dark band 
in fig. 2 represents cork, and the other tints air and water. The body of this 
boat is of the form usually given to a whale-boat — a slightly rounded floor, 
sides round in the fore and aft direction, upright stem and stern post, clench- 




Fig. 2. 

built, of wainscot oak, and iron-fastened. Length extreme 36 ft., of keel 
31 ft., breadth of beam 9^ ft., depth 3-^- ft., sheer of gunwale 36 in., rake of 
stem and stern-post 5 in., straight keel 8 in. deep. The boat has 7 thwarts 
27 in. apart, 7 in. below the gunwale, and 18 in. above the floor ; pulls 12 
oars, double-banked, with pins and grummets. A cork fender, 6 in. wide by 
8 in. deep, runs round outside at 7 in. below the gunwale. Extra buoyancy 
is given by air-cases 20 in. high in the bottom of the boat, under the flat ; 
round part of the sides, 24 in. wide by 18 in. deep, up to the level of the 
thwarts, leaving 10 ft. free amidships ; and in the head and stern sheets, 
for a length of 8i ft., to the height of the gunwale ; the whole divided into 
compartments and built into the boat, also by the cork fenders. Effective 
extra buoyancy 300 cubic ft., equal to 8| tons. Eor ballast a water-tank, 
divided into compartments, placed in the bottom amidships, 14 ft. long by 
5 ft. wide, and 15 in. high, containing 77 cubic ft., equal to 2\ tons when 
full ; and an iron keel of 10 cwt. Internal capacity of boat under the level 
of the thwarts 176 cubic ft., equal to 5 tons. Means of freeing the boat of 
water, tubes through the bottom, 8 of 6in. diameter, and 4 of 4 in. diameter — 
total area, 276 square in., which is to the capacity in the proportion of 276 
to 176, or as 1 to 64. Provision for righting the boat, if upset, 2J tons of 
water-ballast, an iron keel, and raised air-cases in the head and stern sheets. 
Rig, lug foresail and mizen ; to be steered by a rudder ; no timber heads 
for securing a warp to. Draught of water, with 30 persons on board, 26in. 
Weight of boat, 50 cwt., of gear 17 cwt. — total 67 cwt. Would carry 70 
persons ; cost, with gear, £250. 

Peake's Life Boat, which is supposed to combine the good points of 
all the others, is represented by figs. 3 and 4. It is the work of Mr. James 



T 




Peake, assistant-master shipwright in Her Majesty's Dockyard, Woolwich. 
The form of this boat is that usually given to a whale-boat, having a long flat 
floor amidships, sides straight in afore-and-aft direction, rakingstem and stern- 
post, diagonally built of two thicknesses of rock elm, and copper -fastened. 




Fig. 4. 

Length extreme, 30 ft., length of keel 24ft.,breadth of beam 8 J ft., depth 3^ ft., 
rake of stem and stern-post 65 in. in a foot ; straight keel 4 in. deep, and bilge- 
pieces with openings in them to lay hold of, on each side on the bottom. 
The boat has 5 thwarts, 7 in. wide, 28 in. apart, 7 in. below the gunwale, and 
15 in. above the floors, pulls 10 oars, double-banked, with pins and grum- 
mets. A fender of cork, 4 in. wide by 2 J in. deep, extends fore and aft at 
4 in. below the gunwale. Extra buoyancy is obtained by cork (shown by 
the light tint in fig. 4), placed the whole length of the boat, under the floor- 
ing, to a height of 12 in. above the keelson, and by light cork or detached 
air-cases in the head and stern sheets up to gunwale height. Effective 
extra buoyancy 105 cubic ft. equal to 3 tons. A light water-tight deck will 
be placed on the cork to protect it, and above that a light grating. Eor 
ballast, the weight of the cork in the bottom, and an iron keel of 5 cwt. In- 



ternal capacity for holding water up to the level of the thwarts, 140 cubic 
feet, equivalent to 4 tons. The means of freeing the boat of water arc by 8 
tubes of 6 in. diameter through the bottom, and scuppers through the 
sides at the height of the flooring, giving a total delivering area of 300 
square ins., which is to capacity as 1 to 5. The provision made for right- 
ing the boat consists in the sheer given to the gunwales, raised air-vessels or 
cork in the head and stern sheets, and the ballast arising from the weight of 
cork in the bottom, and the small iron keel. A passage 18 in. wide, up to 
within 2 ft. of the stem and stern is left between the raised air-cases in the 
extremes, and the top of the cases is protected by a layer of cork. Rig, fore 
and mizen lug sail. To be steered by a sweep oar at either end. Timber 
heads for warps are placed at each bow and quarter, and a roller for 
the cable in the stem and stern-post head. A locker under the flooring 
amidships for the anchor and cable to be secured down to the keelson, and 
covered with a water-tight scuttle. A life-line, fore and aft, at a foot below 
the gunwale, and short knotted life-lines to be hung over the side at each 
thwart. Draught of water with 30 men on board, 16 in. Weight of boat 
and fittings, 38 cwt. Would carry 60 persons. Actual cost, as built in one of 
H.M.'s dockyards— materials, £4.0; labour, £45; total, £85. 

It is anticipated that this boat, from her form, will pull fast in all wea- 
thers, and fully able to contend against a head sea. She would sail well, 
and, from her flat and long floor and straight sides, would have great stabi- 
lity, and prove a good sea boat. A boat of this form could not be readily 
upset, but should this occur, the sheer of gunwale, raised air- cases in the 
extremities, weight of cork in the bottom, and iron keel, would cause her to 
right herself. The boat would readily free herself of water, and if the ample 
delivcring-tubes became choked, there are sufficient scuppers at the sides. 
The builder only offers this as a selection from the best points of other boats, 
hut it appears better adapted for the purpose than any other. One of these 
boats is to be placed at Cullercoats, on the coast of Northumberland, two 
miles north of the entrance on the Tyne — a station well adapted for testing 
its capabilities. — Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. 



BRANDE'S CYCLOPiEDIA. 
A Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art, comprising the History, De- 
scription and Scientific Principles of Every Branch of Human Knowledge. 
Edited by W. T. Bkande, F.R.S. Second edition, with a supplement. 
London: Longman and Co. 1852. 

This is a very valuable and elaborate work, of which the first edition was 
published several years ago, and which already enjoys a high reputation. 
In this second edition the various articles are carefully revised, and are 
brought up to the present state of science. In several of the most important 
of them, moreover, there is a greater practical acquaintance with the subject 
exhibited than was manifested in the former edition, which were not untinc- 
tured with the common vice of cyclopaedia articles — that of being too tradi- 
tional. Of course it is not to be expected that in a work which aspires to 
treat of every branch of human knowledge in the compass of a sizeable octavo 
volume^ the disquisitions should be very profound, or, in every case, very 
original. Nevertheless, in the principal articles in this edition there is no 
deficiency of either of these important characteristics, at the same time that 
the popular character of the work is duly maintained. It would, of course, 
be impossible, within the limits of this notice, to give any enumeration even 
of the most important articles which this dictionary contains ; those, how- 
ever, which will have most interest for our readers are the articles Steam, 
Steam Engine, Steam Navigation and Locomotive Engine in the work 
itself, and Screw Propeller, Telegraph and Tubular Bridge in the supple- 
ment. Erom these articles even engineers of competent attainments will 
derive useful information, while, to the miscellaneous inquirer, they will 
communicate sound and general views upon those important subjects, such 
as could not otherwise be acquired without much labour and research. As 
a specimen of the work, we shall here transcribe a part of the article on 

ELECTKIC TELEGRAPHS. 

"When a current of voltaic electricity is traversing a metallic wire, a mag- 
netic current is at the same time established, at right angles to, and as it 
were revolving about, the electric current, as its axis; and if the pole of a 
magnet be supposed capable of freely moving in any direction, the tendency 
of such pole would be to revolve about the wire in question, or rather, about 
the electric current which that wire carries. If a common magnetic needle, 
turning horizontally upon a point or pivot, be brought near the voltaic cur- 
rent, or to the wire conveying that current, the magnet will accordingly be 
deflected from its meridian. Supposing, for instance, the magnetic needle 
in its natural position, and pointing, therefore, north and south, to be ap- 
proached by a wire transmitting the volta-electrie current, held above, and 



Brwide's Cyclopaedia. 



[February, 



parallel to the needle, the deflection of the needle will take place either to 
the rio-ht or left, or to the north or south, the direction of the deflection de- 
pending upon that of the electric current; and, accordingly, the tendency of 
the magnetic needle will he to place itself at right angles to the wire con- 
veying the electric current. It is obvious, therefore, that the electric and 
magnetic forces may so far be said to deflect each other, and upon this prin- 
ciple the various forms of the galvanometer are constructed. Now, in 
reference to the application of such principle to telegraphic purposes, another 
form of apparatus must be adopted, in which the magnetic needle and 
deflecting current, instead of being placed horizontally, as in the galva- 
nometer, are placed vertically, or perpendicularly, as in themnexed diagram, 



Kg. 1. 



V 





Fig. ! 



A O 



^ 



where a b represents a wire having a magnetised 
steel needle placed immediately behind it, and so 
adjusted as to hang vertically when at rest. If an 
electric current be now made to descend from a 
to b, through such wire, the needle will be deflected 
into the position n 8 ; that is, its north pole will 
turn to the right, as you stand before it ; and on 
increasing the force of the electric current, the de- 
flection of the needle might be so far increased as 
to cause it to place itself at right angles to the 
electric current, as shown by the dotted figure; but 
this may be prevented by the small studs, c c, by 
which such extreme deflection is limited. If we 
now suppose the wire to be continued on, and 
bent into the shape of the letter u, the current 
still passing onwards, that is, down the limb 
a b, and up b c (as indicated by the darts), then the portion of the 
current b c would also act upon the needle, and propor- 
tionately increase the deflection. If we now change the direction 
of the electric current, so as to send it down c and up a, then 
also will the direction of the deviation of the magnetic needle be 
changed, and its north pole, instead of pointing to the right, will 
point to the left ; and if, by repeated convolutions of the wire, 
the electric current be made to pass many times around the mag- 
netic needle, the deflection would be still further increased, so 
that, by the adoption of this latter expedient, or the use of a coil 
instead of a single wire, the effect of the electric current may 
be so multiplied as to produce a considerable deflection by a 
comparatively feeble current. This is, in fact, the principle of 
" the galvanometric multiplier, and is the form of apparatus used 
in the electric telegraph, as now most commonly constructed. The 
construction of this coil is shown in the an- 
nexed wood-cut. It consists of a polished wooden 
or ivory frame, round which arc bound some 
hundred feet of fine copper wire, covered with 
silk, which, being a non-conductor, prevents the 
N^xjf F lateral passage or transfer of electricity from wire 

^^' to wire, so that the current, entering at a, passes 

through the whole length of the coil, and goes 
out at b. Two magnetic needles are fixed upon 
an axis which passes through the frame, one 
within, and the other without, the coil, the poles 
of which needles are in opposition to each other, 
by which they are rendered astatic, that is, they 
are not affected by the magnetism of the earth. 
This coil is so placed at the back of the dial 
plate of the telegraph, shown in the next dia- 
grams, as to allow the outer needle to traverse 
right and left upon the dial plate. 
" Having said thus much of the principle upon which the usual form of the 
electro-magnetic telegraph is constructed, we may now further explain the 
details of its simplest form, in which one indicating needle only is employed, 
and which, therefore, is usually called the single-needle instrument. A front 
and back view of this telegraph is given in the following cuts, the battery 
being represented annexed to the latter, and the circuit through the galva- 
nometric coil, a, being completed by the wire, w w. The following de- 
scription of the working of the instrument is abridged from Mr. C. V. Walker's 
Electric Telegraph Manipulation, to which we may here refer the reader 
for a variety of details respecting its construction and uses, which would 
have been irrelevant in this artiele. 

" The instrument has a twofold character: it is either passive, or ready for 
receiving signals from another instrument; or it is active, or ready for trans- 
mitting signals to another instrument. By describing first how it is fitted for 
receiving signals, and then how it is arranged for transmitting them, we shall 
be better able to analyse it, and comprehend its structure. The frame of the 
coil, a, is screwed upon the face of the instrument, which face is a brass plate 
varnished on the inner side. Looking at the coil, a short wire from its right- 
hand end comes to a screw terminal, which, by a slip of brass, is connected 
with another terminal, u. The left-hand end of the coil comes also 
to a terminal, from which a slip of brass descends to a brass plate, here 
partly hidden ; but its form may be seen from a similar plate visible on the 
left side. These twin plates are in metallic connection by means of the two 
upright springs, shown in the cut. The springs are of steel, and press strongly 




on two points in a short insulated brass rod, n, which is screwed into the 

Fig. 5. 
Fig. 4. 




framework of the instrument. The left-hand plate is connected with the 
terminal d, also by a slip of brass. If, now, the two terminals, u and r>, arc 
connected by a wire, w w, the circuit will be complete, as follows : from 
the terminal u, into the coil at the right-hand side ; out of the coil at the 
left side, downwards, to the right-hand plate; up the right-hand steel spring, 
across the brass rod, n, to the left-handi steel spring; downward, by this 
spring, to the left-hand plate, thence, by the slip of brass, to the terminal i>, 
and thence, by the wire, w w, to the terminal u, whence we started. If, now, 
the wire from u went up the line of railway, and the wire from r> down the 
line, and the circuit were in some way kept complete on the large scale, as 
it has been here described on the small scale, any electric current passing 
along the wire from a distant station would traverse this coil in its course, 
and would deflect the needle, and so make a signal. 

" So far for receiving a signal; now for sending one. Were we to go out on 
the open railway, taking with us a battery, and to cut any one of the wires, 
and place its two ends, thus obtained, upon the two terminal ends of the 
battery, a current would pass along the line, and the needles on that line 
would be deflected; and if we changed hands, so as to reverse the connections, 
and, consequently, to reverse also the direction of the electric current, the 
deflections of the needles would be reversed. The same would happen were 
we to cut a wire inside the office, or inside the telegraph, and treat it in a 
similar way. Now, in every apparatus contrived for transmitting signals, 
we have a place corresponding to such a cut wire; and, near this place, are 
the poles of the battery, mounted and movable, so that they may be readily 
applied in the breach, one way or the other, as required. The place here 
(fig. 5.) is the top of the springs. They are not joined to the brass rod, n, but 
press hard upon it, and can readily be raised; and when either of them is 
raised, the circuit is broken. Now, near this place is a contrivance by which 
the poles of the battery may make a breach in the circuit, and be applied in 
the breach in cither direction. The drum, b, is of box- wood, the ends, c and z, 
being capped with brass, and insulated from each other by the wood left be- 
tween them. The drum is movable by a handle in front of the instrument, 
visible in fig. 4. A stout steel wire, c, is screwed beneath, into the c end of 
the drum ; and a similar wire, z 1 , is screwed above, into the z end. These 
two wires are the poles of the battery, z' being connected with the zinc end, 
and c' with the copper, thus: — from the copper end of the battery a wire is 
led to the terminal c; thence a slip of brass leads to a curved brass spring, 
which presses on the drum at c ; from the zinc end of the battery a wire goes 
to the terminal z, and thence a slip of brass leads to a similar curved spring, 
pressing on the continuation of the z end of the drum, as shown in the figure. 
Whenever, therefore, the drum is moved, the steel wire, z', will lift up one or 
other of the upright steel springs — it is now lifting up the right-hand one — 
and so break the circuit; but, by a little further motion of the drum, the 
wire, c', will press upon the boss below, as shown in the figure, and thus there 
will be a battery pole on each side of the breach, and a signal will be made 
on this, and on all instruments connected with it. And, from the peculiar 
arrangement of the drum, the motion can be changed as rapidly as the hand 
can move. I have shown the battery connections exactly as they occur in 
practice; and the connections are such, that if the right-hand spring is moved 
off, the needle moves to the right, and if the left, to the left. The needle on 
the face of the instrument always has its north end upward, and the needle 
within the coil its north end downward, so that, by the law elsewhere stated 
(fig. 1.), if we look at the face of an instrument, and see the top end of the 
needle move to the right, we may he sure that in the half of the coil nearest 
to us the current is ascending. 



1853.J 



Channels for Investment. 



45 



"Now, as regards the front of the instrument, upon which the alphabet is 
engraved right and left of the needle, it will be obvious, from what has been 
said above, that the manipulator has it in his power to cause the dial-needle 
to vibrate or deflect to the right or left, as he directs the electric current one 
way or other through the coil, and this direction of the electric current is 
commanded in the way above described, by turning the handle at the lower 
part of the instrument to the right or left. When this handle is vertical, the 
current is altogether cut off. 

"We have now endeavoured to render the principle upon which signals are 
communicable between distant stations by electro-magnetic means intelligible, 
and have only noticed a few of the appendages, as they may be termed, to 
the talking part of the apparatus. 

" One of them, and anlmportant one, is the alarum, or bell-signal, by 
which audible notice is given from station to station, of their desire to talk to 
each other through the telegraph. These bell -signals may be either alto- 
gether independent of the telegraph, and rung by a separate wire, or they 
may be rung by the same wire which actuates the telegraph, and which, in 
that case, is so arranged that the electric current may be diverted through the 
bell-magnet, or through the telegraph, as occasion may require; and, in this 
case, if we suppose the bell to be in the circuit, its ringing announces the 
wish of the distant station, say of Dover, to communicate with London ; then 
London, on hearing the bell, turns on the current to the bell at Dover, to 
announce that the signal has been successful; the current is then turned off 
the bells on to the needle-coils, and the message transmitted in the usual 
way. When separate and independent wires and bells are employed, they 
are always in the circuit, and may be rung whenever required. For particular 
purposes the bells may serve as special signals, and when rung once, twice, 
thrice, and so on, may thus serve to announce something that has happened 
at the distant station." 

(To be continued.) 



CHANNELS FOR INVESTMENT, 



LIST OF NEW COMPANIES EECENTLY ESTABLISHED 
OR PROPOSED. 



Trevalga Slate Company... 

West London Water Works Com- 
pany 

Himalaya Tea Cultivation Co.... 

London Central Union Railway ... 

St. Eloi de Carnieres-Sud (Bel- 
gium) Coal Mine Company ... 

The British Sugar Refining Co.... 
pany (Bessemcr's Patent) 

Prignant Consols Silver Lead Min- 
ing Company 

La Peruvienne Gold Washing Co. . . . 

Brazilian Diamond and Gold Co.... 

Central Australian Gold Company 

Upper Canada Mining Company 

Australian Direct Steam Naviga- 
tion Company ... 

Royal West India Mining Company 

Port of Southampton Emigration 
Company 

British and Colonial Smelting and 
Reduction Company 

Grosvenor Lead Mining Company 

Dysournant Slab and Slate Co. ... 



Amount of 

Shares. 
.. £1 



10 
10 



1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

25 
20 



No. of Shares. 
10,000 

10,000 
10,000 



46,000 
40,000 

12,000 
150,000 

65,000 
100,000 

80,000 

40,000 
5,000 

6,000 



Capital. 
£10,000 

100,000 
100,000 



184,000 
200,000 

12,000 
150,000 

65,000 
100,000 

80,000 

1,000,000 
100,000 

30,000 



5 


50,000 


250,000 


1 


10,000 


10,000 


1 


12,000 


12,000 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED, 

Dated 30th October, 1852. 
572. H. Brinsmead— An invention for shaking straw to lie 
attached to threshing machines. 

DatedOth November, 1852. 
684. T. Dunn and W. Watts, jun.— Railways. 

Dated 19tf» November, 1852. 
784. R. Walker— Portable houses and other erections. 

Dated '2.1th November, 1852. 
891. H. Winton and F. Parkes— Horticultural forks, &c. 
Dated 30th November, 1852. 

J. Addison — Pocket sundial. 

W. Jeffs — Letters, figures, ornamental work, &c. 

J. Murdoch — Materials for use in painting. (A com- 
munication.) 

J. M. Haldon — Rendering wood imperishable and un- 
inflammable. (A communication.) 

S. Clarke — Lamps. 

A. Craig — Crane, &c. 

J. B. Birch and E. Birch — Drains. 

J. Skertchley, jun. — Mangles and mangle- rollers. 

J. Barlow — Stands for casks, barrels, &c. 

T. Parramore and S. Lewis— Wearing apparel. 

G. Fitt — Motive power and speed. 

Dated 1st December, 1852. 

C. Hart — A threshing, straw-shaking, riddling, and 
winnowing machine combined. 

W. Slater — Ovens and baking apparatus. 

G. A. Huddart — Boilers and furnaces. 

C. Walker — Purifying water for steam boilers, &c. 

R. Milligan — Combing machinery. 

W. Morris — Motive power, and apparatus pertaining 
thereto. 

F. W. Green — Propelling ships, &c. 
Dated 2nd December, 1852. 

J. Dable and W. Wells— Rolling metals. 

R. Kirke — Apparatus for burning fuel, especially adap- 
ted for anthracite coal. 

W. Taylor — Propelling ships, &e. 

J. Rothwell — Looms for weaving. 

W. K. Whytehead — Steam engines and steam boilers, 

J. E. McConnell — Locomotive engines. 

J. Norton — Shot or projectiles. 

E. Poulson — Purchase for working ships Jand other 
pumps, &c. 

C. Millar — Timekeepers or clockwork. 
Dated 3rd December, 1852. 

J. Newall — Railway breaks. 

N, Seward — Applying hydro-pneumatic agency for 
obtaining motive power. 

T. C. Banfleld — Process and apparatus for extracting 
saccharine and other juices from beet-root or other 
roots and plants. (A communication.) 

P. Walker and A. B. Walker — Fermenting ale and 
porter, &c. 

H. Hitchins and W. Batley— Producing raised surfaces. 

P. D. Woodcock— Wind pills. 

C. deBergue— Looms for weaving. (A communication.) 



911 
912. 
913, 

914. 

915 
916 
917, 
918, 
919. 
920, 
921. 

923, 

924, 
925. 
926. 
927. 
928. 

929. 

930. 
931. 

932. 
933. 
934. 
935. 
936. 
937. 

938. 

939. 
940. 



942. 

943. 
944. 
945. 



946. G. Ware and A. II. Fernandez— Wedges for keys or 

rails of railway chairs. 

947. J. Neale— Back fastenings for Venetian swing shutters, 

&c. 

948. G. Stiff— Printing machine. 

949. J. Bethell— Digging and cultivating land. 

950. J. Bethell— Steam engines. 

951. A. Wall— Sheet metal for shipbuilding, &c. 

952. D. McNee — A machine for printing witli colours on 

cloth, and which is also applicable for printing orna- 
mental designs on paper. 

953. R. A. Brooman— Manufacture of sugar. (A communi- 

cation.) 

954. S. Neville — Lamp glasses and globes. 

955. W. Keates — Fire-boxes for locomotive and other steam 

boilers. 

Dated Ath December, 1852. 

956. J. T. Manifold and C. S. Lowndes— Extracting the 

juice from the sugar cane. 

957. J. Rowbotham — Timekeepers, &c. (A communication.) 

958. A. Laurie— Oars, &c. 

959. J. Murdoch — Galvanic battery. (A communication.) 

960. J. Bentley — Fire-arms. 

961. J. Cliff — Bricks, lumps, tiles, quarries, terra cotta, &c. 

962. W. Maugham — Rendering wood fireproof. 

963. G. F. Parratt — Portable bridges or pontoons. 

964. I. L. Pulvermacher— Pipes and cigar holders. 

Dated Oth December, 1852. 

965. D. J. Murphy — Archimedean agricultural machine. 

966. J. Buchanan — Treatment of flax and other similar 

vegetable fibrous substances. 

967. R. A. Brooman — Saws and saw-mills. (A communica- 

tion.) 

968. G. F. de Douhet— Alcoholic, saccharine, and starch 

products. 

969. A. J. A. Gautier — Treatment of peat. 

970. A. Lees and T. Kay— Spinning and doubling cotton, 

wool, silk, flax, &c. 

971. F. M. Gooch — Railway signals, &c. 

972. C. A. Jordery — Cravat collars, stocks, &e. 

973. R. Laming — Purifying gas, and obtaining from the pro- 

ducts useful compounds. 

974. E. Tucker— Production of starch. 

975. W. Paton — Driving bands for machinery. 

976. J. Norman — Making and setting the square sails of ships. 

977. W. Blackett— Steam boilers. 

978. J. Smith— Paving. 

979. W. Quarterman — A gaseous engine. 

980. T. Conolly and W. Cotter— Propelling vessels. 

Dated 1th December, 1852. 

981. P. Duchamp— Jacquard machine. 

982. P. A. Lecomte de Fontainemoreau — Bars of furnaces 

and grates. (A communication.) 

983. J. II. Johnson — Weaving carpets and other fabrics. (A 

communication.) 

984. T. Challinor — Apparatusfor decanters and other bottles 

to facilitate the running off liquids therefrom. 

985. W. Mayo — Balls or float valves and cocks. 

986. J. Norton — Transmitting motive powers. 

987. A. V. Newton— Conveyance of letters, packages, freight, 

or passengers. (A communication.) 



988. S. A. Goddard— Pistols. 

989. R. A. Brooman — Safety valves. (A communication.) 

990. R. A. Brooman — Machinery for heating, evaporating, 

torrefying, and refrigerating. (A communication.) 

Dated 8th December, 1852. 

991. T. L. Preston — A machine for making links for chains. 

992. J. Browne — Preventing escape of smoke from chimneys 

and consuming it. 

993. P. A. and C. Fontaine Moreau — Machinery for apply- 

ing metallic capsules. 

995. J. Harrison, R. Harrison, and A. S. Harrison — Machi- 

nery for textile and other fabrics. 

996. J. Symonds and G. Mouchet — Cleaning metallic sur- 

faces. 

997. W. Baddeley — Conversion of rectilinear into circular 

motion. (A communication.) 

998. D. Beatson and T. Hill— Propelling ships. 

999. T. Hill— Paddle wheels, 

1000. J. Lawrence — Projectiles. 

1001. A. N. Grovesand C. W. Finzel. jun. — Condensing steam 

or vapours. 

1002. J. S. Wilson— Propelling. 

1003. Sir J. P. Orde— Head gear for horses, &c. 

1004. J. Hopkins— Obtaining line parallel to axis of the 

earth. 

Dated 9th December, 1852. 

1007. W. Mather— Plasters and machinery for same. 

1008. W. Baddeley— Metal pipes. 

1009. W. Allchin— Agricultural and other steam-engines. 

1010. E. Hunt — Screw-propeller. 

1011. E.T. Loseby — Timekeepers and cases. 

1012. C. Greenaway — Anchors. 

1013. G. Collier — Carpets and other fabrics. 

1014. T. Masters— Cleaning knives and other steel articles. 

Dated XOth December, 1852. 

1015. J. Sheringham — Stove grates. 

1016. J. C. Blackwell — Musical instruments. 

1017. A. T. Jay— Safety letter-box. 

1018. T. A. Smithson and G. H. Adam— Suspending carriage- 

bodies. 

1019. J. Derrington and J. Chadwick— Cocks and valves. 

1020. R. A. Brooman — Evaporating apparatus. 

1021. J. Boilesve— Dessicating apparatus. (A communica- 

tion). 

Dated 11th December, 1352. 

1022. T. Boardman— Looms for weaving. 

1023. W. Rothera— Manufacturing nails, screw blanks, &c. 

1024. G. D. Howell— Ventilation. 

1025. J. Martin— Artificial fuel. 

1026. E. Bates— Breaks. 

1027. W. Sorrell— Furnaces and fire-places for consuming 

smoke. . ., 

1028. A. White— Apparatus for retarding and stopping rail- 

way trains. 

1029. C. Bedells —Improvements in reels. 

1030. S. Green— Joining earthenware pipes. 

1031. G.Dixon — Refining sugar. 

1032. T. Morris and W. Johnson — Depositing alloys Ot 

metals. 

1033. C. Ritchie— Measuring fluids. 



46 



List of Patents. 



[February, 



1034 J T Way and J M. Paine— Manufacture of glass. 1 1114. C. Watson— Carriage and stable brushes 

1035'. C. Griffln — Obtaining metallic copper from natural | 1115. W. J. Silver— Motion to capstan and other barrels. 



1054. 
1055. 



105G. 



solution. 

Dated 13(7i December, 1852. 

1036. J. Glasson— Boilers. 

1037. J. Hamblet and VV. Dean— Bricks. 

1039. G. Mackay — Stirrup. 

1040. G. Mackay— Paddle-wheel 

1041. A. V. Newton— Regulating density of fluids. 

1042. J. Lejeune— Machine for washing linen, &c. 

1043. F. Dangerfield— Lithographic press. 

1044. D. Napier— Steam-engines. 

1045. H. Clayton— Bricks. 

1046. W. H. Fox Talbot— Motive power. 

1047. A. Ripley — Axles for railway wheels. 

Dated Uth December, 1852. 

1048. J. Bell— Railway chairs. 

1049. C. E. Magnant— Tanning. 

1050. J. N. Taylor— Ships windlasses and other winches. 
1053. J. Baggs— Extracting gold and silver from ores. 

J. H. Johnson — Fire-grates and fire-places. 
W. Johnson — Manufacture of aerated waters. (A com- 
munication). 
J. H. Johnson— Wind-guards. (A communication). 

1057. J. G. Jennings— Construction of drains. 

1058. R. Appel — Anastaticprinting. 

1059. J. P. M. Floret— Producing simultaneously gaslight 

and lime plaster. 

Dated 15th December, 1852. 

1060. W. E. Middleton— Improved lubricator. 

1061. P. D'Homme— Window blinds, curtains, and hangings. 

1062. S. Walker — Clogs and patterns. 

1063. G. Elliot and W. Russell— Boiling down saline solu- 

tions. 

1064. J. F. J. Capliu— Apparatus for preventing or curing 

stopping of the head or body. 

1065. J. Mason — Bleaching and dyeing. 
1060. A. Robscheif— Separating gold, &c, from extraneous 

matters. 

1067. C. J. Wallis — Amalgamating and grinding substances 

together. 

1068. A. R. Groves— Heating, drying, and evaporating. 

1069. R. Tnylor and J. A. Phillips— Treating zinc ores. 

1070. C. Di esser — Materials in substitution of whalebone, &c. 

1071. T.Dunn and W. Watts— Machinery for altering the 

position of engines and carriages on railway. 

Dated 16th December, 1852. 

1072. P. A. and C. Fontaine Moreau — Lamp omnibus. 

1073. A. Cointry — Manufacture of bread and biscuits. 

1074. J. J. Payne — Axle in two parts. 

1075. C. Barlow — Bleaching, purifying, and concentrating 

sulphuric acid ; partly applicable to other pur- 
poses. 

1076. J. Healy — Application of glass and enamel to flyers, 

&c, used in preparing, spinning, &c, cotton, wool, 
and other fibrous materials. 

1077. R. Blades — Cleansing sewers. 

1078. J. Stevens— Grinding and polishing lenses. 

1079. Sir F. C. Knowle — Manufacture of iron. 

10S0. T. Mosley— Tablets, letters, &c, for indicating names, 
&c. 

1081. A. E. L. Bellford— Stoppering bottles, &c. 

1082. A. Slate — Propulsion. 

1083. A. Slate — Motive power from elastic fluids. 

1084. A. Slate — Propelling vessels. 

1085. — Dunlop— Saddles. 

1086. G. Michiels— Manufacture and purification of gas. 

1087. G. Sydney — Improvements in jugs, &c. 

Dated \Tth December, 1852. 

1088. H. Kenyon— Grinding bones. 

1089. F. J. Bramwell— Steam-engines. 

1090. A. Slate— Slide valve. 

1091. A. Slate — Invention in steam-boilers. 

1092. R. W. Billings — Ventilating chimneys and apart- 

ments. 

1093. W. Wilkinson— Looped pile and cut pile fabrics. 

1094. A. Krupp — Improvements in cannons. 

1095. J. F. Kineston— Reciprocating motion and propelling. 

1096. J. Langridge — Stays. 

Dated ISth December, 1852. 

1097. J. Matthews — A burglary alarum. 

1098. G. Thompson — Machine for cutting wood. 

1099. T. Y. Hall— Safety-lamps. 

1100. W. Robertson — Machines for spinning. 

1101. T. Elliott— Steam engines. 

1102. J. A. Westerman — Carbonisation of turf, and manufac- 

ture of paper and fuel therefrom. 

1103. E. Schischkar — Dyeing and colouring. 

1104. E. Schischkar— Colouring or staining. 

1105. C. C. Boutigny — Improvements in distillation. 

1106. J. Clay— Coal gas. 

1 107. W. East — Machinery for crushing clods, dibbling, drill- 

ing, and sowing seeds. 

Dated 20th December, 1852. 

1109. J. Durandeau — Marks and designs in paper. 

1110. G. Lingard — Taps and apparatus for admitting air to 

beer, &c., under draught. 

1111. W. Wilkinson — Improvements in manufacture of 

paper, &c, and production of a substance applicable 
to veneers, &c, and other purposes to which gutta 
percha and papier mache are applicable. 

1112. P. A. and C. Fontaine Moreau— Night-stools, &c'., ap- 

plicable to apparatus for containing fluids liable to 
decomposition. 



1116. G. Gwynne and G. F. Wilson— Candles, night-lights, 
and soap. 

Dated 21st December, 1852. 

1117. R. Powell — Coats and outer garments. 

1118. F. D' Albert— Chemical substitute for indigo. 

1119. J.B.MoinierandC.C. Boutigny— Concentrating syrups 
and distillation. 

1120. J. B. Moinier and C. C. Boutigny— Distilling fatty 
matters. 

1121. G. Beadon, Commander, E.N .—Constructing and pro- 
pelling ships. 

1122. J. Akrill— Manufacture of bricks, &e. 

1123. W. De la Rue— Surfaces of paper and card-board. 

1 124. J. Akrill— Crucibles. 

1125. E. D. Moore— Preparation of malt and hops. 

1126. W. E. Newton— Lamps. 

1127. J. Roydes — Machinery for drawing cotton, &c. 

1128. E. Mosely — Artificial masticating apparatus. 

Dated 22nd December, 1852. 

1129. C. Denis veuve Quinchcz— Fabric for making mantles, 
bonnets, &c. 

1130. A. V. Newton — Increasing draft of furnaces, and 
arresting sparks of locomotive engines. 

1131 . J. Roberts— Apparatus for preserving animal and vege- 
table matters, and for cooling wines, &c. 

1132. F. C. Hills— Purifying gas. 

1133. J. H. Johnson — Machinery for forging iron and other 
metals. (A communication.) 

1 134. J. F. Kingston — Motive power by electro-magnets. 

1135. W. Aspdin — Manufacture of Portland and other ce- 
ments. 

1136. T. Greenshiclds— Manufacture of alkali. 

1137. F. Aychbourn — Rendering materials impervious to air 
or water. 

1138. T. Vicars, sen., and T. Vicars, jun. — Baking ovens, and 
method of placing bread therein' 

1139. J. Livesey — Lace machinery and piled fabrics. 

1 140. J. M. Hyde — Steam engine and production of steam. 



Dated 23rd December, 1852. 

1141. A. J. llobson — Metallic bedstead. 

1142. J. W. Couchman— Fastening window-sashes. 

1143. A. Deutsch — Treating oil of colza, &c. 

1144. C. Binks — Composition of paints. 

1145. W. Westley and R. Bayliss — Fastener applicable to 

window-sashes, tables, &c. 

1146. N. Malinau — Stopping and covering bottles, &c, and 

machinery for same. 

1147. G. Gwynne and G. F. Wilson— Treating fatty and oily 

matters. 

1148. W. Roper — Shaping and ornamenting sheet-metal 

1149. J. L. David — Manufacture of woollen fabrics. 

1150. P. Fairbairn and S. R. Mathers — Machinary for card- 

ing. 

1151. J. Davis — Brick and tile-machine. 

Dated 2ith December, 1852. 

1152. F. Peyre and M. Dolques — Machinery for dressing 

woollen cloth. 

1 153. J. Hinks and G. Wells— Penholder. 

1154. J. L. Murphy — Drawing off liquids. 

1155. J. Burch — Machinery for reaping, loading, stocking, 

and storing grain, &c. 
1150. J. Burch — Machinery for threshing, winnowing, clean- 
ing, and sorting grain, &c. 

1157. J. Burch — Passenger and other carriages. 

1 158. W. Ramsell— Generating steam and hot air, together or 

separately. 

1159. R. Griffiths— Motion to drills. 

1160. G. Michiels— Manufacture of gas. 

1161. G. Bower — Manufacture of gas. 

1162. J. G. Wilson — Construction of carriages for railroad 

and other roads, &c. 

1163. A.V.Newton — Motive power. (A communication). 
1104. R. Lublinski — Joint for umbrella and parasol sticks. 

1165. W. Tuer, W. Hodgson, and R. Hall— Textile fabrics 

and machinery for the same. 

1 166. P. C. Nesmond — Machinery for manufacture of ice, &c. 

Dated 21th December, 1852. 

1167. J.Anderson — Heating and ventilating and remedying 

smoky chimneys. 

1 168. G. Ingham — Machinery for drawing cotton, &c. 

1169. Rev. J. F. Gordon — Facilitating the turning of four- 

wheeled carriages. 

1170. G. F. Wilson— Treating certain fatty bodies. 

1171. G. Gwynne and G. F. Wilson— Treating fatty and oily 

matters. 

Dated 2Hth December, 1852. 

1172. J. Mason — Machinery for preparing cotton, &c, for 

spinning. 

1173. J. Darling and H. Spencer — Machinery for spinnin 

cotton, &c. 

1174. W. B. Johnson — Steam-boilers and apparatus. 

1175. P. T. Giraud — Apparatus to fix bonnets on the head, 

1176. J. Gidman— A Skate. 

1177. E. Mucklow— Retorts for distillation of pyroligneous 

acid, &c. 

1178. E. Mucklow — Machinery for cutting and rasping dye- 

woods. 

1179. E. Mucklow — Preventing radiation of heat from steam- 

boilers, and effects of incrustation. 

1180. W. Busfield— Combing wool, &c. 

1181 . A. Bernard and A. Koch — Machinery for preparing flax- 

straw, flax, &c. 



1182. J. Webster— Manufacture of springs. 

1183. C. J. E. Junot — Reducing metallic substances, and 

plating by means of electricity. (A communication). 

1184. S. Clegg— Measuring gas. 

Dated 29th December, 1852. 

1186. J. Copling — Safeguard railway signal. 

1187. H. Kibble — Travellers' monitor, or ticket and parcel 

protector. 

1188. J. Whichcord and S. E.Rosser— Burning and applying 

gas for light and heat. 

1189. B. Glcrney — Motive power. 

1190. S. J. Pittar— Goloshes for boots and shoes. 

1191. W. E. Newton— Manufacture of carpets. (A commu- 

nication). 

1192. A. D. Brown — Portable articles of furniture. 

1193. W. Brown — Forging, shaping, and crushing iron, &c, 

applicable to obtaining and applying motive power. 

1194. J. E. Cook — Composition for prevention of decay and 

fouling ships' bottoms and other exposed surfaces. 

1195. J. W. Friend — Measuring and registering distunce run 

by ships and boats through water. 

1196. J. Power— Silvering metals and glass. 

1197. A. E. L. Bellford — Quartz-crushing machinery and 

amalgamating same, applicable to all kinds of ores. 

1198. A. E. L. Bellford — New mode of advertising. 

Dated 30th December, 1852. 

1199. T. Walker — Regulating speed of steam-engines. 

1200. T. Walker — Regulating dampers of steam-boilers and 

evaporating furnaces, applicable to indication of 
pressure of steam, &c. 

1201. II. Hutchinson — Machines for washing bottles. 

1202. J. AVard and W. Burman — Brick and tile-machinery. 

1203. R. S. Oliver — Waterproof and other garments. 

1204. J, Singer — Wearing apparel. 

1205. W. E. Newton — Attaching metals to metals. 

1206. R. Taylerson — Ship-building. 

Dated Zlst December, 1852. 

1207. T. Harrison — Improvement in steam-engines. 

1208. AV. M. Pickslay — Blast furnaces, called "calorific 

blast." 

1209. T. B. Smith — Calcining ores, construction of furnaces 
for that purpose, and converting certain products 
into an article of commerce not hitherto produced 
therefrom. 

1210. D.Dixon — Apparatus for retarding and stopping loco- 
motive engines, &c. 

1211. J. Lord — Improvements in carriage steps. 



Dated \st January, 1853. 
1. W. Wilkinson — Taps and filtering apparatus. 

3. J. Addison and H. S. Eicke— Tessellated pavement. 

4. J. S. J. Eicke — Deodorising American and other resins 

for mixing with grease, tallows, and wax, &c. 

5. J. J. W. Watson and W. Prosser— Manufacturing steel 

and carburising iron. 

6. T. Billyeald — Apparatus for looped fabrics. 

7. J. Brough — A new manufacture of a vitrified substance, 

and its application to various useful purposes, and 
new applications of known plastic substances. 
9. M. Tomlinson— Manufacture of "species," or show- 
jars. 

Dated 3rd January, 1853. 

10. David Hulet — Ornaments for lamps, &c, and archi- 

tectural purposes. 

11. J. Bleackley — Machinery for washing, bleaching, &c, 

yarns and fabrics. 

13. L. F. Vaudelin — Retarding and stopping railway car- 

riages. 

14. C. E. Amos — Centrifugal pumps. 

Dated 4th January, 1853. 

15. P. A. C. de Fontainemoreau — Improvements in axle- 

boxes. (A communication.) 

16. E. C. Shepard — Manufacture of gas. 

17. J. J. Welch and J. S. Margetson — Travelling-cases, 

wrappers, and articles of dress hitherto manufac- 
tured of leather. 

19. G. Gwynne and G. F. Wilson — Treating fatty and oily 

matters. 

20. W. E. Newton— Atmospheric engines. (A communi- 

cation.) 

Dated 5th January, 1853. 

21. J. B. Pascal— Motive power. 

22. G. Eugene M. Gerard— Manufacturing and treating 

caoutchouc. 

23. G. P. de l'Huynes— Medical portative electro-galvanic 

apparatus. 

24. T. Shilton — Weighing-machines. 

25. C. F. Whitworth — Railway signals. 

26. F. Edwards — Lettering, figuring, and ornamenting 

enamel for dials, &c. 

27. F. Arnold — Heating water in bath or other vessel. 

28. H. N. Penrice — Propelling vessels. 

29. W. Bendell— Treating sewage waters and matters. 

Dated 6th January, 1853. 

30. E. Grillett— Renewing teeth of files. 

32. E. Hutchinson — Preparing, drying, and treating wheat 

and other grain. 
34. R. W. Savage— Alarum bedstead. 
36. R. Whinery — Manufacture and treatment of leather, 

with or without other materials. 
38. W. E. Newton — Roving, spinning, &c, cotton, &c, 

called " LarwiU's improTement#," (A conjrnunica- 

tion.) 



1853.] 



List of Patents. 



m 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Dated \%th December, 1852. 
95. William Oxley, Manchester— Improvements in apparatus 
for heating and drying. 

404. William Stevenson, Preston — Improvements in weft 
forks for power-looms. 

463. William Harrison, Blackburn, Lancashire— Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for sizing, and other- 
wise preparing cotton, wool, flax, and other warps for 
weaving. 

502. Charles William Graham, Bishopsgate-street within — 
Improvements in the manufacture of bottles and jars. 

603. David Thomson, Dundee — Improvements in the manu- 
facture of carpets. 

Dated 22nd December, 1852. 

103. Charles Langley, Poplar, Middlesex — Improvements in 
ship-building. 

108. Thomas Fearn, Birmingham — Improvements in orna- 
menting metallic surfaces, and in machinery. 

1 12. Herman Twick, Broad-street-buildings — Improvements 
in packing goods. 

115. Charles John Carr, Belper, Derbyshire — Improvements 
in machinery for making bricks and other similar ar- 
ticles. 

128. William 'Rogers, 125, Long-acre — Improvements in 
studs, buttons, and other fasteners. 

309. James Yule, St, Luke's-terrace, Gloucester — Improved 
arrangement of sawing machinery. 

3G0. George Lloyd, Budbrooke, Warwickshire— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of paper. 

395. John Geage, 4, Wellington -street south, Strand — Im- 
proved stove, or heating apparatus. 

Dated 2ith December, 1852. 
97. John Macmillan Dunlop, of Manchester — Improvements 
in the manufacture of wheels for carriages. 

174. Alexander Campbell Duncan, of Glasgow — Improve- 
ments in the art or process of dyeing cotton, or other 
textile fabrics, or cotton with other yarns, when 
printed or mordanted with the colouring matter of 
madder, or of dyewoods, and in machinery or appara- 
tus employed therein. 

235. Edwin Petit, of Kingsland, and James Forsyth, of Cald- 
beck, Cumberland — Improvements in spinning and 
drawing cotton and other fibrous substances, and ma- 
chinery for that purpose. 

365. Edward Lloyd, of Dee Valley, near Corwen, Merioneth- 
shire — Improvements in steam-engines, the whole or 
part of which improvements are applicable to other 
motive engines. 

550. John Wormald, of Manchester — Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for roving, spinning, and 
doubling cotton, wool, or other fibrous substances. 

Dated, 20th December, 1852. 
329. Jonas Lavater, of No. 17, Grenelle St. Honors, Paris- 
Improvements in the apparatus for measuring the in- 
clination of plane surfaces and angles formed or to be 
formed thereon. 

Dated 31st December, 1SS2. 
57. John Joseph Macdonnell, Temple-mead, Bristol — Im- 
provements in the construction of railways. 
81. Edwin Petit, Kingsland — Improvements in the manu- 
facture of ammoniacal salts and manures. 

221. William Crosskill, Beverley, Yorkshire — Improvements 
in machines for cutting or reaping growing corn, 
clover, and grass. 

250. William Armand Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury — 
Improved mode of disinfecting putrified and fecal 
matters, and converting fecal matters into manure, 
also applicable to the disinfection of cesspools, drains, 
sewers, and other similar receptacles. 

382. AVilliam Chisholm, Holloway — Improvements in the 
purification of gas, and the obtention of certain pro- 
ducts during the process of such purification. 

440. Fennell Herbert Allman, 16, Westbourne-street, Hyde- 
park — Improvements in the manufacture and con- 
struction of brushes. 

487. Archibald Slate, Dudley — Improvements in the manu- 
facture and construction of cores and core-bars, used 
in the production of hollow castings in iron and 
other metals. 

493. George Price, Birmingham— New or improved gas- 
stove. 

523. William Clarke, Manchester— Improvements in joints 
for connecting metals. 

557. Robert Mallet, Dublin — Improvements in fire-proof and 

other buildings and structures. 

558. Henry Robert Ramsbottom, Bradford, Yorkshire — Im- 

provements in preparing and combing wool and 
other fibrous substances. 

644. George Shand, Glasgow, and Andrew M'Lean, Edin- 
burgh — Improvements in obtaining products from 
tar. 

680. William Thomas Henley, St. John-street-road — Im- 
provements in electric telegraphs, and in the appa- 
ratus and instruments connected therewith. 

Dated 5th January, 1853. 

40. Frederick Richard Holl, Weymouth-terrace, City-road — 
Improvements in watches and chronometers. 

59. Marcus Davis, 5, Lyon's-inn, Strand — Improvements 
in the manufacture of carriages, carts, military and 
other waggons, and wheels for locomotive and "other 
purposes. 
137. Robert W. Parker, Roxby, Massachusetts, United 
States — Improved mode of giving rotatory motion 
to a shaft of a circular saw or other mechanical con- 
trivance. 



100. Joseph Burch, Crag Hall, near Macclesfield— Improve- 
ments in building and propelling ships and vessels. 

184: Joseph Needham, 26, Piccadilly — Improvements in 
breech-loading fire-arms, and in apparatus connected 
therewith. 

191. John Stringfellow, Chard, Somerset— Improvements in 

galvanic batteries for medical and other purposes. 

192. George John Philps, Friday-street, London — Improve- 

ments in hats and other like coverings for the head. 

195. GeorgejStuart, Glasgow— Improvements in heating the 
fleeces of natui'al coverings of sheep and other 
animals when on the animals. 

203. John Moseley, Birmingham— Improvements in ma- 
chinery for cleansing linen and other fibrous ma- 
terials. 

297. Alfred Kent, Chichester, Sussex — Improvements in 
glazing. 

338. Robert Lambert, 13, Goree-piazza, Liverpool — Improve- 
ments in tents. 

392. Joseph Burch, Crag Hall, near Macclesfield — Improve- 

ments in baths and bathing. 

393. Joseph Burch, Crag Hall, near Macclesfield — Improve- 

ments in building ships and vessels for the purpose 
of saving lives and property in cases of shipwreck or 
fire at sea. 

399. Joseph Hopkinson the younger, Huddersfield, Yorkshire 

— Improvements in steam-boilers. 

400. Simon Pincoffs, Manchester, and Henry Edward 

Schunck, Rochdale — Improvements in the treat- 
ment of madder, and other plants of the same 
species, and of their products, for the purpose of 
obtaining dyeing materials. 

415. William Beckett Johnson, Manchester— Improvements 
in stationary steam-engines. 

419. John Henry Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-flelds — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of sugar. 

411. John Kealy, Oxford-street — Improvements in machinery 
or apparatus for cutting or slicing roots. 

474. William Weild, Manchester — Improvements in looms 
for weaving certain descriptions of pile fabrics. 

554. John Collis Browne, Fort Pitt, Chatham— Relief of 
individuals suffering from pulmonary affections or 
diseases of the chest. 

570. Martin Watts, Patricroft, near Manchester— Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for roving or 
preparing cotton and other fibrous substances for 
spinning. 

582. James Sinclair, Stirliag — Improvements in engines to 
be worked by steam, air, or water, the said improve- 
ments being also applicable to pumps. 

G45. Peter Fairbairn, Leeds, Yorkshire — Improvements in 
self-acting reeling.machinery for reeling fl;ix and 
other yarns into hanks. 

616. George Fife, Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Improvements in 
steam and water-gauges. 

062. Peter Fairbairn, Leeds, Yorkshire, and John Hargrave 
Kirkstall, Yorkshire — Improvements in machinery 
for opening, combing, and drawing wool, flax, arid 
other fibrous materials. 

719. Sir Charles Fox, knt., New-street, Spring-gardens— 
Improvements in roads. (Being a communication to 
him from a foreigner abroad). 

726. John Henry Johnson — Improvements in reaping- 
machines and in apparatus connected therewith. 
(Being a communication to him from abroad). 

Dated 8th January, 1853. 

1. Robert Adams, King William-street, City — Improve- 

ments in ball-cartridges. 

2. George Henry Brockbank, Crawley-street, Oakley- 

square — Improvements in upright pianofortes. 

4. James Hodgson, Liverpool — Improvements in construct- 

ing iron ships and vessels. 

5. Joshua Smith, Sheffield — Improvements in table-knives. 

6. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in the manu- 

facture of guns and pistols. 
9. George Green, Mile-end-road — Improvements in the 
manufacture of casks. 

13. Edward Lambart Hayward, Blackfriars-road— Improve- 

ments in lock-spindles. 

14. Thomas Christy, jun., Gracechurch-street — Improve- 

ments in weaving hat, plush, and other piled fabrics. 

16. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in the manu- 
facture of telescope and other tubes. 

19. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in moulding 
articles, when India-rubber combined with other ma- 
terials are employed. 

21. George Duncan and Arthur Hutton, Chelsea— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of casks. 

24. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in making 
covers for, and in binding, books and portfolios, and in 
making frames for pictures and glasses. 

28. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in coating 

metal and other substances with a material not hitherto 
used for such purposes. 

29. John Daniel Ebingre, Brussels — Improvements in the 

manufacture of animal charcoal. 

30. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in the manu- 

facture of trunks, cartouche, and other boxes, in knap- 
sacks, pistol-holsters, dressing, writing, and other cases, 
and swords and other sheaths. 

32. William Pym Flynn, 18, Rutland-place, Cork — Improve- 

ments in paddle-wheels. 

33. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in the manu- 

facture of pails, tubs, baths, buckets, measures, drink- 
ing and other vessels, basins, pitchers, and jugs, by the 
application of a material not hitherto used in such ma- 
nufactures. 
37. Moses Poole, Serle-street— Improvements In covering 



and sheathing surfaces with a material not hitherto 
used for such purpose. 
43. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in harness and 
in horse and carriage furniture. 

120. George Collier, Halifax, Yorkshire — Improvements in 

the manufacture of carpets and other fabrics. 

121. John Lee Stevens, Kennington— Improvements in fur- 

naces. 
123. Richard Whytock, Greenpark, Zebberton, Mid-Lothian 

■ — Improvements in the manufacture of fringes, and of 

plait for these and other ornamental works. 
136. William George Nixey, Moor-street — Improvements in 

tills and other receptacles for money. 

162. John Ignatius Fuchs, Zerbst, Anhalt Dessau — An elec- 

tro-magnetic apparatus. 

163. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in construct- 

ing bridges, viaducts, and such like structures. 
230. James Bullough, David Whittaker, and John Walmsley, 

Blackburn — Improvements in sizing-machines. 
246. George Hallen Cottam, Charles-street, Hampstead-road 

■ — Improvements in chairs, sofas, and bedsteads. 

273. John Frederick Chatwin, Birmingham — Improvements 

in the manufacture of brushes. 

274. John Frederick Chatwin, Birmingham — Improvements 

in the manufacture of buttons. 

315. Alexander Clark and Patrick Clark, Gate-street, Lin- 
coln's-inn- fields — Improvements in the manufacture of 
shutters, doors, and windows. 

624. Edward Lord, Tormorden, Yorkshire — Improvements in 
certain machinery to be used in preparing, spinning, 
and weaving cotton and other fibrous substances. 

659. John, Edward, and Charles Gosnell, 12, Three King- 
court, Lombard-street, City — ■ Improvements in 
brushes. 

674. Peter Fairbairn, Leeds — Improvements in the ordinary 
screw-gill machinery, when applied to the purposes of 
drawing, combing, and heckling fibrous materials. 

776. Francis Bresson, 4, South-street, Finsbury — Improved 
mode of propelling on land and water. 

Dated 12th January, 1853. 

15. Joseph Barker, Kennington-lane — Improvements in 
fastenings. 

22. Henry Walker Wood, Briton Ferry, near Heath— Im- 
provements in the construction of ships and other 
vessels, 

31. John Dunkin Lee, Leartenhall-street — Improvements 
in covering railway trucks and other vehicles. 

34. Robert Beath, Godmanchester — Improvements in the 

manufacture of bricks and articles through mould- 
ing orifices. 

35. Thomas Huckvale, Choice-hill, near Chipping Norton 

— Improvements in instruments for administering 
medicine to horses and other animals. 

39. Felix Abate, 21, George-street, Hampstead-road, and 
John Julius Clero de Clerville, Newman-street — Im- 
provements in preparing, ornamenting, and printing 
on surfaces of metal and other substances. 

41. Joseph Barrans, Queen's-road, Surrey — Improvements 
in steam-engine boilers. 

45. Charles William Rowley Rickards, 2S, New-cut, Black- 
friars-road — Improvements in tongs for screwing 
pipes and tubes. 

47. Stephen Perry, Red-liou-square — Improvements in 

inkstands or inkholders. 

48. Edmund Morewood and George Rogers, Enfield — Im- 

provements in rolling metal. 

49. Edmund Morewood and George Rogers, Enfield — Im- 

provements in coating metals. 

124. John Husband, Highway, New-road — Improvements 

in paving roads and other surfaces. 

125. Thomas Hunt, Lemon-street — Improvements in fire- 

arms. 

130. Isaac Westhorp, 9, George-yard — Improvements in 
grinding wheat and other grain. 

137. John Jackson, Exchange-court, Liverpool — Improve- 
ments in gas-burners. 

141. Astley Preston Price, Margate — Improvements in the 
manufacture of citric and tartaric acids, and of cer- 
tain salts of potash, soda, ammonia, lime, and baryta. 

167. Joseph Faulding, Edward-street, Hampstead-road — Im- 
provements in machinery for sawing and cutting 
wood and other su bstances. 

169. Moses Poole, Serle-street — Improvements in machi- 
nery for mowing and reaping. 

243. Samuel Getley, 6, Ivy-street, Birkenhead— Improve- 

ments in water-closets. 

244. Joseph Westby, Nottingham — Improvements in ma- 

chinery applicable to the manufacture of lace and 
other weavings. 

245. William Dray, Swan-lane, London-bridge — Improve- 

ments in machinery for reaping and mowing. 
247. Christopher Nickels, York-street, Lambeth, and Fred- 
erick Thorton, Leicester — Improvements in weav- 
ing. 

271. Joseph Westby, Nottingham — Improvements in twist- 

lace machinery. 

272. Joseph Hill, Birmingham — Machine for stamping 

metals and forging iron and steel. 

276. Francis Warren, 16, Mlllbank-street — Improvements 

in gas-burners. 

277. Admiral the Earl of Dundonald, Belgrave-road— Im- 

provements in coating and insulating wire. 

278. William Adolph, 9, Bury -court, St. Mary-axe — Im- 

provements in apparatus for warming and ventilat- 
ing rooms. 
295. Peter Ward, Oldbury, Worcester— Improvements in 
the manufacture of sal-ammoniac, and obtaining 
salts of ammonia. 



48 



List of Patents. 



[February, 1853. 



336. Charles Matthew Barker, 22, Portsmouth-place, Ken- 

nington-lane — Improvements in sawing wood. 

337. Henry M'Earlane, 8, Lawrence-lane— Improvements in 

stoves and fire-places. 
357. Thomas Barnabas Daft, Isle of Man — Improvements 

in land conveyance. 
376. Henry M'Farlane, Lawrence-lane — Improvements m 

constructing metal beams or girders. 

389. James Webster, Leicester— Improvements in the con- 

struction of springs. 

390. John Swindells, Pollard-street, Manchester, and Wil- 

liam Nicholson, Manchester— Improvements in ob- 
taining oxygen gas, and applying it in the manufac- 
ture of various acids and chlorine for oxidating 
metallic solutions, and for ageing and raising vari- 
ous colouring matters. 

413. Charles Tiot Judkins, Britannia Works, Manchester- 
Improvements in machinery or apparatus for sewing 
or stitching. 

420. John Oliver York, Paris — Improvements in connect- 
ing and in fixing rails in railway chairs. 

432. Edwin Heywood, Glasburn, Yorkshire— Improvements 
in looms. 

446. Robert Bird, Crewkerne, Somerset— Improvements in 
straining webs of saddles. 

448. James Otams, 2, Horton-villas, Camden-road, Hollo- 
way — Improvements in the manufacture of manure. 

464. John Gilbert and Samuel Nye, 79, Wardour-street— 
Improvements in mincing meat and other sub- 
stances. 

469. Robert Hoppen, Plymouth— Improvements in appara- 
tus for mincing meat. 

480. John Fowler, Temple-gate, Bristol— Improvements in 

machinery for draining land. 

481. John Fowler, Temple-gate, Bristol— Improvements in 

laying wires for electric telegraphs. 

482. John Fowler, Temple-gate, Bristol— Improvements in 

reaping machinery. 

483. John Fowler, Temple-gate, Bristol — Improvements in 

machinery for sowing seed and depositing manure. 
491. James Wilson, 37, Walbrook— Improvements in print- 
ing fabrics of silk, or partly of silk. 

509. Charles Watson, 31, Rhodes-street, Halifax, Yorkshire 

— Improvements in ventilation. 

510. John Tayler and James Slater, Manchester — Improve- 

ments in machinery, apparatus, or implements for 
weaving. 

621. Bernhard Samuelson, Banbury, Oxford — Improve- 
ments in breaking up and tilling land. 

657. John Melville, Porchester-terrace — Improvements in 
the application of iron and wood, combined with 
iron or other substances, to buildings and other con- 
structions. 

746. Joseph Cowen, Blaydon-burn, near Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, and Thomas Richardson, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne — Improvements in the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. 

751. Peter Armande le Comte de Fontaine Morcau, 39, Rue 
de l'Echiquer, Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury 
— Improvements in lamps. (A communication.) 

762. Joseph Burley, Halifax, Yorkshire — Improvements in 
apparatus for cutting fustians and other fabrics, to 
obtain a cut pile surface. 

Doled I3(h January, 1853. 

36. James Hare, Birmingham — Improvements in expand- 

ing-tables and music-stools. 
46. James Stewart, Old St. Pancras-road — Improvements 
in the action of pianofortes. 

122. Duncan Bruce, Canada, North America — Improvements 
in rotary steam-engines. 

300. Professor Andrew Crestadoro,Adelphi-place, Salford — 
Improvements in impulsoria, or machinery, for ap- 
applying animal power to railways, waterways, and 
common roads. 

355. Peter Warren, Stratmore-terrace, Shadwell— Improved 
materials, applicable to many purposes for which 
papier mache and gutta-percha have been, or may 
be, used. 

507. Felix Lieven Bauwens— Improvements in treating fatty 
matters prior to their being manufactured into can- 
dles and mortars, which are also applicable to oils. 

632. John Lee Stevens, Kennington — Improvements in fur- 
naces. 

556. Charles Arthur Redl, 27a, Davis-street, Berkeley- 
square — Improvements in telegraphing or commu- 
nicating signals at sea and otherwise. 

702. Joseph Tringham Powell, 28, Fenchurch-street— Im- 
provement in mixing, baking, and drying mate- 
rials in the making of biscuits and other articles 
where plastic matters are employed. 

755. James Robertson, Glasgow — Improvements in the 
manufacture of casks and other wooden vessels. 

778. Henry Vernon Physick, Aberdeen-place — Maida-hill. 
Improvements in electric telegraph apparatus, and 
in machinery or apparatus for constructing the 
same. 

812. William Crosskill, Beverley, York — Improvements in 
clod crushers, or rollers for rolling, crushing, or 
pressing land. 

856. Richard Dudgeon, New York, U.S. — Raising heavy 
weights by means of a portable hydraulic press. 

Dated 14th January, 1853. 

3. Peter Spence, Pendleton Alum Works, Manchester- 
Improvements in obtaining power by steam. 
212. Thomas Slater, Somers'-place, New-road, St. Paneras, 
and Joseph John William Watson, Old Kent-road— 



Improvements in the application of electricity to 
illuminating purposes. 

265. David Collison, Preston — Improvements in the con- 
struction of shuttle skewers. 

579. Alfred Vincent Newton, G6, Chancery-lane— Improve- 
ments in machinery for cutting corn and other 
crops. 

595. Joseph John William Watson, Old Kent-road, and 
Thomas Slater, Somers'-place, New-road, St. Paneras 
— Improvements in galvanic batteries, and in the 
application of electric currents to the production of 
electrical illumination and of heat, and in the pro- 
duction of chemical products by the aforesaid im- 
provements in galvanic batteries. 

666. Benjamin Baillie, 118, Wardour-street, Soho — Improve- 

ments in apparatus for drawing off and registering the 
flow of fluids. 

685. Robert Knowles, Chorlton-upon-Medlnck, Lancaster — 
Improvements in boilers, and apparatus for generating 
steam. 

695. Robert Buncombe Evans, Colyton, Devon— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of charcoal. 

741. Samuel Sedgwick, Piccadilly — Improvements in lamps. 

747. Robert Reyburn, Greenock — Improvements in the com- 
position of lozenges, and other confections. 

774. John Hinchcliff, Leeds, and Ralph Salt, Leeds — Im- 
provements in steam engines. 

808. George Wilson, York Glass Company, York — Improved 
manufacture of glass bottles and jars. 

827. John Kilner, Tliornhill Lees, near Dewsbury, Yorkshire 
— Improvements in the means of insulating the wires 
of electric telegraphs. 

Dated 11th January, 1853. 

11. Thomas Wood Gray, of Warkworth-terrace, Commer- 
cial-road, Limehouse — Improvements in cocks and 
valves. 

129. Joseph Cox, of Heston, Middlesex — Improvements in 
the manufacture of gates and hurdles. 

146. Edwin Lewis Brundage, of Jewin-crescent — Improved 
machinery for forging nails, brads, and screw-blanks. 

204. Bendix Ising Jacoby, of Hamburg — Improvements in 
the means of fixing artificial teeth. 

275. Alphonse RenG le Mire de Normandy, of Judd-street — 
Improvements in obtaining fresh- waterfrom salt water. 

358. William H. Smith, of Montgomery, Pennsylvania, Ame- 
rica — Improvements in the manufacture of lava-ware. 

533. Anthony Fothergill Bainbridge, of Putney — Improve- 

ments in the manufacture of artificial flies and other 
bait for fish. 

534. Samuel Clarke, of 55, Albany-street, Regent's-park — Im- 

provements in the manufacture of candles. 

564. William Bates, of Leicester — Improvements in apparatus 
for getting up stockings and other hosiery goods. 

574. John Gedge, of 4, Wellington-street, Strand — Improve- 
ments in printing-presses or machines. 

588. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall, and 
Edward Partridge, of Wandsworth— Improvements in 
the instruments or apparatus used when burning 
candles. 

592. George Dixon, of Dublin — Improvements in bleaching 
palm-oil. 

600. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Im- 
provements in the manufacture and treatment of oils. 

602. John Chubb, of St. Paul's Churchyard— Improvements 
in locks. 

620. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Im- 
provements in treating wool in the manufacture of 
woollen and other fabrics. 

635. Charles Pryse and Richard Redinan, of Birmingham — 
Improvements in a certain description of fire-arms. 

655. Robert Booty Cousens, of 50, Halliford-street — Improve- 

ments in machinery for cutting cork. 

656. Admiral the Earl of Dundonald, of Belgrave-road — Im- 

proving bituminous substances, thereby rendering 
them available for purposes to which they never here- 
tofore have been successfully applied. 

664. John Arthur Phillips, of 8, Upper Stamford-street, Black- 

friars — Improvements in purifying tin. 

665. Thomas Hicks Chandler, of Aldbourn, Wilts — Improve- 

ments in hoes. 

667. William Frederick de la Rue, of Bunhill-row, and 

George Waterston, of Edinburgh— Improvements in 
writing-cases. 

694. Charles Griffin, of Leamington Spa, Warwick — Improve- 
ments in apparatus for fixing type or printing sur- 
faces in a chase. 

697. Obed Hussey, of Manchester — Improvements in reaping- 
machines. 

710. James Noble, of Leeds, Yorkshire — Improvements in 

combing wool and other fibres. 

711. Colin Mather and William Wilkinson Piatt, of Salford 

Iron- works, Salford — Improvements in machinery for 
finishing linen, cotton and other fabrics. 

738. Richard C«ad, of London, and John Peers Coad, of 
Liverpool — Improvements in fire-places and means of 
applying heat. 

740. Admiral the Earl of Dundonald, of Belgrave-road— Im- 
provements in apparatus for laying telegraphic or gal- 
vanic wires in the earth, 

760. John Dent Goodman, of Birmingham— Improvements in 

the boxes and axles for carnages. (Being a communi- 
cation.) 

761. Samuel Holt, of Stockport, Cheshire— Improvements in 

weaving cut piled fabrics. 
771. John Thomas Way, of Hollos-street, Cavendish-square, 
and John Manwaring Paine, of Farnham — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of burned and fired ware, 



772. Isaac Lowthian Bell, of the Washington Chemical Works, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne— Improvements in the treat- 
ment of certain compounds of iron and sulphur. 

785. Peter Carmichael, of Den's Works, Dundee — Improve- 
ments in machinery for winding yam or thread. 

780. John Burgees, of Rastrick, Halifax, Yorkshire — Improve- 
ment in dying wool. 

790. Benjamin Nickels, of 13, Albany-road, Surrey — Impro- 
vements in the manufacture of adhesive planter. 

802. John Brettell Collins, of Birmingham— Improved floor- 
ing cramp or lifting jack. 

818. William Hedges, of Streatham Hill, Surrey— Improve- 
ments in carriages. 

833. John Frearson, of Birmingham — Improvements in the 
manufacture of hooks for garments. 

862. Andrew Jeffrey, of Chirnside, Berwick, Scotland — Im- 
provements in reaping-machines. 

Dated 19(7i January, 1853. 

211. Thomas Scott, of 111, Drummond-street, Euston-squarc 
— Improvements in applying and transmitting motive 
power, and in accelerating the progress of bodies in 
motion. 

308. John Lewthwaite, of Halifax, Yorkshire— Improvements 
in cards and tickets, and in machinery for cutting, 
printing, numbering, and marking cards, tickets, and 
papers. 

452. John Camaby, of 130, St. John-street, Clcrkenwell— 
Apparatus for turning, managing, and regulating the 
main taps of gas pipes laid on to houses or buildings, 
at a part of the house or building distant from the 
main tap. 

627- Alfred Augustus dc Reginald Hely, of Cannon-row, West- 
minster — Improved shade or chimney for lamps, chan- 
deliers, gas, and other burners. 

713. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's Inn Fields — Im- 
provements in machinery or apparatus for sewing and 
stitching. (Being a communication.) 

824. John Winter, of Bradford, Yorkshire — Improvements in 

the mode of combining bars of iron, so as to form 
larger masses on pieces of iron applicable in the ma- 
nufacture of axles, shafts, columns, beams, cannon, 
and other articles. 

825. John Winter, of Bradford, Yorkshire— Improvements in 

the manufacture of wheels. 

8C5. Charles narford, of Down-place, near Windsor— Im- 
provements in rotatory engines. 

871. James Taylor, engineer, of Messrs. Taylor and Co., of 
Britannia Works, Birkenhead, Chester— Improvements 
in or applicable to floating graving docks, for repair- 
ing and buildings ships. 

880. Alexander Turiff, of the New Town Foundry, Paisley, 
Renfrew, N. B. — Improvements inmouldingorshaping 
metals. 



PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE SPECIFI- 
CATIONS DEPOSITED. 



994. 

1005. 

1006. 

1038. 
1051. 
1108. 
1113. 

1185. 



H. Jenkins — Manufacture of bracelets, brooches, &c. 
December 8. 

E. Kopp and F. A. Gatty — Printing or dyeing textile 
fabrics. December 9. 

D. L. Price — Effectuating alarums and signals by elec- 
tricity. December 9. 

G. A. Everitt — Rolling metal strips. December 13. 

J. Webb — Enamel watch dials. December 14. 

J. N. Adorno — Manufacture of cigars. December 20. 

C. and T. Pilkington and A. Predijor — Joiners' brace. 
December 28. 

F. A. Calvert — Universal drill. December 28. 



LIST OF NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 

George Shaw, Birmingham, for certain improved machinery 
for making envelopes and bags. (A communication.) De- 
cember, 17, 1852. 

Robert Burn, Edinburgh, practical engineer, for a certain 
improvement in steam engines. December 21, 1852. 

Robert Galloway, Cartmel, Lancashire, for improvements 
in manufacturing and refining of sugar. December 21, 1852. 

Thomas Fildes Cocker, Sheffield, Yorkshire, for improve- 
ments in annealing or softening metallic wires and sheets of 
metal ; also in reducing, compressing, or drawing metallic 
wires ; also in the manufacture of metal rolls. January 8, 
1853. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 
1852. 

Dec. 21,3401, Henry Harrison, sen., King's-road, Hoxton, 
" Universal portable tent and sleeping- 
cabin." 
„ 21, 3402, W. and F. Thorn, 10, John-street, Oxford- 
street, coachbuilder, " Improved yEquimo- 
tion spring." 
„ 29, 3403, David Hawkins, Stratford-on-Avon, " Two- 
wheeled vehicle." 
„ 30, 3404, Messrs. Williams and Jackson, Birmingham, 
" Improved ever-pointed pencil." 
1853. 

Jan. 4, 3405, Webb and Greenway, Birmingham, " Bolt." 
„ 4, 3406, Charles Eyland, Walsall, Belt-fastening. 
„ 5, 3407, Charles Eyland, Walsall, Belt-fastening. 
„ 7, 3408, James Thomas Hewes, Vernon-villa, Wool- 
ston-lawn, Southampton, "Ventilating 
waterproof garment." 
„ 11, 3409, Caleb Hill, Cheddar, Somersetshire, " A stay 
and dress-fastening." 



THE AETIZAN. 



No. CXXIL— Vol. XL— MABCH 1st, 1853. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



The unbelievers in the great caloric engine are already sounding 
a note of triumph, but rather prematurely, we think. These are the 
sort of people who, when they see an ingenious machine in good work- 
ing order, are apt to think that it was flung off as a carpenter might 
make a packing-case. We have never encouraged any extravagant 
expectations on the subject, but when it is remembered that Captain 
Ericsson was the designer and master of the pendulous engines of the 
Princeton, on a plan entirely new, and yet that everything was fore- 
seen and provided for, with so much judgment, that the engines have 
worn out one hull, and are now put into another — when we remember 
this, we are inclined to wait, without impatience, for the solution of 
the problem which Mr. Ericsson has undertaken. 

As a pendant to the caloric engine, we may here call the attention 
of our readers to the great extent to which the cotton manufacturing 
interest is indebted to Mr. W. MeNaught, for the saving of fuel, im- 
mense in the aggregate, which has been effected by the introduction 
of his patent method of applying high-pressure steam to low pressure 
engines. This plan, of which we have given an engraving and detailed 
description at p. 257, vol. 1850, has been applied to several hundred 
engines with xmvarying success. Messrs. Birley of Manchester have 
just effected an improvement in their mill of this character. Their 
mill was originally driven by a pair of 70-horse engines and a 
pair of fifties. The seventies have been altered, and are doing the 
whole of the work, doing away with 13 boilers, and saving 80 tons of 
coals per week. The pair of engines which are dispensed with are for 
sale, if they are not already sold. 

We have had an opportunity of seeing two engines at work on this 
plan in London, which have been altered by Mr. W. K. Whytehead, C.E. 
One is a 40-horse engine at the City Saw Mills, and the other a 10- 
horse engine at Messrs. S. Green and Co.'s, Lambeth. This latter 
case is rather a peculiar one. The engine was a Woolf-engine origi- 
nally, with the two cylinders close together, but was of insufficient 
power. The additional cylinder has been applied as usual, and ex- 
hausts into the low-pressure one simultaneously with the original high- 
pressure one. An increase of power is thus obtained, due to the pres- 
sure of the steam in the new cylinder, and the increased effect obtained 

7 



in the low-pressure cylinder. In this manner an increase of power of 
60 to 70 per cent, is obtained without the use of any higher pressure 
than was before made use of, viz., 32lbs., whilst the engine is actually 
working more smoothly than before the alteration. 

After our remarks at p. 25, our readers will judge what chance the 
" British and Australian Clipper Steam Packet Company" will have, 
in competition with the Peninsular and Oriental, the Royal Australian, 
the General Screw Company's line, the West India and Chagres line, 
all already in existence, and the proposed Direct Australian, noticed 
in our last. These three last, it will be observed, are all running 
over the same ground, and they must either amalgamate, or the weaker 
give place to the stronger. It is scarcely necessary to say that the 
Australian and Pacific, backed up as they are by the highly paid West 
Indian Mail Company, have the best position, and will be the first in 
the field, their boats being announced to run this spring. 

It may not be out of place to remark here on the rapid improve- 
ment which must inevitably take place on all that part of the coast of 
which Panama may be said to be the centre, as soon as the railway is 
completed and the boats running. The ship canal companies which 
are proposed, will, no doubt, have to wait a long time for a dividend, 
but, in the legitimate course of trade, there will be ample room for the 
employment of British capital and labour. The reader may refer to 
pp. 212, 234, 246, vol. 1851, for the evidence on the advantages of 
the Panama route, given before the Parliamentary Committee on the 
various routes to Australia. 

With the result of the late engineers' strike in view, it is a cheering 
sign of the times to find the Sunderland shipwrights forming a court 
on the principle of the Conseils des Prudhommes in France, to settle 
all differences with their employers. After due discussion between 
the masters and men, it was unanimously resolved— subject to the 
ratification of the majority of the employers and workmen on both 
sides— that a court of arbitration be formed, the workmen pledging 
themselves to give it a fair trial. That each party appoint a committee 
of nine from their body to form the proposed court. That a chairman 
be chosen not of the trade, and that he have the casting vote. That 
all alleged grievances, practical or general, and all projected altera- 
tions or changes affecting the builders and their workmen, shall be 
referred to the court, with a view to their amicable adjustment, am. 



50 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanism. 



[March, 



to prevent the intervention of strikes or the interruption of business. 
And that the decision of the court be final. That the court be open 
to the trade and to the reporters ; but that no one, except the court, 
be allowed to take a part in the proceedings. Any one disturbing 
the proceedings to be put out. We fervently hope that all our trades 
may go and do likewise. 

PROPOSED FRENCH LINE OF OCEAN STEAMERS. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

Havre, 20th Feb., 1853. 

In my last letter I mentioned that Cherbourg was reputed to be 
the port which was to be selected as the point of arrival and departure 
for the proposed line of ocean steamers ; and although nothing definite 
has been publicly announced, I believe that that port will be the fa- 
voured one — not, as the Times alleges, because it will concentrate a 
powerful fleet of steamers at a government dockyard, but simply be- 
cause there is no other port which fulfils all the necessary conditions. 
The first of these conditions is centrality, as regards the manufacturing 
industry of France ; and the second, sufficient depth of water for first- 
class vessels, in all tides. 

The first of these conditions excludes Marseilles, otherwise a good 
port ; and for this fault there is no remedy. The second excludes 
Havre ; but for this there is a remedy ; that is to say, there can be 
no doubt that money could make of Havre a magnificent port ; and 
the economical question is, whether it is better to make a railway to 
Cherbourg, and increase the length of the pier, make a new basin, 
&c, or expend this money in improving Havre, which is already the 
port to Rouen and Paris, and the great channel of trade. This latter 
point is the stronghold of Havre — a solid fact of which no amount of 
argument can deprive it. Every one knows the difficulty of turning 
an old-established trade out of its natural channel ; and it would 
seem, therefore, probable that all the money that would be expended 
on Cherbourg would be expended for the benefit of these steamers 
alone ; whereas, a like sum expended on Havre would benefit the 
whole trade of the north of France, which is concentrated at that 
port. Estimates of the probable cost of the improvement of Havre 
vary so much, that it is hardly safe to quote them. ,£20,000 expended 
in dredging would, it is said, give enough depth of water ; but it 
would not be safe to rely upon escaping from the cost of continual 
dredging. The Clyde is an example of what may be done in this 
way ; and if it pays there, I see no reason why it should not pay here. 
Supposing even that this sum is doubled or trebled, it would be very 
much less than constructing docks at Cherbourg, a moderate estimate 
for which would be ^500,000. Cherbourg only possesses at present 
two docks — one for the navy, and a small one for the mercantile ma- 
rine ; and, therefore, it is evident that, if the transatlantic steamers 
are to be accommodated there, it must be at the expense of the navy. 
Still, as the service can be commenced there at a slight expense, it is 
probable that that fact will weigh strongly with the government in 
their choice of a port. In the last number of the Revue des Interets 
Maritimes is a memoir, by Lieut. Eugene Pacini, of Cherbourg, which, 
as the production of an advocate, must be taken as a good account of 
all that can be said in favour of Cherbourg. Some extracts from it 
may serve to throw a light on the question. 

He commences by stating that, as these boats must be of high speed, 
and, consequently, consume a large quantity of coal, the saving of a 
few hours' steaming will be of great consequence to them. If I re- 
member rightly, this same argument was applied by the advocates of 
Plymouth as against Southampton, and was met by the reply, that as 
the boats were so fast, the difference between their speed and that of 
the railway was so much the less, and that the nearness of Southamp- 



ton to London gave it an important superiority. However this may 
be, the exact figures stand thus : — 

From Brest to New York is 2,850 nautical mile's ; from l'Orient, 
2,930 miles; From Cherbourg, 3,000 miles; from Havre, 3,077. 
These distances, with a mean speed of thirteen knots, would give, for 
the duration of the voyage, — 

From Brest .... 9 days 5 hours. 
From l'Orient ..9 „ 10 „ 
From Cherbourg, 9 „ 14 „ 
From Havre 9 „ 22 „ 

The leading objection to Brest and l'Orient is the obstacles which 
surround the mouths of their roadsteads, and which, although by no 
means dangerous by day, with a competent pilot, would be absolutely 
impassible in the foggy nights, to which that part of the coast is ex- 
posed. Neither have either of them railways ; but this objection 
they share equally with Cherbourg. 

As regards Havre, the sole objection that can be raised is the want 
of water at present; but this Lieut. Pacini merely states, without 
undertaking to combat the argument that it can be improved at a 
moderate expense. He compares Havre with the magnificent en- 
trance to Cherbourg, 1,200 metres (3,300 feet English) in width ; the 
length of this wide passage being only the width of the breakwater, 
with a smooth harbour inside. It is admitted that this harbour is 
visited with severe coups de vent from the north-east and north-west ; 
but it is argued that, to vessels of 300 metres in length, they would 
be harmless ! We shall probably see, before long, what all this dis- 
cussion is to end in. 

Opening for English Establishments in France. — There are 
two wants which might be very well supplied by any enterprising 
English firm. One is, the manufacture of wrought-iron boiler-tubes 
of good quality ; the other is thick felt, for clothing engines and 
boilers. Brass tubes have been largely used in France, but the enor- 
mous rise in copper is telling on their pockets. If iron tubes were 
made here at anything like a moderate price, there would be an im- 
mense demand for them for gas-fittings. 

New way or Launching Vessels. — An iron shipbuilder here, 
Mr. Nillus, has hit upon a mode of launching his vessels, which, from 
its novelty, has excited a good deal of attention. The parts of the 
vessel are constructed in the workshops, and then put together on a 
floating " dumby," consisting of an old twin steamer, which has great 
stability, from its peculiar form. When finished, the water is admitted 
into the " dumby" by sluices, and the new vessel rises like a phcenix 
from its ashes, and is floated off without any of the risk usually attend- 
ing launches in the ordinary way. The dumby can either be raised 
by being pumped dry, or it can be put on the ways, where the tide 
will leave it at low water. 

COTTON AND ITS MANUFACTURING MECHANISM, 
By Robert Scott Burn, M.E., M.S. A. 

Illustrated by Plate xvi., vol. x. 
(Continued from page 31.) 

We have now to notice some recent improvements in cotton spinning 
machinery. The first of these is the invention of Messrs. M'Lardy and 
Lewis, of Manchester, for facilitating the removal of the bobbins from 
the spindle when full, to make room for the empty ones. This process, 
in factory parlance, is termed " doffing," and in the roving frames of 
the usual construction, such as we have already described, is an opera- 
tion requiring considerable time, inasmuch as the flyers have to be re- 
moved from the spindles each time the bobbins have to be taken off. 
By the use of the invention of Messrs. M'Lardy and Lewis, the oper- 
ation of doffing is much easier, and quicker gone through. In the 



1853.] 



Cotton and its Manufacturing Mechanism. 



51 



ordinary roving frame a top bearing is given to the spindles ; if this is 
dispensed with, in order to facilitate the doffing, considerable vibration 
ensues, and the speed at which they are driven needs to be moderated. 
By the improvement now to be described the top bearings are retained. 
The spindle, in place of being made in one piece, as usual, is made in 
two pieces, the lower one being of such length as to terminate above 
the bolster, bearing upon the middle rail. The upper end of this piece 
is made of a reduced size, and provided with a vertical slot ; a socket is 
formed in the lower end of the upper piece, into which the reduced 
end, with the slot of the lower piece, fits. Through the end of the 
upper piece a pin is passed transversely ; this goes through the slot on 
the lower piece ; by this means, when the lower piece revolves, the 
upper is made to revolve also. By this arrangement, the two pieces, 
when fitted together, present the appearance of a continuous spindle, 
without any break, and of uniform diameter throughout; the bobbin 
can, therefore, slide as easily up and down on this spindle as on a solid 
one. Immediately below the upper bearing the spindle is made of a 
less diameter than the part within the bearing ; so that, when required 
to " doff," all that is to be done is to lift the upper piece of the spindle 
with the flyer attached, and with the bobbin on it. The smaller diameter 
of the spindle, by this means, goes into the bearing, which, as before 
mentioned, is of larger diameter; this allows the spindle to be moved 
out of the perpendicular sufficiently to allow of the full bobbin being 
removed, and an empty one put in its place. Messrs. M'Lardy and 
Lewis have also introduced another improvement in the construction of 
spindles, by which, when the bearing becomes worn out, it may be re- 
placed without involving the necessity of re-constructing the spindle. 
This is effected by placing on the spindle a hoop or ring of steel at 
that part where the bearing is. When this becomes worn, the ring can 
be easily removed. We understand that these improved spindles have 
been successfully introduced into the trade, and give great satisfaction. 
The operation of doffing is very quickly performed, and a high rate of 
speed attained without vibration or unsteadiness. 

Mr. Hill, of Staleybridge, has patented a method of giving any de- 
sired amount of twist to the rovings in the bobbin frame, in which the 
movement is variable, thus giving to the bobbins a conical shape, as we 
already described. The principal feature in the mechanism employed 
for this purpose by the patentee is a friction wheel and scroll wheel. 
A scroll wheel is fixed on a vertical shaft ; the inclined scroll surface of 
this lowers or raises, by its revolution, a small frame on a revolving 
shaft, the position of which frame is thus made continually to change. 
This frame supports a friction bowl, which presses on the face of an- 
other, fixed on a horizontal shaft ; one of these being driven at a uniform 
speed, the speed of the other will be just in proportion to the position 
of the friction bowl on the disc, according as it is near to or distant 
from the centre, governed by the scroll wheel. The variable move- 
ment requisite to give the desired conical shape to the bobbins is thus 
effected. Another improved arrangement has been effected by the 
same patentee, for giving the motion to the copping rail for winding 
in the rovings equably on the surface of the bobbin. In this arrange- 
ment the copping rail is suspended by means of chains ; these chains 
are passed over pulleys at the top of the frame, and, descending on the 
other side, are attached to the ends of levers capable of vibrating. To 
these the copping motion is communicated; as the levers rise and fall, 
the copping rail is moved in like manner. The centres of the vibrating 
rollers are provided with pulleys, round which the chains are coiled. 
To these pulleys a slow revolving motion is communicated, which un- 
coils the chains. By this means the copping rail is gradually lowered. 
In the majority of instances the flyer is directly connected with the 
spindle. In a recent improved arrangement, patented by Mr. Mason, 
of Rochdale, the motion of the flyers is independent of that of the 
spindles. This is effected by lengthening the end of the flyer, and 



forming a bearing which revolves in a bush placed in a plate overhead. 
This bearing of the spindle is, of course, in a direct line with the spindle 
below. The legs of the flyer are of such length as to allow of the 
requisite movement of the bobbin up and down on the spindle, and are 
attached at their lower extremities to a plate, on the boss of which, 
fixed on the under side, is the mitre wheel, which gives motion to the 
flyer. The boss of the plate to which the legs of the flyers are fixed is 
made hollow, and works over the upper end of a tube, which passes 
through a fixed rail beneath, and is secured on the under side thereof 
by a nut. The spindle passes through this tube, and is continued up 
to within a short distance of the under side of the flyer. The bobbin 
rests on a collar made on the spindle in the usual manner. The spindle 
revolves, at its lower extremity, on a bearing fixed in the copping rail. 
For the purpose of steadying the motion of the flyers, Mr. Mason has 
introduced another improvement. In this arrangement the flyer is 
independent of the spindle, as described- above ; but motion is com- 
municated to it in a different way. The upper end of the flyer has its 
bearing in a fixed rail above ; beneath this rail a small pinion is fixed 
on the neck of the flyer, which is driven by a toothed wheel gearing 
into it. This driving wheel is so placed between two flyers, that it 
communicates motion to the two at the same time. The legs of the 
flyer are, in this arrangement, much shorter than in the one last de- 
scribed; they only extend to such a distance below the delivering finger, 
or presser, that the lower extremities revolve in a circular groove made 
in a fixed plate. The bearings of the spindles are made in the usual 
way ; the bobbins, also, resting upon collars made in the spindles. 
Mr. Mason has also patented an improvement in the working of spin- 
ning machinery, by which the waste of material incurred by the un- 
winding of the roving, when it happens to break, is in a great measure 
prevented. This improvement is in connection with more machines, 
in which double pressers are employed to each bobbin, as exemplified 
in figs. 5 and 6 (p. 30, number for February, 1853) ; and consists of an 
arrangement by which the movements relative to each other, and their 
velocity, shall, when the roving is wound upon the bobbin, be made to 
move in a direction receding from the point at which it is delivered to 
the bobbin by the presser. By this method, when a breakage of a 
roving takes place, the unwinding of the broken end cannot take place, 
in consequence of the bobbin having a movement which tends to wind 
on. One arrangement for this desideratum is the fixing the presser 
or delivering fingers on the legs of the flyers in a reverse direction from 
the usual method, and in combination ; and by making the bobbin 
revolve at a higher velocity than the flyer, the directions of their move- 
ments being the same as usual. By the bobbin having an increased 
speed given to it, it will have the lead, so that, in the event of a roving 
breaking, the tendency of the bobbin's motion will still be to wind on. 
Messrs. Tatham and Cheetham, of Rochdale, have introduced a very 
ingenious method of lubricating with oil the steps or bearings of 
spindles during their working, and in any number. Parallel to the line 
of spindle bearings a small pipe is placed, nearly at a level with the 
beariugs. To this pipe, opposite each bearing, a small curved pipe is 
attached, the outer extremity of which leads the oil from the pipe to 
the steps of the spindle. This parallel pipe is supplied with oil from a 
small reservoir placed at one end of the machine, a bent tube proceeding 
from the under side of the reservoir to the under side of the parallel 
tube. In the oil reservoir two closely perforated metal plates are fixed, 
through which the oil filters. Above the filters and the oil a small 
piston works in the reservoir. A screw passes from the upper side of 
the piston through an opening in the cover of the reservoir ; by pres- 
sing this, or screwing it down, the oil is passed through the filters up 
the bent tube leading to the parallel tube, and finally delivered to the 
bearings of the various spindles through the curved tubes previously 
described. 



52 



Agricultural Engineering. 



[March, 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Ferrabee's Fixed Steam Engine. — Messrs. Ferrabee, of 
Stroud, have recently registered a novel form of steam engine, which 
has the merit of being simple and compact, whilst all the parts are 
easily got at. At the same time it is perfectly self-contained, and in- 
dependent of the walls of the engine room for its fixing, which renders 
it easily moveable, a desideratum for tenant farmers. The arrangement 
does not require any lengthened description. The cylinder is bolted to 
the foot of and outside of a strong column, on the top of which are 




bolted the plummer blocks for the crank shaft. The fly wheel runs 
in the middle of the column, and serves conveniently for a driving 
pulley, since, for driving a threshing machine, a high speed, say 1,000 
revolutions per minute, is ultimately required. The slide valve is 
worked off a weigh shaft, and the same eccentric also serves to work 
the feed pump. Altogether, this is a very creditable piece of arrange- 
ment. 



COMBINED STEAM ENGINE AND CORN MILL, 

By Messrs. Ransomes and Sims, Ipswich. 

(Illustrated by Plate v.) 

This is one of the most elegant and convenient arrangements which 
we have met with ; and the example which we have inspected fully bears 
out the reputation of Messrs. Ransomes and Sons for good workman- 
ship and judicious design in all the details. 



The object to be attained, in designing a small flour mill to be worked 
by steam power, is to render it as self-contained as possible. In the 
first place, to avoid the erection of expensive buildings, and, in the 
second, to allow of its being moved without detriment to its market 
value, should circumstances require it. The fulfilment of these con- 
ditions may involve a slightly -increased cost to the maker, but the pur- 
chaser may rest assured that he will save double the amount in the 
millwright's and bricklayer's bills for fixing. 

In the case before us advantage is taken of the very compact nature 
of the oscillating engine, to place it on the same sole plate as the mill- 
stone framing, the weight of the engine materially assisting to give the 
whole arrangement that stability and steadiness of motion which it is 
so desirable that a flour mill should possess. The cylinder is 7 inches 
in diameter and 10 inches stroke, and oscillates horizontally. The 
slide valve lies on the top of the cylinder, and is worked by an eccen- 
tric in the usual manner. The millstones, which are French burrs, are 
driven by a single pair of bevel wheels. The bed stone is adjusted by 
three screws in the framing. By means of the lever and screw, a, the 
upper stone is adjusted. When it is desired to disconnect the mill 
from the engine, the upper bevel wheel is lifted by turning the screw, 
b, the wheel sliding on a feather in the shaft. The power of the engine 
may then be applied, by a strap off the fly-wheel, to threshing, 
sawing, &c. 

We venture to predict that this form of mill will be generally adopted, 
as an auxiliary, by millers who desire to be independent of those two 
uncertain elements, air and water ; and, for colonial use, they offer 
many advantages which we have never before seen combined in one 
machine. 



CLAYTON'S PATENT BRICK-MAKING MACHINE. 
, We have already called attention to Mr. Clayton's simple and effec- 
tive machine (vide p. 267, Artizan, 1852), and we now present our 
readers with an engraving which will explain more clearly its modus 
operandi. This machine, although of very simple construction, 
and, consequently, economical, prepares the clay and makes the brick 
at the same time, and can be worked by one horse or by steam power. 
It requires one man and two boys to attend to it, under which circum- 
stances they can produce upwards of 5,000 bricks per day (one revolu- 
tion of the horse making four bricks), but if steam power be used, a 
much greater number may be produced ; also another grating may be 
added, which will still increase the number considerably. By reference 
to the engraving, the machine will be easily understood. It consists of 
a cast-iron cylinder with a vertical shaft running through the centre, 
the upper part of which is furnished with the requisite gearing for using 
either horse or steam power. In the inside of the cylinder, and keyed 
into the shaft, are a number of wrought-iron knives, revolving horizon- 
tally and in different planes, similar to a common pug mill, which not 
only forces the clay downwards, but amalgamates the different strata, 
and reduces the clay to a proper consistency. Upon the lower parts of 
the shaft there are four wrought-iron arms slightly curved backwards, 
with their surfaces vertical. The object of these is to force the clay 
through the gratings to the end of the rollers, shown in the engraving, 
when the bricks are cut off to the requisite thickness by wires. These 
gratings before mentioned are considered a great advantage, as they 
separate the small stones (which are so injurious to bricks) from the 
clay. 



H. CLAYTON'S PATENT PIPE AND TILE MACHINE. 

The annexed engravings represents a machine for manufacturing tiles, 
pipes, &c, invented and patented by H. Clayton, of the Atlas Works, 
London. He employs improved means of receiving and supporting 
pipes or tubes in the course of formation, by the horizontal or inclined 






PLATE V 




othasxi (DdDiEH fflnM 

AS CONSTRUCTED BY 

cqiess*? B ^ s©bq[e§ & §aLH§ 

ENGINEERS 

n if a w ii a] Ho 

SCAIE % INCH - 1 TOOT 




W.K.Whylehead.C.E.direx. 



■T /AIn JQTJR¥AL 18 53. 



BJS.l 



1853,] 



Agricultural Engineering. 



53 



CLAYTON'S PATENT BRICK-MAKING MACHINE. 




54 



Agricultural Engineering. 



[March, 



mode of delivery from the material cylinder. For this purpose a ske- 
leton framework is made, having a transverse bar at the end opposite 
to the cylinders, for supporting a mandril in its proper position, along 
which the pipe is forced. 

The machine consists of two cast-iron cylinders, each radiating upon 
a shaft on the side of the machine, 
so that one plunger fits both, and 
when one is working, the other can 
be filled. The framework may be 
made of either iron or wood, the 
power being obtained by means of 
toothed wheels, shown in the en- 
graving. The improvements con- 
sist, 1st, in the construction of the 
moulds or dies, which are composed 
of two plates, forming a box, the 
upper plate having an opening into 
the cylinder, and the lower plate 
having the die affixed to it ; the 
moulding orifice corresponding 
with the external diameter of the 
pipe, tube or other article, and the 
core being sustained by a bar at- 
tached to the top plate, so as to 
leave an uninterrupted space be- 
tween the core or aperture of the 
die and the moulding orifice. 

2nd. Supporting the core by 
means of a stem passing through 
the piston, and attached to the 
upper part of the framing, thus 
forming the moulding orifice of the 
die, with the core concentric to it, 
without being carried by any bar 
in connection with the plate or 
moulding orifice. 

3rd. The construction and use 
of these dies for the formation of 
pipes, tubes and tiles, with an en- 
larged or thickening of material, 
the mould having a door (shown in 
the engraving) for closing the outer 
end of it, during the formation of 
the thickening ; also the use of 
conical perforations for the admis- 
sion or escape of air to or from the 
mould. 

4th. The means and apparatus 
for forming square, rebated or 
other form of joints to pipes, &c, 
by cutting away suitable portions 
of the material previous to burning. 



should circumstances require it. This machinery is adapted for either 
steam or water power. In the construction of the drum and concave 
are some peculiarities. There are 6 or more beaters on the drum, which 
have a rubbing as well as a beating motion. The concave is composed 
of a series of cants, made of three flat iron bars set edgewise horizontally 




FERRABEE'S THRESHING AND WINNOWING 
MACHINERY. 
Fig. 3 is a perspective elevation of an arrangement for threshing 
and winnowing, as manufactured by Messrs. G. and H. Ferrabee, which 
combines a sheaf elevator, a drum and concave for threshing, a straw- 
shaker, a winnower and refuse elevator, all in connection and in motion 
simultaneously. It is constructed to stand independently of the walls 
of the building where it is erected, and may be removed with facility, 



Fig. 3. 



to the drum, about three-quarters of an inch apart, the spaces between 
them divided by iron rods J-inch diameter passed through holes drilled 
in the bars. These cants are separately affixed to the side guards of the 
concave, and may be removed separately, if required. Parallel adjust- 
ments are provided at top and bottom for effecting the regulation for 
different kinds of grain. These adjustments are altered by handles easy 
of access, and are so contrived, that the drum and concave may not be 
placed too near each other. After the operation of this machine the 
corn merely requires passing through an ordinary dressing machine. 



1853.] 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



55 



NOTES ON DESIGNING STEAM MACHINERY. 

INDIA-RUBBER AIR-PUMP VALVES. 

We have already given rules far the designing of air-pump buckets, 
both with metal and india-rubber valves (Artisan, 1850, p. 74). A cor- 
respondent, however, has requested information as to the best method 
of applying a trunk to the air-pump rod, so as to dispense with guides, 
which he justly admires, for its neatness, but " fears the large diameter 
of the trunk diminishes the water passage through the bucket." To 
show a method of avoiding this, we now give a sketch, quarter size, of a 
15-inch bucket, which resembles, in its general arrangement, the one 
of which a plate is given, as mentioned above, but with a trunk applied. 

The diameter of the trunk will depend upon the amount of motion of 
the connecting rod working it. With a short connecting rod, the angle 
is greater than with a longer one, and may make the trunk of an in- 
convenient size ; but, in general, in oscillating engines, where the air- 
pump is set at an angle, as is now universally practised, there is usually 
length enough obtained. The minimum size is attained when the air- 
pump is worked off a beam, of which the versed sine is very little; but 
this cannot be taken advantage of to its fullest extent, since a certain 
diameter must be given, to afford room for the lower bearing of the 
connecting rod. It is the more desirable to give this bearing as much 
weaving surface as possible, since it possesses no means of adjustment 
short of putting in a new pin or a bush. This is best done by making 
it as wide as possible ; and, where this precaution is taken, we have 
never found them give any trouble. It is easy, of course, to keep them 
in a bath of oil, but it is not so easy to exclude the dust. A method of 
doing this has occurred to us, which some of our readers may think 
worth a trial. It consists in making an annular ring of stout vulcanised 
india-rubber tubing, of such a diameter as to fill up the annular space 
between the rod and the inside of the trunk. If this be filled with air, 
and slipped on over the rod and inserted into the trunk, it will form a 
sort of elastic packing, which will exclude the dust, and admit of the 
motion of the rod at the same time. 
Fig. 2. Fig. i. 




The sketch explains itself so completely, that we needsay little more. 
A guard, a (fig. 1, sectional elevation), is cast on the bottom of the 
trunk, and is bolted to the bucket by the bolt, b. The lower end of this 
bolt is provided with a split pin, to prevent the nut working off, which 
might occasion a serious accident. Fig. 2 is a plan of the trunk, show- 
ing the pin for the end of the rod. This pin may be very slightly 



rivetted into the sides of the jaw, as the trunk prevents it escaping, and 
all that is required is to prevent it turning round. 

It will be observed that the guard is slightly beveled inwards on the 
under side, at the centre ; this makes it grip the india-rubber and pre- 
I vents it escaping. The only other points which need notice are, that 
f -inch will be found better than J-inch for the india-rubber, which 
should be simply vulcanised india-rubber, which experience shows works 
better than the compounds of canvas, &c. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Valuation of Indigo. — The following method of estimating the 
comparative value of different samples of indigo has been proposed by 
Dr. F. Penny : — 

Ten grains of the sample, very finely powdered, are carefully rubbed 
with 2 measured drachms of fuming sulphuric acid, and the mixture 
allowed to digest 12 to 14 hours, with occasional stirring, the air being 
excluded. A small flat-bottomed flask, with a tight cork, answers 
best for this operation. Some fragments of broken glass should be 
added, to prevent the indigo from clotting, and thus escaping solution. 
The temperature should be from 70° to 80° Fah. ; if it rise higher, sul- 
phurous acid may be generated, and the whole operation rendered 
worthless. When the indigo is perfectly dissolved, the solution is 
gradually poured, constantly stirring, into a basin containing a pint of 
water ; % oz. by measure of strong hydrochloric acid is instantly added, 
and the flask rinsed out with water. An alcalimeter of 100 equal 
parts is now made up in the usual way, with 7i grains of pure dry 
bichromate of potassa, and the solution gradually added to the indigo 
in the basin, until a drop of the mixture, let fall upon a slip of filter- 
paper, presents a distinct light brown or ochre shade, without any mix- 
ture of blue or green. The number of measures of bichromate solution 
used is then read off, and shows the comparative value of the sample. 
In applying the test-drop to the paper, the best results are obtained by 
bringing the end of a glass rod in contact with the indigo solution, and 
then gently pressing it against the surface of the paper. It is advisable 
to keep the indigo solution gently warmed whilst the bichromate is 
being added, and the mixture should be well stirred after each addi- 
tion. Towards the conclusion, the liquid should be added very slowly 
and carefully, as one or two drops then produce a great effect. The 
changes of colour in the mixture clearly indicate the advance of the 
operation. The original blue colour becomes lighter and lighter, then 
acquires a greenish shade, which soon becomes a greenish brown, and 
almost immediately after an ochre brown 

Ten grains of pure indigo require very nearly 7i grains bichromate 
of potash. 

Estimation of Ultramarines. — The following easy method of 
obtaining an approximate view of the comparative value of different 
samples of ultramarine has been proposed by Barreswil : — The material 
employed is sulphate of baryta precipitated from a very acid liquid, and 
carefully washed and dried. Two portions of sulphate of baryta, each 
of 20 grammes, are put into two mortars, and the two samples of ultra- 
marine to be compared (| gramme to 1 gramme) are accurately ba- 
lanced in two capsules. A portion of one sample is poured into one of 
the mortars, and rubbed until it forms a uniform light blue tint. The 
contents of the second capsule are gradually added to the second 
mortar, until a tint is formed as similar as possible to the first. The 
two capsules are then re-weighed, and the loss of weight sustained by 
each noted, which shows the amount of the ultramarine employed. 
The same process may be employed for all other coloured powders. 

Improved Modelling Clay. — Sculptors and modellers are occa- 
sionally exposed to inconvenience, if obliged to leave their work for a 
time, by the rapid desiccation of the clay which they employ. This 



56 



Economical Production of Steam. 



[March, 



evil may be entirely obviated by moistening the clay with a concentrated 
solution of glycerine. 

Coating Iron with Copper. — A method has recently been dis- 
covered of coating iron with copper, which promises to be of consider- 
able value in the arts. It has long been a desideratum to coat iron 
with some less oxidisable metal, so as to preserve it from injury in 
exposed situations. Sheet iron covered with copper would be an ex- 
cellent roofing material, and plate iron similarly prepared would be 
valuable for making steam boilers. The process is as follows : — The 
iron is freed from oxide by means of dilute sulphuric acid in which the 
sheets or castings are rubbed with sand ; after this, they are washed and 
dipped in a solution of muriate of ammonia ; on being lifted out of 
which, they are instantly dipped into melted zinc, the surface of which 
should be covered with dry sal-ammoniac, to prevent loss of metal by 
evaporation. At hand is a crucible containing melted copper, covered 
with some incombustible substance to act as a wiper. The zinced iron 
is dipped into this crucible, and allowed to remain until it ceases to 
hiss, when it is taken out, and found covered with a complete and 
durable coating of copper. By again dipping the coppered iron into 
the sal ammoniac, then into the zinc and the copper, repeating the 
process, coat upon coat may be obtained until the copper is of any 
required thickness. The black oxide is prevented from forming on the 
copper by dipping it afterwards in the solution of sal ammoniac, and 
washing it with pure water. Unless the melted copper is covered with 
a non-combustible substance, the plates would come out in a very 
rough state, but the covering acts as a wiper, and the coppered plate 
comes out smooth and well-coated. Brass, or any of the copper alloys, 
can be made to coat iron in the same manner. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

" P. J." — The only work which will answer your purpose is Gmelin's 
Manual of Chemistry, as published by the Cavendish Society. 

" Zero." — Specific gravities, as determined by means of the hydro- 
moter, are mere approximations. If you desire absolute accuracy, you 
must use the picnometer — a small bottle adjusted so as to contain 
exactly 300, 500, or some other known weight of distilled water. The 
bottle is carefully filled with the liquid under examination, and weighed 
in a delicate balance. Its weight, as compared with that of the amount 
of distilled water for which the bottle is adjusted, gives the specific 
gravity required. 

" E. Rigby." — Iodine is freely soluble in the bisulphuret of carbon. 

ON THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION AND USE OF 
STEAM IN LOCOMOTIVES. 

The favourable view which we were disposed to take of Mr. Clark's 
work on Railway Machinery {vide p. 17) is confirmed by an attentive 
perusal, and we wish to call to it the particular attention of those of 
our readers who might suppose, from its title, that it concerned loco- 
motive engine-makers only. As, however, our original prediction — 
made some years since — that all steam-engines would, in time, partake 
of the locomotive character, seems hastening to fulfilment, a notice of 
the leading points established by Mr. Clark's experiments may not be 
unacceptable. We have now more particularly in view the direct acting 
engines applied to the screw propeller, which are now usually con- 
structed with the locomotive link motion, and move, necessarily, at a 
high velocity. As an example, we may take the engines of H.M.S. 
Arrogant, of which a plate is given in the Artizan, 1850. Indicator 
diagrams taken from these engines (as given at p. 205, Artizan, 1852) 
show that, at high rates of expansion, the action of the valve-motion is 
very perfect. The following remarks are in continuation of this 
subject : — 

Recapitulation. — 1. The pressure of steam in the cylinder, during 
admission at the lower Bpeeds, and when the valve-gear is in good 



order, is sensibly constant. In full gear there is no material wire- 
drawing under a speed of piston of about 600 feet per minute. 

2. The shorter the admission in the same cylinder, that is, the shorter 
the travel, the lower is the speed of piston at which wiredrawing takes 
place, and the greater is the fall of pressure at the higher speeds. 

3. The resistance to the progress of steam through the passage to 
the cylinder is considerable, and increases with the speed. And there 
is a certain amount of opening of the port — in all cases much less than 
its total width — beyond which any extra opening does not further 
facilitate the ingress of the steam. This is proved by the straightness 
of the steam-line during admission at the lower speeds, indicating that, 
while the opening of port increases from the lead at the beginning of 
the stroke, there is no consequent increase of pressure. 

4. The smaller the lead, the less is the apparent wiredrawing or fall 
of pressure. 

5. Increase of lap with the same opening, up to certain limits, operates 
in reducing wiredrawing. With the outside 15-inch cylinder, U-inch 
appears to be the greatest useful lap for this object. With the outside 
17-inch cylinder, U-inch wiredraws more than with the 15-inch one; 
and it is probable that, for the larger cylinder, lf-inch lap would be 
preferable. 

For the 15-inch inside cylinder, at least 1-inch lap is beneficial ; and, 
for the 18-inch inside, at least lj-inch. It is probable that an addi- 
tional i-inch would, in both cases, further reduce the wiredrawing. 

6. Beyond the useful limits of lap, m promoting the free action of 
steam, additional facility is to be had only by enlarging the cross section 
of the steam-passage. Thus, we find that, with the same lap, 1 inch, 
the sectional area of the port of the Great Britain, s ' g th of that in the 
cylinder permits of less wiredrawing than the relatively smaller ports 
of the other inside cylinders. 

It follows that long lap, in conjunction with wide ports, reduces the 
wiredrawing to a minimum. 

7- The more dry the steam, which it is in inside cylinders, the more 
susceptible is it of apparent wiredrawing, because it enters the cylinder 
more freely, and attains a higher initial pressure. 

8. For the 15-inch cylinder, ports 10 X li-inch, ^-inch lead for 
insides, and -j^-inch for outsides, or one-fifth and one-fourth of port 
respectively, are sufficient for securing timely admission, at all speeds, 
in full gear, and about -^-inch in mid-gear. In the latter case, less 
lead is needed, as the pressure is already brought up by compression. 
For the 18-inch cylinder of the Great Britain, f-inch lead, or barely 
one-fifth port, is amply sufficient. 

9. When the lead is redundant, which is commonly the case, the 
steam is admitted so easily as to be momentarily compressed, and to 
exhibit on the diagram an exalted pressure, due jointly to percussion 
and compression. The greater the lead, or the higher the speed, the 
more intense is this initial pressure. 

10. The initial action of the steam, when considerable, causes, in 
some cases, a pulsatory action during admission, which is likely to be, 
to some extent, an affection of the steam's motion, exaggerated on the 
diagram by the interference of the indicator-spring, as the vibratory 
motion occasionally extends to the end of the stroke. 

11. The absence of lead promotes vibratory action during admission. 
Thus, too much lead, and no lead at all, are equally prejudicial to the 
uniform action of the steam ; the reason being, in both circumstances, 
that the piston is some distance from the end or the beginning of the 
stroke, at the instant the port is opened. 

12. As smaller lead is required for shorter admissions than for full 
gear, the distribution yielded by the stationary link, which provides the 
same lead for all admissions, is more favourable for the regular action 
of the steam than that yielded by the shifting-link, as, in the latter case, 
the lead increases as the admission is shortened — the reverse of what 
is really required. 

13. The amount of clearance, in respect of its total volume, permitted 
between the valve and piston, has no sensible influence on the steam-line. 

14. The presence of water in the cylinder, whether it arises from 
priming or from condensation, breaks the steam, as it lowers and 
straightens the steam-line, thereby, apparently, reducing wiredrawing, 
though this is actually increased, between the valve-chest and the 
cylinder, by as much as the line is lowered. 



1853.] 



Balancing of Locomotives. 



57 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE BALANCING OF LOCOMOTIVES. 

RULES FOR PRACTICE.* 

Experiments of M. Nollau, 1848.t— One of these experiments was 
made with an inside-cylinder of the following dimensions : — Cylinders 
15 inches hy 20-inch stroke, 26 inches apart centres ; driving wheels, 
6 feet diameter, leading and trailing, 3| feet, and 11 feet apart. Weight 
of crank, referred to the pin, and the half of connecting rod, 152 lbs. ; 
crank, connecting rod, piston, and appendages, 400 lbs. 

Counterweights were applied, at 30 inches radius, between the spokes 
of each driving wheel; and, to balance 152 lbs., the revolving weight, 
on a 10-inch crank, 152 X g{} = 51 lbs., was applied, and the engine 
suspended from the roof clear of the rails, free to vibrate any way ; the 
centrifugal action was perfectly balanced, as there was not the slightest 
vertical action, even at 250 turns per minute. The fore-and-aft motion 
was, however, decided ; but it was entirely destroyed by a weight of 
400 X so = 133 lbs., balancing the entire moving weight. In this case, 
again, the excess of centrifugal force caused a vertical action of the 
machine ; and there was also considerable sinuous movement, owing to 
the greater leverage of the balance weights, being double that of the 
pistons, &c, measured from the centre of the axle. 

As 51 lbs. was too light, and 133 lbs. too heavy, a mean of them was 
applied (133 + 51) -J- 2 = 92 lbs., and the engine was set to work 
on the rails with this counterweight on each wheel. Such was the 
improved action of the engine, that, after a twelvemonth's work, there 
did not appear the slightest tear or wear of the draw-gear; while, 
formerly, even with buffing and draw springs, the bolts wore rapidly, 
and even the foot-plate was occasionally buckled or otherwise strained. J 

Experiments of M. he Chatelier.§ — In the workshops of the Orleans 
Railway an outside-cylinder long-boiler locomotive was freely suspended 
from the roof of the building, 8 inches clear of the rails, by ropes 
about 12 feet long. 

The following were the weights of the moving parts : — 

Crank, referred to the pin . . . . 93 lbs. 

Connecting rod . . . . . . . . 188 „ 

Piston and rod . . . . . . . . 174 „ 

Crosshead . . . . . . . . . . 64 ,, 



Total 



519 lbs. 



Three counterweights were applied. 1st, a block of lead, which filled 
nearly the whole space opposed to the crank, and weighed 141 lbs. Its 
centre of gravity was 26 inches from the centre of the axle, and as the 
length of crank was 11 inches, it would balance a weight of 333 lbs. at 
crank-pin, for 

141 X 26 



11 



333 lbs. 



2nd, two extra weights, together equal to 88 lbs., were placed, one on each 
side of the first weight, the centre of gravity of each being 28f inches 
from the centre, and their common centre of gravity 26| inches from 
the centre of the axle; they would, therefore, balance 212 lbs. at the 
crank-pin, for 88 X 26f -^ 11 = 212 lbs. The total counterweight 
was thus equivalent to 333 + 212 = 545 lbs. at the crank-pin, which is 
somewhat in excess of 519 lbs., the weight of the moving parts. 

To register the horizontal oscillations, a pencil was fixed to the buffer- 
beam, which traced the movement on a sheet of paper placed below it, 
the paper being so disposed as to yield to the vertical movements of 
the pencil. 

* From Hallway Machinery. By D. K. Clark. London : Blackie and Son. 

t Quoted in Le ChateUer's works on Stability. 

t Though the details of this experiment show that M. Nollau was in the right direction, it 
is plain that he did not recognise the divided action of each crank and its appendages in 
the two wheels, nor the necessity, for perfect equilibrium, of placing the balance-weights at 
an angle with the centre lines of the cranks. This was reserved for Le Chatelier to work 
out. 

§ The author has converted the results from French into English measures. 

8 




No. 1. 



Fig. I, full size. 



No. 2. 



No. 3. 



Observations were made at various speeds of the engine on its driving 
axle, up to three turns per second, or an equivalent of 35 miles per 
hour on the rail, under three conditions — 1st, without any counter- 
weight ; 2nd, with the partial balance of 333 lbs. referred to the crank- 
pin; 3rd, with the total balance of 545 lbs. Though the speed was 
limited as above, it was established that, in the same state of balance, 
the extent of free oscillation was not affected by speed, as the diagrams 
described by the pencil were the same for all observed speeds — an 
experimental result which was plainly predicable from the nature of 
moving forces ; for, though at high speeds the intensity of the disturb- 
ing force was increased, the time for 
each oscillation was also shorter. Fig. 
1 contains full-size copies of the oscil- 
lation-diagrams obtained. No. 1 was 
described during the free action of the a, !!fe_j I 
machine, without counterweight ; it is 
elliptical in form, and indicates the com- 
bined action of the two varying forces, which cause fore-and-aft motion 
and sinuous motion, in the directions of the dot-lines a b, a c, re- 
spectively, and showing a range of action both ways of about ^rd inch. 
No. 2 was described under the influence of a partial balance of 333 lbs., 
which, though much below the equilibrium load, reduced the range of 
action either way to about "08 or 3 3 2 inch. When the full counterweight 
of 545 lbs. at the crank-pin was applied, the horizontal oscillation was 
effectually extinguished, and the diagram No. 3 dwindled into a simple 
point. 

These results show not only the nature and extent of the disturbing 
action, but the efficacy of counterweights in extinguishing it. When 
the engine was placed on the rails, with its counterweights attached, it 
ran with steadiness at 50 to 60 miles per hour, subject only to shocks 
from the imperfections of the way. The balances being removed, the 
engine resumed its customary oscillatory motions, violently concussing 
the draw-gear, and working the spring even at much lower speeds. 

The experiment was repeated, with the same results, on a six-coupled 
wheel goods-engine, with outside inclined cylinders, and 4 feet 3 inch 
wheels. This class of engine had been found very unsteady on the 
rails, and required frequent repair. Counterweights equivalent to 
1,100 lbs. at the crank-pin were equally distributed between the three 
wheels on each side of the engine, well worn by long service ; they 
were placed exactly opposite the cranks, the total weight being less 
than would exactly have balanced the engine. With a train of 44 
waggons, at 30 miles per hour, the engine ran with steadiness, though 
the wheels had already been well worn by long service, and the axle- 
boxes had considerable play. The counterweights being removed, the 
engine was again set to w r ork with the same train ; it was then found 
impossible to exceed a speed of 25 miles, as the engine ran so unsteadily, 
and was affected with very violent oscillation and fore-and-aft motion. 

Similar experiments were made on the Northern Railway of France, 
upon a six-coupled wheel goods-engine, with outside horizontal cylin- 
ders, by suspending it in the workshops. When unbalanced, and put 
in motion, it described the curve, fig. 2, at the 
buffer-beam, showing a compound lateral and fore-and- 
aft vibration equal to about 1-inch. A counterweight 
equivalent to 882 lbs., or about seven-eighths of the 
whole weight was applied on each side of the engine. 
The engine had just been turned in for repair, on ac- 
count of the play at the hearings and other parts, and 
was thus under very unfavourable conditions for the 
trial. It was disconnected from the tender, and, with 4 feet wheels, 
ran along at a speed of 40 miles per hour, with satisfactory steadiness : 
there was no fore-and-aft motion at all, and only a slight degree of 
sinuous movement. Four of the five blocks for balancing being then 




'58 



The Screw Propeller. 



[March, 



removed, leaving only an equivalent balance of 176 lbs., or 17 per cent, 
of the whole weight, the engine alone could not get above 31 miles per 
hour, and at this speed the unsteadiness was " fearful." When the 
tender was screwed up to the engine, the fore-and-aft movement was 
partially destroyed, but the lateral was as violent as before. 

Conclusions.' — It is clear tbat, with inside cylinders, though the 
weight required to balance exactly the sinuous action is much less than 
that for fore-and-aft action, yet the general stability of the engine is well 
secured by the exact adaptation of the counterweight to the sinuous 
action. In the first experiment, by Nollau, a counterweight only 69 
per cent, of the whole disturbing weight yielded very good results, and 
it was less than would have been found by calculation to meet the 
sinuous action. In Gouin's inside-cylinder engine, referred to in last 
chapter, which worked steadily, the balance weight was but 60 percent, 
of the whole disturbing weight, while 78 per cent, would have been 
required to meet the sinuous action exactly. In outside-cylinder 
engines, particularly with coupled wheels, complete stability cannot be 
effected with less than an equivalent of seven-eighths of the whole dis- 
turbing weight. 

In general, for inside cylinders, a counterweight in the wheels equi- 
valent to three-fourths of the gross disturbing weight on each side of 
the engine is practically sufficient to secure the external stability of the 
engine on the rails. For outside cylinders it ought to be equivalent to 
the whole, or, in single engines, not less than seven-eighths, of the 
weight. 

(To be continued.) 

THE SCREW PROPELLER. 

RECAPITULATION OF DOCTRINES AND CONCLUSIONS.* 

In this chapter I propose to present a brief resume' of the principal 
doctrines and deductions set forth in the preceding pages, to the end 
that even the cursory reader may be enabled to form a tolerably just con- 
ception of their general character. The more important topics will thus 
be brought into relief, and, at the same time, a bird's-eye view of the 
whole subject will be afforded. 

Resistance of bodies moving in water. — In the case of very sharp 
vessels, the resistance appears to increase nearly as the square of the 
velocity ; but, in the case of vessels of an ordinary amount of sharpness, 
the resistance increases more rapidly than the square of the velocity. 
In the Pelican, when the speed was increased from 6| to 9^ knots, the 
resistance increased as the 2'28th power of the velocity, and this increase 
of the resistance appears to be due to the difference in the level of the 
water at the bow and stern which the progress of the vessel occasions. 
In canals there is an enormous increase of the resistance from this 
cause, and the same result ensues in shallow water ; so that vessels 
intended for the navigation of canals or tracts of shallow water should 
be very much sharper at the ends than common vessels. The resistance 
of a vessel varies very much with her size; and, indeed, in steam- vessels 
of good shape, the resistance at ordinary speeds appears to be chiefly 
caused by the friction of the bottom. The resistance will, therefore, 
be increased with the extent of moistened surface, but an extension of 
the moistened surface in the direction of the length will not occasion 
the same increase in the resistance as its extension in the direction of 
the breadth, since the water it comes in contact with is already in 
motion. In all vessels the perimeter or outline of the immersed cross 
section should be made as nearly a minimum as is compatible with the 
other conditions which have to be observed; as, other things being 
equal, the resistance will vary in nearly the same proportion as the 
length of the immersed perimeter. In vessels of similar form, but of 
different sizes, the velocity attained with the same proportionate power 

* From A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, with various Suggestions for Improvement. By 
John Bourne, C.E. Longman and Co. (Reviewed at p. 12,) 



will vary as the square root of any linear dimension, so that the resis- 
tance per square foot of immersed section will vary as any linear di- 
mension, or, in other words, it will vary as the length of the immersed 
perimeter. To diminish the friction of the water upon the bottom of 
ships, it appears to me that it would be advisable to interpose a thin 
stratum of air between the bottom and the water. Such a stratum of 
air could easily be forced out through a slit in a pipe laid on each side 
of the keel, and I consider that an effectual means of lubrication to the 
bottom would be thus afforded. It would be necessary, I may remark, 
that an excess of air should be thus forced out, in order that the desired 
effect might be produced, for not only would the air be compressed by 
the hydrostatic pressure of the water, but a part of it would be also 
absorbed by the water. Slow sailing ships might also be accelerated 
in their speed by forcing out such a stratum of air at the stem and 
stern, for the air would both open the water more gradually at the bow, 
and fill up the vacant space at the stern, whereby an artificial and elastic 
bow and stern would be formed. 

The resistance per square foot of immersed section of the Rattler is 
about 251bs., at a speed of 10 knots. In the Pelican, a smaller vessel, of 
which the dimensions are given at page 139, the resistance was estimated 
by Messrs. Bourgois and Moll at 301bs. per square foot of .immersed 
section, at a speed of 95 knots. In the Minx, the resistance per square 
foot of immersed section was found to be 411bs., at a speed of 8£ knots ; 
and at about the same speed I estimate the resistance of the Dwarf at 
451bs. per square foot of immersed section. The resistance of the Facn 
and Fairy I estimate at from 50 to 601bs. per square foot of immersed 
section, at a speed of from 12 to 13 knots an hour. These great 
variations of the resistance per square foot of immersed section show 
that it is not the element by which the resistance should be measured; 
and the perimeter of the immersed section, or, in other words, the length 
in the cross section of that part of the skin of the vessel exposed to the 
water would, it appears to me, be a preferable standard in every respect. 

Comparative advantages of paddle and screw vessels. — In smooth 
water, and with both vessels in their best trim, screw and paddle vessels 
are of about equal efficiency, or rather the advantage rather lies with 
the paddle, though the difference is so small as to be of no practical 
account. In deep immersions, screw vessels, however, have a very 
decided advantage ; but paddle vessels, again, have a very decided ad- 
vantage in the case of head winds. Screw vessels, when set to encounter 
head winds, are most wasteful of power, but I have discovered a means 
of remedying this defect, which consists in sinking the screw deeper in 
the water, and 1 placing it further forward in the dea;l wood; and with 
these modifications screw vessels will not be so wasteful as paddle vessels 
when contending with strong head winds. Up to the present time, 
however, paddle vessels have a decided advantage over screw vessels in 
all cases in which a strong head wind has to be encountered ; and if 
the comparison be made between the feathering wheel and the screw, 
instead of between the radial wheel and the screw — which last species 
of wheel the foregoing comparison supposes to have been employed — 
the advantage on the side of the paddles, so far as regards efficiency, 
will be still more decisive. Screw vessels, however, as they will be 
I hereafter constructed, will, in my opinion, be found preferable to paddle 
vessels under all circumstances ; and, if this view be correct, paddle 
vessels must be abandoned for all purposes of ocean navigation. The 
whole question turns upon the power of constructing screw vessels which 
shall he as efficient as paddle vessels, or more efficient, when set to 
encounter a head wind. And I have no doubt whatever that this end 
will be attained by the means which I have proposed for that purpose. 

Nature and laws of slip. — Slip is of two kinds, positive and negative ; 
but, as the latter is only an accidental phenomenon, it is the first 
alone to which it is necessary here to attend. Positive slip is made 
up of two parts, of which the one is lateral slip, and the other retro- 



1853.] 



The -Screw Propeller. 



59 



gressive slip. Lateral slip is the lateral penetration of the screw blades ; 
retrogressive slip is the backward motion of the water, owing to its 
de6cieney of inertia to resist the force which the screw applies. If the 
column of water upon which the screw acts were frozen, there would 
still be backward slip, as the inertia of the water would be just the same 
as before, but there would be no lateral penetration of the screw blades, 
and, therefore, no lateral slip, except in so far as the column of water 
was put into revolution. The lateral slip will, in all cases, be reduced 
by increasing the length of the screw, but the friction of the screw 
will be increased in the same, or in a greater, proportion. The retro- 
gressive slip can only be reduced by increasing the quantity of water 
acted upon, and this may be accomplished by increasing the diameter 
of the screw or the speed of the vessel. It may be still better 
effected, however, by increasing the immersion of the screw, as more 
water will then be acted upon without increasing the friction of the 
screw. The mode of distinguishing the lateral from the retrogressive 
slip is explained at p. 172. In any given vessel the per centage of slip 
is- about the same at all speeds ; for though at high speeds the thrust of 
the screw is greater, yet the quantity of water with which the screw 
comes into contact is greater also. If, however, the thrust of the screw 
be increased without an increase in the speed of the vessel, there will 
be a large increase in the slip. The' slip will also be increased by re- 
ducing the length of the screw, and by increasing its pitch. If the pitch 
be increased in geometrical progression, the slip will increase in arith- 
metical progression ; and this result will equally follow, whatever length 
of screw is emplo3 T ed. Screws with many blades have somewhat less 
slip than screws with few blades, but they have also more friction ; and, 
to give satisfactory results, the pitch should be larger in the proportion 
of the number of blades, and a large diameter of screw should also be 
employed. 

Thrust of the screw. — The thrust of the screw will depend conjointly 
upon the pitch and the force exerted upon the screw shaft to put it into 
revolution. The limit of the screw's thrust, computed on the supposition 
that -it is not subject to friction, may be easily determined on the prin- 
ciple of virtual velocities, as in the case of a screw working in a solid 
nut ; but as part of the rotative force is intercepted by friction, the 
actual thrust will never be so great as the theoretical thrust, but will be 
about one-fourth less. I have generally, in the foregoing pages, im- 
puted this diminution of the power to the operation of friction alone, 
but in truth, a part of it is imputable, in the case of most screw vessels, 
to the existence of lateral slip, as I have explained more fully at page 
1/2 ; but as the lateral slip may be almost extinguished by increasing 
the length of the screw, and as the same loss would then be caused by 
the increased friction as is at present caused by the lateral slip, it is 
clear that the two elements are, in fact, convertible, and, in the case of 
screws with many blades, the difference between the theoretical and 
actual thrust is due almost wholly to friction. 

Friction of the screw. — The difference between the theoretical and 
actual thrust of the screw shaft, as shown by the dynamometer, will fix 
the amount of deduction which must be made for friction and lateral 
slip. The total amount of slip, whether lateral or retrogressive, is given 
by the difference between the advance of the screw and the advance of 
the vessel; and if we find the velocity which the thrust exerted upon 
the screw-Shaft acting during the time of one revolution would give to 
a column of water of the same diameter as the screw and the same 
length as the pitch, then, by subtracting this quantity from the total 
slip, we shall obtain the amount of lateral slip. Since, then, we know 
the total amount of power consumed in friction and lateral slip, and 
since, also, we have determined the amount of lateral slip, it will be 
easy to determine, approximately, the amount of power consumed in 
lateral slip, and the residue will I be the friction of the screw. The 
amount of power consumed in friction and lateral slip will vary from 



between a third and a fourth to between a fourth and a fifth of the 
whole power developed by the engines ; but this includes the friction of 
the engines as well as the friction of the screw. 

Centrifugal action of the screw. — The friction of the screw and the 
lateral pressure of the screw blades put the column of water, upon 
which the screw acts, into revolution, and a centrifugal action is thus 
produced, which finally expends itself by raising the level of the water 
at the stern. Heretofore, in screw vessels, when towing or set to en- 
counter head winds, a most wasteful expenditure of power has been 
produced from this cause ; but I propose to render the power, thus 
fruitlessly dissipated, available for the propulsion of the vessel, by 
placing the screw far forward in the deadwood, or, rather, by using two 
screws set far forward in the run, which, whenever the vessel was im- 
peded, and their centrifugal action was thus brought into play, would 
cause the upward current, by pressing against the inclined plane of the 
vessel's run, to force the vessel forward, in the same way as a ship is 
forced forward by the pressure of the wind upon an oblique sail. By 
this arrangement, the forward pressure upon the vessel would always be 
proportional to the resistance encountered, and therein screw vessels 
would have an advantage over paddle wheels, the forward pressure of 
which is a determinate quantity which cannot be increased. Screw 
vessels, under this arrangement, would be able to contend with head 
winds which paddle vessels could not face ; and the innovation will be 
particularly valuable in screw vessels with auxiliary power, which, here- 
tofore, have been totally incapable of contending with a head wind. 

Measure of efficiency in screio vessels. — The measure of efficiency in 
screw vessels is the dynamometer power, or, rather, the nearness of its 
approach to the indicator power. This, however, it is clear, is only a 
measure of the efficiency of the engines and screw, but not of the hull ; 
for, of two vessels with the same indicator, and dynamometer power, 
one may carry more than the other, or attain a higher speed. The dy- 
namometer power is the thrust upon the shaft in pounds multiplied by 
the feet per minute passed through by the vessel, and divided by 33,000, 
The proper measure of the efficiency of a vessel is the number of tons 
which each actual horse power of the engines will transport through 10 
knots in one hour, and the larger the vessel is, the higher will be the 
performance, in this respect. 

Comparative efficiency of different kinds of screws. — The comparative 
efficiencies of different screws will depend a good deal upon the qualities 
of the vessel vto which they are attached, and also upon the dimensions of 
the screws themselves. If, from the fulness of the vessel or the small 
diameter of the screw, there is much slip, then a screw with a pitch 
increasing both in the direction of its length and in the direction of its 
radius, and with the arms slightly bent backwards towards the stern- 
post, will give the best results. But if the screw be so proportioned to 
the vessel that there is little slip, then a screw with a uniform pitch 
will give as good results as any other kind. Screws of two blades, four 
blades, and six blades, appear to be about equally efficient ; but the 
greater the number of blades, the greater should be the pitch. 

Best proportions, of screw. — Screws of two blades are usually made 
as large in diameter as possible, and the pitch is made about equal to 
the diameter, or a little more, and the length about one-sixth of the 
pitch. As the size of the screw, relatively with the midship section, is 
increased, or as the resistance of the vessel is diminished, so may the 
pitch be increased, and the length of screw diminished. The best pro- 
portions for screws of two, four, and six blades, if constructed on the 
ordinary principle, is given at page 161. The ordinary principle, how- 
cveri stands greatly in need of emendation, and, in constructing a screw 
vessel, these are not the elements I should employ, though they will 
enable results to be arrived at at least fully equal to any which have, 
heretofore, been obtained. • 

Mode of predicating the speed of a sereiv vessel. — The speed of a screw 



60 



The Screw Propeller 



[March, 



vessel with a screw proportioned in the usual manner, or as explained 
at page 161, will be about the same as the speed of a paddle vessel of 
the same power, form, and size ; and the mode of determining the 
power necessary to produce a given speed in a vessel, or the speed 
which will be derived from a given power, is explained at page 101. 
Having ascertained what vessel in the table given at page iii. in the 
appendix the proposed vessel most nearly resembles in size and form, 
take the corresponding co-efficient given in the third last column of the 
table as the co-efficient of the intended vessel. Multiply the number of 
actual horses power by this co-efficient, and divide the product by the 
number of square feet of area in the immersed section of the vessel. 
Extract the cube root of the quotient, which will be the speed of the 
intended vessel in knots, per hour. 

Influence of the form of hull. — The form of the hull is, perhaps, the 
most important question connected with the efficiency of screw vessels, 
and the most material condition to be observed is to make them fine 
in the stern. Both ends, however, should be made very sharp, and the 
vessel should be made very long, and should be broad at the water line, 
and with some flam of the side, in order to enable her to bear the action 
of the sails without being careened too much. The portion of the 
vessel immersed in the water should be made without flat surfaces in it, 
and the bottom should not be flat, but should rather approach, in the 
cross section, to a compromise between a semicircle and a triangle — the 
semicircle being the form which has least friction, and the triangle 
being the form which has most stability. To illustrate the importance 
of a proper sharpness being given to the stern, the following facts may 
be here recapitulated: — In 1846 the Dwarf a vessel with a fine run, 
was filled out in the stern by the application of three successive layers 
of planking, so as to alter the shape to that of a vessel with a full run. 
Prior to the alteration, the speed of the vessel was 9 - l knots per hour, 
the engines making 32 revolutions per minute. The effect of the filling 
was to reduce the speed to 3 - 25 knots per hour, with a speed of the 
engine of 24 revolutions per minute. One layer of filling was then 
taken ofF, and the speed rose to 5'75 knots per hour, the engines 
making 26"5 revolutions per minute. When the whole of the filling 
was removed, the speed rose to 9 knots, as before. Care was taken, in 
this experiment, to bring the filling into conformity with the lines of the 
vessels, so that there should be no roughness or abruptness to aggravate 
the evils of a full run, yet the result was a declension to one-third of 
the original speed. Again, the Sharpshooter and Rifleman were sister 
vessels of 486 tons and 200 horse power ; but the Rifleman was made 
with a full run, and the Sharpshooter with a fine run. The speed of 
the Rifleman was found, on trial, to be 7'9 knots, and of the Sharp- 
shooter 9 - 9 knots. The Minx and Teazer were sister vessels of about 
300 tons and 100 horse power, but the Teaser was made with a full 
run, and the Minx with a fine run. The speed of the Teazer was found 
to be 6*3 knots, and the speed of the Minx 7'8 knots. The sterns of 
both the Rifleman and Teazer were sharpened subsequently to these 
trials, and the 100 horse engines of the Teazer were, at the same time, 
put into the Rifleman, while new engines of 40 horse power were put 
into the Teazer. Both vessels went faster than before. The Rifleman, 
when sharpened at the stern, attained a speed of 8 knots with engines 
of 100 horse power, whereas she had before only attained a speed 
of 7'8 knots with engines of 200 horse power. The Teazer, when 
sharpened at the stern, attained a speed of 7'685 knots with engines of 
40 horse power, whereas, she had before only attained a speed of 6 - 3 
knots with engines of 100 horse power. The engines of the Teazer, 
when transferred to the Rifleman, drove that vessel nearly 2 knots an 
hour faster than they had previously driven the smaller vessel — an ame- 
lioration chiefly consequent upon the sharpened form of the stern. 

Influence of the size of hull. — Next to the form, the size of hull is 
one of the most important questions that can engage attention, as it 



has a most important influence upon the efficiency. The capacity of a 
vessel enlarged symmetrically increases as the cube of any increased 
dimension, the sectional area increases as the square, and the resistance 
only as the dimension. A vessel, therefore, of double the length, 
breadth, and depth, will have eight times the capacity, four times the 
immersed section, and only twice the resistance. In the Minx, the 
resistance, per square foot of immersed section, I estimate at about 
714 1DS -> at a speed of 10 knots an hour; whereas, in the Rattler, a 
larger vessel, the resistance, per square foot, is only 25, at a speed of 
10 knots an hour. Large vessels of good form will be able to carry 
merchandise more cheaply than small vessels, and they will also be able 
to realise a higher speed. To realise the same speed under steam 
alone, a vessel of eight times the capacity will only require twice the 
power, and the sails of the larger vessel will be much more effective, 
since, in fact, a larger amount of sail power relatively with the resistance 
will be applied. 

Operation of the sails. — The operation of the sails will be better and 
more effective, in vessels of good form and large dimensions, than in 
vessels of bad form and of small dimensions — that is, any given area of 
sail will communicate more mechanical power to the ship with any given 
force of the wind. In order that a vessel may be able to sail very close 
to the wind, the surface of the sails should be quite flat, and the sails 
should have holes in them, or be made like a Venetian blind, as the 
sails of vessels are made in China. A considerable measure of elasticity, 
moreover, should be given to some part of the rigging intervening 
between the sail and the hull ; and if the yard, instead of being fixed 
immediately to the mast, were to be fixed with a sliding eye to a short 
bowsprit, which the yard might run up or out upon, the necessary 
elasticity would be attained. The sail might return either by gravity 
or by a spiral spring, like that of a railway buffer, enclosed in the bow- 
sprit, which might be formed of a hollow iron tube, fixed to the mast 
with an eye, on which it would, of course, require to swivel in the manner 
the yard now does in common ships. 

Steam vessels on canals and in shallow rivers- — The resistance of 
steam vessels upon canals, and in shallow waters of every kind, is enor- 
mously increased, if a considerable rate of speed is sought to be main- 
tained, as will be seen by a reference to page 196; and for the effectual 
supercession of this difficulty, it is necessary that such waters should be 
navigated by vessels of a totally different construction from that of 
common vessels. The expedient I have proposed for that purpose is a 
train of shallow barges articulated together, so as to constitute a single 
long and narrow vessel, and the end barges would require to be exceed- 
ingly sharp and shallow, so as to displace the water in a very gradual 
manner. The steam-engine, instead of acting upon the water, would 
act upon the ground in propelling the vessel, whereby slip would be 
obviated, and a better result obtained. 

Iron and wooden ships. — Iron ships appear to be, in all cases, the most 
advantageous, except where the vessels have to continue for six months 
or upwards in a tropical climate, without any opportunity of being 
docked ; and, for those cases, vessels with iron ribs, and planked with 
Malabar teak, appear to be the best. Where Malabar teak, however, 
cannot be got, other woods may be employed. Iron ships may be kept 
free from fouling for six months by the application of Mallet's partially 
soluble poisonous paint. A paint of this description is compounded by 
Mr. Peacock, of Southampton. 

Mode of constructing the hulls of ships. — All ships, whether of wood 
or iron, should be built on the proportions of a hollow beam ; and the 
strength, therefore, should be chiefly collected at the bottom and 
the deck, as these are the parts which must take the strain. The 
sides need not be so strong as the bottom and the deck, and 
the deck should be built on to the ship in the same manner as 
the bottom, instead of being made a mere platform, which may at 



I 



1853.]" 



Griffiths' Screw Propeller. 



61 



any time be nailed down. The decks of iron ships should be of iron, 
which may be covered with the species of cement employed in China 
for covering decks, and which answers its purpose in the most efficient 
manner. In vessels, as at present constructed, there are too many ribs, 
which give no longitudinal strength, and are mainly useful in keeping 
the hull in shape; but this function fewer ribs would perform. A rib 
to every beam is sufficient, and rib and beam should be made in a con- 
tinuous piece, which should encircle the vessel like an internal hoop. 

Cost of conveyance in paddle steamers of large power, screw steamers 
with auxiliary power, and sailing ships. — Supposing the vessels to be 
in each case capable of carrying the same quantity of merchandise, the 
cost per ton carried will be about three times greater in the paddle 
steamer than in the screw steamer ; and in the sailing ship the cost per 
ton carried will be about one-third greater than in the screw steamer. 
Screw steamers, therefore, can carry more cheaply than either paddle 
steamers or sailing ships ; but this result does not arise from any su- 
perior efficacy of the screw as a propellor. It is the result of the use 
of a low proportion of steam power, which, without entailing much 
direct expense, produces a large benefit, by enabling the wind to act 
more efficiently upon the sails ; and it is the result, also, of the supe- 
rior form of hull which has been introduced simultaneously with the 
screw. Latterly a very superior class of sailing vessels has been coming 
into use, which, even without a screw, realise a high average rate of 
speed ; but 1 believe it "will be found advisable to introduce screws into 
sailing vessels even of the best class, as they will be thereby enabled to 
carry more cheaply, and at an increased rate of speed. 



GRIFFITHS' SCREW PROPELLER. 

This important improvement in the screw propeller has been already 
fully described in our columns (vide pp. 176, 218, Artizan, 1852). 
Since these notices appeared, it has been applied to the African mail 
steamers, and to the Larriston (vide p. 184), in all which cases an 
increase of speed was attained, after every effort had been made to do 
the best with the ordinary screw. It has now been applied to H.M.S. 
Fairy, with an equally satisfactory result. The following account, 
taken from a non-professional contemporary, in which we have reason 
to know that the facts are correctly stated, will serve to bring our 
account down to the present time : — 

On Friday, the 11th instant, Her Majesty's yacht Fairy, Master-Com- 
mander Welch, completed the screw experiments with Griffiths' patent 
screw, as opposed to the general screw in use in Her Majesty's ships. 
. The trials have been entirely under the direction of that able and scientific 
officer, Captain William Crispin, of Her Majesty's yacht Victoria and Albert. 
A more impartial judge could not have been selected for this important 
duty, because of the complete revolution that must, of necessity, take place 
throughout the navy, and, fortunately, without any very great expense. 

The Fairy commenced her trials by going through Spithead to test her 
machinery and prove her boilers. This was on Saturday, the 5th inst. On 
Monday the patentees, Messrs. Swayne and Bovill, with their friends and 
several scientific officers of the navy, were invited to test the exact speed of 
the Fairy by her old propeller ; very many turns were taken at the mea- 
sured mile, with and against the tide, and time accurately noted. 

She was then laid on the gridiron, and Griffiths' patent propeller shipped, 
and on Tuesday commenced her first trial, which was so satisfactory as to 
convince all on board that the patent propeller must supersede all others. 

So deep was the interest taken by the mercantile navigation world iu these 
trials of screw propulsion, that Mr. Patterson, the builder of the Great Britain, 
was sent to Portsmouth by Gibbs, Bright, and Co., of Liverpool (her owners), 
to witness and report the experiments, with the view of Griffiths' propeller 
being fitted to the Great Britain, on her next voyage to Australia. We now 
proceed to give the general results obtained out of the great number of runs 
made at the measured mile at Stokes Bay, with the screw blades set at differ- 
ent pitches or angles. These results have elucidated some important points , 



in screw propulsion. The ordinary screws (including those of Her Majesty's 
ships Agamemnon 91, and the Duke of Wellington, 131) have been made, up 
to the present time, without any provision for altering the pitch, to meet the 
variety of winds and currents to which all sea-going vessels are subject; they 
have been thus deprived of that which now appears the most valuable feature 
of the screw, viz., its power of adapting its pitch to meet every contingency. 
So difficult does it appear to be for even the most experienced engineers to 
determine for different vessels the correct pitch of the screws, that it is, we 
are informed, the custom in the navy to construct the second, or spare screw, 
which every vessel carries, of a different pitch to the other ; and it seems to 
be quite a matter of accident whether one or the other, or neither (which is 
more frequently the case, we are informed), is of the right pitch for the ship. 
This remark equally applies to the screw vessels of the merchant service. 
During these experiments on board the Fairy, the pitch of the new propeller 
was repeatedly altered, to test its effect ; and so simple is the arrangement 
for doing this, that the alteration only occupied three minutes on each occa- 
sion. In reference to the table of experiments given below, it will be seen 
that, with the new propeller, the engineer can control the speed of his engines 
at pleasure, by increasing or reducing the pitch of the screw, so that, in a 
fair wind, by increasing the pitch, the full power of the engines working only 
at the proper speed may be exerted in effectively propelling the vessel, instead 
of consuming fuel for driving round the engines (with a fine-pitched screw) 
to no good purpose. And, again, in going ahead to wind, by diminishing 
the pitch, the engines can be made to give out their utmost duty with a cer- 
tainty of effectually propelling the vessel; and in cases where it is desired 
to economise fuel as much as possible, the pitch of the screw may be increased 
to reduce the revolutions of engines to any extent ; and the results of the 
present experiments show that this might be done with great advantage, and, 
no doubt, in a vessel under canvas, would give an extraordinary result. The 
large central ball of the new propeller gives great additional strength, and 
affords the opportunity of constructing within it the very strong, and, at the 
same time, simple and effective arrangement for altering the pitch and fea- 
thering the blades parallel to the shaft when the ship is under canvas only, 
to which so much importance has lately been attached in reference to the 
Australian and East India steamers. In the case of the fracture of one of 
blades of the screw (which not unfrequently occurs), the patent propeller is 
readily repaired by shipping a new blade, weighing not more than one-sixth 
of the whole weight ; but with the ordinary screws, which are cast in one 
piece, the breaking of any part is fatal, and involves the necessity of making 
a new casting. Simple as the difference may appear, it is not unimportant in. 
large vessels with brass screws (such as are, we believe, viniversally used in the 
navy), weighing from 8 to 10 tons, and now worth about £200 per ton. Oa 
Friday the last series of experiments with Griffiths" patent propeller were 
made, when a number of naval officers were again on board, including Cap- 
tain Crispin; Captain J. A. Stevens; Mr. Baker, inspector of machinery of 
Her Majesty's yachts ; Mr. Harttree, of the firm of Messrs. Penn and Son, 
the makers of the Fairy's engines; Mr. Smith, inspector of screw propellers, 
&c. The new screw was represented by Mr. Griffiths and Mr. Bovill. The 
destructive vibration arising from the ordinary screw — to which much im- 
portance was attached, as in larger vessels the vibration impairs their strength, 
and not unfrequently creates great leakage in the afterpart— was entirely 
done away with. It will be seen, by the tables, that when the screw was put 
at 10-feet pitch, the engines could only make 30 revolutions per minute. 
Notwithstanding this great reduction in the power employed, the mean speed 
of the vessel actually obtained was 11-738 knots— only a quarter of a knot 
less than was obtained with the Fairy's best screw— 12-100 knots with 
engines running 38 revolutions per minute ; thus saving, in power, wear 
and tear of machinery, and fuel, about 25 per cent. When it was 
desired to increase the speed of the vessel, the pitch of the new pro- 
peller was diminished, the revolutions of the engines regularly increasing 
with every reduction in the pitch, and at 7 -feet pitch the engines made 42 
revolutions per minute, and the mean speed of the vessel reached 12-631 
knots per hour. In making this comparison between the ordinary screw 
and the new propeller, it must be borne in mind that the Fairy is considered 
the best screw steam vessel in Her Majesty's service, and that her present 
state of excellence has been obtained after trying for the last few years every 
kind and form of screw, and the one used in the present trial agamst the 



62 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[March, 



new propeller was a fine polished brass one, and considered the perfection of 
a screw. The new propeller was simply a cast-iron one, and the first attempt 
mMe against the Fairy's screw. 

The following table will show the exact results of the several trials of Her 
Majesty's yacht Fairy, at the measured miles, in Stokes Bay : — 
WITH THE COMMON SCREW. 



Trials. 


Revolu- 
tions of 
Engines. 


Pressure 

of 
Steam. 


Va- 
cuum 
Inches. 


Time. 


Knots per 
Hour. 


Average 
Knots 

per 
Hour. 


Pitch 

of 
Screw. 


1. With tide 


38£ 

38i 

38 

38 

38 

38J 


111b. 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 


261 


4' 49" 
4' 59" 
4' 57" 
5' 3" 
4' 49" 
5' 9" 


12-456} 
12-040 y 
12-121 ? 
1 1-880 $ 
12--J56? 
11-560 5 


12-248 
12-000 
12-053 


8 ft. 


3. With tide 


— 


5. With tide 


— 













Total mean speed per hour, in knots 12-100 

Kemarks. — Draught of water 7 feet aft, 5 feet forward. 





WITH GRIFFITHS 


PATENT PROPELLER. 






Trials. 


Revolu- 
tions of 
Engines. 


Pressure 

of 
Steam. 


Va- 
cuum 
Inches. 


Time. 


Knots per 
Hour. 


Average 

Knots 

per 

Hour. 


Pitch 

of 
Screw. 


1. With tide 


30 

30 

331 

33 

37* 

37 

41'! 

42j 


111b. 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 


26 


4' 57" 
5' 17" 
4' 34" 
5' 28" 
4' 51" 
4' 50" 
4' 23'' 
5' 11" 


12-121} 
11-356 5 
13-139? 
10-975 5 
12-371 ? 
12-413 5 
13-688? 
11-5755 


11-738 
12-057 


10 ft. 


3. With tide 


9ft. 


5. Slack water ... 

6. Slack water ... 

7. With tide 


12-392 8ft. 
12:631 7ft. 




1 





Remarks. — Draught of water 7 feet aft, 5 feet forward. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

February 15th, 1853. 

Ja:.ies Meadows Rendel, Esq., president, in the chair : — 

The paper read was, '•" On the Use of Heated Air as a Motive 
Power," by Mr. Benjamin Cheverton. 

.The author, in a short historical notice, stated that Sir George 
Ca3'ley had written on the subject in 1804 and 1807, and had. sub- 
sequently built several engines ; but that the Messrs. Stirling, of Scot- 
land, produced the first really efficient engine working by means of 
heated air, in the year 1827 ; in the same year Messrs. Parkinson and 
Crosley brought forward their air-engine ; that Mr. Ericsson, following 
more closely the arrangements arid form of the ordinary steam-engine, 
constructed an air, or a '-'caloric engine," as it Was termed, in 1833. 
Messrs. Stirling patented further improvements in 1840, and in 1S45 
their engine was described to and discussed at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers; in 1851 Mr. Ericsson brought forward his present form of 
engine; and that the principle acted upon, in both these latter inventions, 
and announced as an important discovery in motive mechanics, was the 
reiterated use of the same caloric in the production of power. The 
mechanical means of realising this idea were described, and it appeared 
that in both inventions they were substantially identical. The ejected 
hot air, by being brought into contact with an extensive metallic surface 
of wire gauze, was deprived of its heat, which the nest moment was 
imparted to the incoming cold air, and thus the ultimate use of the 
furnace was onlyto supply the unavoidable waste of caloric by radiation. 

This view of the subject was strongly contested, as being inconsistent 
with the best established laws of nature, and as involving the idea of 
the possibility of the creation of power. It was argued, at some length, 
that the employment of caloric as a motive agent, consisted in the de- 
velopment, from molecular forces, of a dynamic force, and, as such, was 
directly amenable to the third law of motion — that of action and re- 



action, being equal and opposite. It was contended, that sensible caloric- 
was not an indication of the presence, but of the abeyance of mechanical 
action ; that these were interchangeably convertible quantities ; and, 
consequently, that a working force could appear only as heat disappeared 
— a conclusion entirely opposed to the assumed principle of the " caloric 
engine," that calorie could be made to operate over and over again." 
It was admitted, however, that there was an apparent anomaly in the 
application of the law of action and reaction, when caloric was in ques- 
tion, in the fact that its quantity was not less after than before the 
generation of steam power, if it were estimated conjointly by water and 
temperature. But, it was explained, that a cause might have two classes 
of effects, and might require two distinct and different measures, to 
indicate its entire efficiency; that while caloric might remain intact, 
under the aspect adverted to, it lost by a declination in the intensity of 
its temperature, for which the equivalent gain was a dynamic force — a 
conclusion as adverse as before to the idea that such force could be 
acquired without cost. It was, in short, in the aspect of a vis viva 
" force" in caloric, that the development of mechanical action must be 
considered. These views were further explained and illustrated, by a 
reference to the analogous difference between momentum and the more 
practical modification of power, named by Smeaton and Watt " mecha- 
nical power," " work," and "duty;" and it was shown that here also 
an apparent discrepancy existed in relation to the third law of motion, 
but which was cleared up when both the measures of power — that by 
time and that by space — were appropriately used. 

It was contended that the " caloric engine" was analogous to a non- 
expansive high pressure steam-engine, which it would exceed in waste- 
fulness of heat, if it were not provided with what its inventor improperly 
termed a " regenerator," the office of which, it was insisted, was simply 
to absorb the unutilised sensible caloric of the escaping air, which, as 
compared with steam, was in very large proportion to the efficient 
caloric ; and, to afford another opportunity for its being converted into 
force, thus compensating for the loss of expansive pressure. An expia- 
tion, founded on these considerations, was given of the continued action 
of the engine for some time after the fire was withdrawn — a fact which 
had been advanced in support of what was styled the untenable hypo- 
thesis of a " regeneration of force." 

Although the mechanical effect of heat might be proved to be inde- 
pendent of the chemical condition, if not, also, of the physical consti- 
tution, of bodies, it was admitted, that economy of fuel, as being a 
distinct question from that of economising the caloric already in pos- 
session, was eminently a practical matter, only to be determined by 
experiment; and in this point of view it was explained in what man- 
ner the reception of heat at a much higher temperature than steam 
was greatly in favour of air as a motive agent, but, on the other hand, 
many adverse considerations were adduced, tending to show the im- 
practicability of the system in its present form. 

In conclusion, it was shown that the " caloric engine" did not rest 
on true principles exclusively its own — that its merits stood upon com- 
mon ground with those of the steam engine, and, therefore, that even 
should the performances of air be found superior to those of steam, it 
could not be anticipated that the former would immediately supersede 
the latter ; but, as far as public statements could be relied on, the per- 
formances of the air engine on board the " caloric ship" Ericsson 
were very unfavourable to the pretensions of the promulgators of the 
plan. 

The discussion was commenced by an exposition of the several sys- 
tems adopted by Sir G. Cayley, Stirling, Parkinson, and Crosley and 
Ericsson, illustrating them by diagrams; whence it appeared that the 
most preferable mode of heating the air was that of Sir G. Cayley, by 
directly traversing the incandescent fuel ; that the great improvement 
recently introduced by Ericsson was the wire gauge regenerator, which, 



.] 



Route to India, 



63 



however, formed an integral part of Stirling's original design. The 
practical difficulties of the immense dimensions of the heating vessels 
and cylinders, and the rapid destruction of the metallic parts, were 
fully considered ; and it was admitted that, although, at present, there 
did not appear to be any positive recorded results more advantageous 
than by the use of steam, it would be wrong to discourage the attemp 
to use heated air and to overcome the inherent difficulties of the 
system. 

Allusion was made to the appendix to a tract published by Mr. A. 
Gordon, wherein it was shown that the volume of the gases into which 
one cubic foot of anthracite coal was decomposed, under atmospheric 
pressure, was 219,250 cubic feet; that the volume of air required to 
sustain combustion was 14,273 feet; the mechanical power developed 
was 473,000,000 lbs., raised one foot. It was proposed by Mr. Maxwell 
Lefroy to pass these gases through water, in order to purify them from 
grit, &c, and to cool them to a convenient temperature, and then to 
use them together with steam, in power cylinders. He proposed a 
system of co-axial cylinders, of which the central one was the furnace ; 
the two next were cylindrical shell boilers, the water in the inner one 
of which completely covered the surface of the furnace, that in the 
outer one having its surface always below the insertion of the gas pipes 
in the furnace ; the exterior shells being for the purpose of gradually 
heating the air, in its passage to the furnace, so that the exterior shell, 
which alone sustained the bursting pressure, was always cool. 

About one-seventeenth part of the power produced would be ex- 
pended in forcing in the air required to sustain the combustion of the 
fuel. The coal-hopper was co-axial with the furnace, and was kept cool 
by the supply of water descending through its hollow shell into the 
interior. 

The system would be one of high pressure, and some of its advan- 
tages were assumed to be, the absence of a funnel, saving three-fourths 
of the fuel, safety from explosion, with economy of first cost, space, and 
labour. 

The discussion of the paper was adjourned until the meeting of 
Tuesday, February 22nd, when it was announced that the whole of the 
evening would be devoted to the subject. 

February 22nd, 1853. 
James Meadows Rene-el, Esq., president, in the chair: — 

The construction of Ericsson's engine, and the application of the 
regenerator, were first described ; and it was then argued that the 
action of the regenerator almost amounted, theoretically, to the crea- 
tion of force, and that it was not of the utility that had been presumed. 
From the best accounts, it appeared that various practical difficulties 
existed in the application of heated air as a motive power ; and, from 
calculations which were entered into, it was shown that, the mean pres- 
sure of the air in the working cylinder being 4|-lbs., the engines making 
eleven strokes per minute, a total power was developed, which, after 
making a proper deduction for friction and waste, did not exceed 20S 
horse power, with the cumbrous machinery which was then described. It 
was then contended that, with such a fine model of a ship, and under the 
circumstances of the experiments, a greater speed than seven miles an 
hour ought to have been attained with a less expenditure of fuel, and 
that, therefore, at present, the caloric engine could not be practically 
regarded as a successful innovation. 

Tables and diagrams were exhibited, for the purpose of showing the 
relative amount of power obtainable from a given quantity of heat 
applied in expanding air and producing steam; showing that, after 
taking into account all the conditions of each case, the useful effect 
would be nearly the same, independent of the regenerator, which, if 
not a fallacy, would turn the scale in favour of the use of heated air. 

It was submitted, by other speakers, that the machine involved a 



mechanical fallacy, as the regenerator produced no mechanical effect 
whatever. It might be granted that the regenerator of Ericsson's en- 
gine received and redelivered the heat in the manner described; and 
that, when the working piston was descending, theheat was deposited; 
and that, when ascending, the heat was restored ; but that operation 
could only result as a consequence of the motion of the piston, and not 
as a cause of its motion ; hence, no mechanical effect was made. This 
result was easily shown, by assuming the contents of the pump to be 1, 
and the contents of the working cylinder to be 2. If the working 
piston was at the bottom of the cylinder, and in equilibrio with the ex- 
ternal atmosphere, as regarded the pressure on a unit of surface, and 
then began to move, and the air to be heated, in its passage through 
the regenerator, from 32° to a temperature of 512°, so as to double its 
volume, the lower piston would constantly produce a vacuity, so to 
speak, of 2, to be constantly fed by a supply of 1, from the pump, ex- 
panded into 2 by the increase of temperature ; consequently, the 
piston, at every instant of its motion, remained in equilibrio with the 
external atmosphere, and no mechanical effect could result. Still, in 
Ericsson's engine a mechanical effect had been produced; but then, 
this mechanical effect was no greater than would be produced without 
the aid of the regenerator, by the simple action cf the furnace itself, and 
not so economically as by the use of steam. 

Further investigations were entered into of the theory of the air en- 
gine ; and the general result appeared to exhibit so much distrust of the 
accounts already received of the working of the caloric ship, that it 
was suggested that the further discussion of the subject should be ad- 
journed for a few weeks ; and, meanwhile, another paper was proposed 
to be written, so that the question could be more fully discussed on the 
next occasion. 

ROUTE TO INDIA via THE EUPHRATES. 
Papers bearing on this subject were read at the meeting of the 
Royal Geographical Society on the 14th instant, of which we have the 
following notes : — 

" Remarks on the Country between Seleucia, the Valley of the Orontes, 
Antioch, and Apimere, to Belis, on the Euphrates," by Dr. Thompson. 

" Note on the Watershed of the Wadi El Araba," by Captain William 
Allen, R.V., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

The second paper, or that on the Euphrates route, created considerable 
interest. 

The importance of affording facilities of intercourse between the coast of 
Syria and the Persian Gulf, and of thus developing the resources of these 
countries, is becoming of daily interest, not only to Turkey itself, but to 
Europe in general. Dr. Thompson thinks that these objects are, at no very 
remote period, likely to be put into operation. 

The opening of the old caravan route of the 13th and 14th centuries, by 
the Euphrates Valley, must in itself be considered one of the greatest bless- 
ings that could be conferred not only upon the Ottoman Empire at large, 
but upon the whole of the eastern world. The many associations of the 
country through which it is proposed to establish this interesting route are 
too familiar to the public in general to require further allusion. Suffice it 
to say, that the Garden of Eden and cradle of Christianity are sites which it 
is enough to name, as in themselves incentives to the promotion and fulfil- 
ment of this apparently feasihle and important route to the east. 

In his communication " On the Watershed of Wadi El Araba," Captain 
Allen said, that as the notices of travellers appear to be insufficient for de- 
termining the elevation and extent of the watershed of the Wadi Araba, the 
point of separation of the torrents flowing northwards to the Gulf of Akaba, 
he proposed to lay before the society such information as he could collect on 
this important subject in physical geography. 

Burchardt, Irby and Mangles, and others, consider this valley to be a 
plain ; while some geographers even entertained the idea that the Biver 
Jordan might, anciently, have flowed through it to the Gulf of Akaba. In 



64 



Economical 'Production of Mechanical Effects. 



[March, 



1838 the Comte de Bertou proved the fallacy of this, by discovering the 
gradual ascent of the valley, from the Dead Sea towards the south. He 
imagined he had ascertained the point of the waterparting to be at about 55 
miles from the Dead Sea ; but, as his barometer was broken, he gave it as his 
judgment only, which, notwithstanding his zeal and general accuracy, may 
have erred. Among other reasons for suspecting this, it appears that, mis- 
trusting his Arabs, he went in a more westerley direction than they wished 
him ; and thus may have turned up the lateral Wadi Talha, where he ob- 
served two slopes, north and south, which he names the waterparting. The 
suspicion that he fell into this error appears to be corroborated by Dr. Robin- 
son, who, from the Pass of Nemeln, on Mount Hor, could see the trough of 
the valley winding far south of this point. At the opposite side of the valley 
at El Sath he also believed himself to be at the culminating point ; but, as 
the breadth between the two stations is fourteen miles, it is probable that 
there is an intervening depression through which the watercourse may pass 
between the sand hills. 

Dr. Schubert's route, from Akaba to Petra, gradually ascended the eastern 
mountains, from whence he describes the Wadi Araba as rapidly declining 
towards the western range, where he thought it was so low, that it would be 
overflowed in the rainy season. He found all the lateral valleys converging 
towards the north. He gives barometrical observations at two stations ; but, 
though one of them coincides in position with El Sath of Dc Bertou, it cannot 
be taken as the height of the watershed, as he was evidently on the slope of 
the Shera range. 

Dr. Eobinson gives some notices, which would lead to the conclusion that 
the watershed is considerably to the south of that supposed by De Bertou. 
He places it at about 22 miles from the Gulf of Araba ; it may, therefore, be 
said that the problem still remains to be solved. It is of great importance, 
both in itself and in the consequences to which it may lead ; and Captain 
Allen submits that, as the discovery of the depression of the Dead Sea was 
made by two of our countrymen, Messrs. Moore and Beke, and verified by 
Major Symonds, K.E., Mr. Castigan, and Lieutenant Molyneux, R.N., and 
as the Americans have, at a considerable expense, sent an efficient expedi- 
tion under Captain Lynch, U.S.N., to continue their surveys, it behoves 
Great Britain to complete the task. If the government would direct an 
officer of the Bxyal Engineers to accompany him for this purpose, Captain 
Allen was willing to proceed upon the expedition as soon as the proper 
time for travelling in those regions arrives. 

ON THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF MECHANICAL 

EFFECT FROM MECHANICAL FORCES. 

By J. P. Joule, F.R.S., &c* 

Engines which derive their power from the operation of chemical forces 
may be divided into three classes. The first class comprises those exquisite 
machines in which chemical forces operate by the mysterious intervention of 
life, whether in the animal or vegetable creation. The second class includes 
machines in which the chemical forces act through the intervention of elec- 
trical currents, as in the ordinary electro-magnetic apparatus. The third 
comprises those engines in which the chemical forces act through the inter- 
vention of the heat they produce; these, which may be termed thermo-dy- 
namic engines, include steam-engines, air-engines, &c. The process whereby 
muscular effort is developed in the living machine is, as might be expected, in- 
volved in great obscurity. Professor Magnus has endeavoured to prove that 
the oxygen inspired by an animal does not immediately enter into com- 
bination with the blood, but is mechanically conveyed by it to the capillary 
vessels within the muscles, where it combines with certain substances, con- 
verting them into carbonic acid and water. The carbonic acid, instead of 
oxygen, is then absorbed by the blood, and is discharged therefrom when it 
Teaches the lungs. Taking this view, we may admit with Liebig, that at 
each effort of an animal a portion of muscular fibre unites with oxygen, and 
that the whole force of combination is converted by some mysterious process 
Into muscular power, without any waste in the form of heat. This conclu- 
sion, which is confirmed by the experiments related in a joint memoir by Dr. 
Scoresby and myself, shows that the animal frame, though destined to fulfil 

* From the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society's Memoirs, vol. x. 



so many other ends, is, as an engine, more perfect in the economy of vis viva 
than any human contrivance. The electro-magnetic engine presents some 
features of similarity to the living machine, and approaches it in the large 
proportion of the chemical action which it is able to evolve as mechanical 
force. If we denote the intensity of current electricity when the engine is at 
rest by a, and the intensity of current when the engine is at work by b, the 

a — b 

proportion of chemical force converted into motive force will be , and 

b a 

the quantity wasted in the form of heat will be — . Now, from my own ex- 
ec 
periments, I find that each grain of zinc consumed in a Daniell's battery will 
raise the temperature of a pound of water 0-1886°; and that the heat which 
can increase the temperature of a pound of water by one degree is equal to 
the mechanical force which is able to raise a weight of 7721b. to the height 
of one foot, or, according to the expression generally used, to 772 foot-pounds. 
Therefore, the work developed by a grain of zinc consumed in a Daniell's 

145-6 (a— b) 

battery is given by the equation, W= . 

a 
We now come to the third class of engines, or those in which the chemical 
forces act through the intervention of heat. In the most important of these, 
the immediate agent is thetelasticity of vapour or permanently elastic fluids. 
In a very valuable paper on the dynamical theory of heat, Professor William 
Thomson has demonstrated that, if the heat evolved by compressing an 
elastic fluid be equivalent to the force employed in the compression, the pro- 
portion of heat converted into mechanical effect by any perfect thermo-dynamic 
engine will be equal to the range of temperature divided by the highest 
temperature from the absolute zero of temperature. Therefore, if in a 
perfect steam-engine a be the temperature of the boiler from the absolute zero, 
and b be the absolute temperature of the condenser, the fraction of the eDtire 
quantity of heat communicated to the boiler which will be converted into 

a — b 

mechanical force will be represented by , which is analogous to the 

a 

fraction'representing the proportion of chemical force converted into mecha- 
nical effect in the electro-magnetic engine. The extreme simplicity of this 
very important deduction which Professor Thomson has drawn from the 
dynamical theory of heat is of itself a strong argument in favour of that 
theory, even if it were not already established by decisive experiments. Now, 
estimating the heat generated by the combustion of a grain of coal at 1-634° 
per pound of water, its absolute mechanical value will amount to 126T45 
foot-pounds; hence, according to Professor Thomson's formula, the work 
performed by any perfect thermo-dynamic engine will, for each grain of 

1261-45 (a— b) 

coal consumed, be represented by the equation, W= ■ which 

a 

applies, as before intimated, not only to air engines, but also to those steam 
engines in which the principle of expansion is carried to the utmost extent, 
providing always that no waste of power is allowed to take place in friction, 
and that the entire heat of combustion of the coal is conveyed to the boiler 
or air receiver. Professor Thomson was the first to point out the great 
advantages to be anticipated from the air engine, in consequence of the ex- 
tensive range of temperature which it may be made to possess ; and in a 
paper communicated to the Royal Society soon afterwards, I described a 
very simple engine, which fulfils the criterion of perfection according to Pro- 
fessor Thomson's formula. This engine consists of three parts, viz., a con- 
densing air pump, a receiver, and an expansion cylinder ; the pump forces 
atmospheric air into the receiver, in the receiver its elasticity is increased by 
the application of heat, and then the air enters the expansion cylinder, of 
which the volume is to that of the pump as the absolute temperature of the 
air in the receiver is to that of the air entering it. The cylinder is furnished 
with expansion gear to shut off the air, when the same quantity has been 
expelled from the receiver as was forced into it by one stroke of the pump. 
By this disposition the air is expelled from the expansion cylinder at the 
atmospheric pressure, and at the absolute temperature corresponding with 
b in Professor Thomson's formula. It will be remarked that there are two 
ranges of temperature in the engine I have described, viz., that of the pump 



1853.] 



Reviews. 



65 



and that of the cylinder. Owing, however, to the exact proportion which 
subsists between the two. the same result is arrived at by the application of 
Professor Thomson's formula to either of them. Taking, therefore, the 
range of the cylinder, and converting the temperatures of the air entering 
and discharged from the cylinder into the absolute temperatures from the 
real zero by adding to them 459°, we obtain for the work evolved by 

1261-45 (1198-12— 678-66) 

the consumption of a grain of coal, W= =546"92 

1198-12 
foot-pounds. In order to compare the foregoing results with the duty of a 
steam engine approaching perfection as nearly as possible, I will admit that 
steam may be safely worked at a pressure of 14 atmospheres. The tempe- 
rature of the boiler corresponding to that pressure will, according to the 
experiments of the French academicians, be 387° Fah. The temperature 
of the condenser might be kept at 80°. Reducing the above to tempe- 
ratures reckoned from the absolute zero, we obtain for the work evolved by 

1261-45 (846—539) 

the combustion of each grain of coal, W= =457'76 

846 
foot pounds. It would therefore appear, even in the extreme case which I 
have adduced, that the performance of the steam engine is considerably in- 
ferior to that of the air engine. The superiority of the latter would have 
been still more evident, had I also taken an extreme case as an illustration of 
its economy. It must, moreover, be remarked that the heated air escaping 
from the engine at a temperature so high as 219f might be made available 
in a variety of ways to increase still more the quantity of work evolved. A 
part of this heated air might also be employed in the furnaces instead of cold 
atmospheric air. We may also hope eventually to realise the great advan- 
tage which would be secured to the air engine, by causing the air, in its 
passage from the pump to the cylinder, to come into contact with the fuel 
by the combustion of which its elasticity is to be increased. It appears to 
me that the air might pass through a number of air-tight chambers, each 
containing ignited fuel, and that whenever any one of the chambers required 
replenishing, its connection with the engine might be cut off by means of 
proper valves, until, by removing an air-tight lid or door, the chamber 
could be filled again with fuel. By means of suitable valves, it would be 
easy to regulate the quantity of air passing through each chamber, so as to 
keep its temperature uniform ; and, by a separate pipe, furnished also with 
valves, by which the air could be carried from the pump to the upper part 
of the chambers, without traversing the fuel, the engine man would be 
enabled to keep the temperatures of the chambers, as well as the velocity of 
the engine, under proper control. 



SEVIEWS. 

United States Patent-Office Reports, 1847 and 1848. Office, Washington, 
U.S. London ; Triibner and Co. 

We have only lately received a copy of these reports, which are now old, 
but they contain so much interesting information, and are so little known in 
this country, that we shall be doing our readers service in indicating their 
contents. In addition to notices of the new patents, they contain a number 
of reports on agricultural subjects, which, from their practical character, form 
a collection of facts and theories of great utility. Thus, in the report for 1847, 
is an account of the sheep farms of Hungary, the wool trade in Germany and 
Spain, &c. Accounts of trials of experiments on the potato disease, wine 
growing, and the " hog crop " (of which we will say more on another occa- 
sion) ; statistics of the crops of the United States, &c. The report for 1848 
contains a very excellent memoir on the growth and cultivation of the 
sugar cane in Louisiana and Cuba, with notices of all the most improved 
forms of apparatus, mills, &c, both American and French. The manner in 
which information on various subjects is collected is worthy of notice. The 
authorities at the Patent-office issue annually a large number of circulars 
addressed to individuals whom they know, from experience, are likely to 
take an interest in them. The fresh districts, where they have no existing 
correspondents, the circulars are sent, with blank addresses, to the post- 
master, who is requested to deliver them to those persons who, in his judg- 

9 



ment, are the best qualified to deal with them. These circulars contain a 
list of queries, to which answers are requested. These queries embrace the 
state and probable yield of the crops, prices of all kinds of produce, wa^es 
improvements in machinery, experiments with various manures, rotations of 
crops, &c. Samples of new or approved sorts of seeds are requested, and 
these are exchanged with the donors. In a country where the population is 
spread over such a large extent of country, such a means of intercommuni- 
cation is of the highest value. We made a suggestion some time ago with 
regard to our farmers' clubs, which we will now repeat, as we are not aware 
that it has ever been carried into effect. If all farmers' clubs printed their 
transactions, an obvious course would be to send a copy to every other club 
in the kingdom, but as this is very seldom done, they might do the next best 
thing, by sending slips of the reports which usually appear in the local news- 
papers, and these reports would furnish subjects for discussion at other 
meetings. Errors of judgment, and local prejudices would thus be co-ex- 
posed and counteracted with a very happy effect. We observe that the Daily 
News has been urging the government to collect and publish agricultural 
statistics. They may take a hint from these United States Reports, if they 
will. 



(BRANDE'S CYCLOPEDIA.) 

(Concluded from page 45.) 

A Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art, comprising the History, De- 
scription and Scientific Principles of Every Branch of Human Knowledge. 
Edited by W. T. Brande, F.R.S. Second edition, with a supplement. 
London : Longman and Co. 1852. 

"These alarums are rung by means of an electro-magnet, that is, a short rod 
or core of soft iron, wound round with a sufficient length of silk-covered copper 
wire ; this core becoming a powerful magnet whilst an electric current is tra- 
versing its copper coil, and returning again to its indifferent or normal state 
the moment that the electricity ceases to circulate. A side view of an alarum 



Fig. 6. 




is given in the annexed diagram, a is the electro- 
magnet; in front of it is a soft iron keeper, b. 
This keeper is attracted by the poles of the electro- 
magnet every time a current is made to circulate 
around it, and as long as it is in circulation; and 
attraction ceases the moment the current ceases. To 
prevent the keeper remaining attracted, which 
sometimes happens, even after the force ceases to 
circulate, it is prevented actually touching the pole 
of the magnet by two ivory studs, or sometimes 
merely by the intervention of a piece of paper; but 
it is so adjusted that, when in its state of rest, it 
shall be as near as convenient to the poles of the 
magnet. The rest of the figure represents the me- 
chanism by which the bell is rung. The keeper, b, 
is mounted on the shorter arm of a lever, c; the 
other end of the lever terminates in a catch, e, which 
catches a pin in the circumference of the wheel, d, and prevents it moving ; 
/is a slender spring pressing against the long arm of the lever, c, and by- 
means of which the keeper is restored to its normal position, when at- 
traction ceases, and the catch, e, is made to act; a is a box containing 
the mainspring ; b a toothed-wheel connected with a by a pinion ; c a toothed- 
wheel having a pinion working in b; d, the wheel that carries the stop, and 
connected by its pinion with c; g is an escapement, working in pallets on 
the wheel, i, which is on the same axis with the wheel c; h is the bell hammer; 
it is virtually a short pendulum, its connections and action being quite sim- 
ilar. When the voltaic current is made to pass along the wire of the coils, a, 
the soft iron core is magnetised, and the keeper, b, is attracted; this raises 
the catch, e, and so allows the wheel, d, to move. The machinery being thus 
liberated, the mainspring in the box, a, which is kept wound up, sets it in 
motion, and the pendulum hammer, h, vibrates rapidly, and strikes the bell, d, 
which is shown also in the section. When the magnetisation ceases, with the 
cessation of the current, the catch, e, is pressed into its place again by the re- 
acting spring,/, and the ringing terminates. 

"It will be seen, from this description, that the alarum is sounded by ordi- 
nary mechanism, and that the office of the voltaic force is merely to move a 
lever, and liberate the machinery; whence it is obvious that there is little 
limit to the amount of noise which may be produced. 

"In some other forms of telegraph, the bell, instead of being sounded by the 
detachment of a common ringing scapement, is rung by the direct blows of 
a hammer attached to the keeper of the magnet itself; and there are several 
modifications of this contrivance, by which a single blow, or a continuous 
ringing, may be effected. For ringing bells at short distances, and in cases 
where a voltaic battery would be inconvenient, a current of magneto-elec- 



86 



Correspondence. 



[March, 



Fig. 7. 




tricity is substituted, which is most simply obtained by the following form of 
apparatus:— a A are coils (similar to the coils described); the two bars of 

iron which pass through the coils 
are connected by their upper 
ends to a strip of iron, f, the 
lower ends rest on the magnet, 
b ; thus they form what is com- 
monly termed a keeper, by con- 
necting the two poles of the 
magnet; f is joined to a lever, 
c, which is attached to a shaft 
that works in bearings, b e ; 
the spring seen under lever c is for forming a short circuit; h, a small ivory 
pin for insulating the wire, t; r r, two terminals, where the wires coming 
from the coils terminate; h, a block for stopping the entire descent of lever; 
k is the stand, to which the whole apparatus is firmly fixed. As long as 
the iron bar remains on the magnet, no effect is produced; but sharply de- 
pressing the lever whereby the iron bars are detached from the magnet, a 
current of electricity is produced, passing through the coils and along the 
line to the bell." 

The article on tubular bridges is one of much practical value, but our 
limits do not enable us to offer any specimen of its quality. 

We cannot conclude this brief notice of Brande's Cyclopaedia without ex- 
pressing our sense of the difficulties which must have been encountered in 
the production of such a work, and our appreciation of the skill and success 
with which they have been surmounted. A work treating of such a mul- 
titude of different subjects must necessarily have occupied a great many 
different minds; audit must have been a difficult task to discover the persons 
best qualified to treat of each particular topic, and also to ensure something 
like consistency and unity in the design. These ends, however, are attained 
very effectually, and to the editor and publishers, therefore, corresponding 
praise must be awarded. We believe that this dictionary will long remain 
a standard book. As it does not treat of subjects of mere temporary interest, 
it is not likely, we suppose, to attain any sudden popularity. But if, from 
this circumstance, its success is more slow, it will be less ephemeral, and such 
a work, indeed, will continue to attract attention when other works of more 
rapid popularity are dead and forgotten. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



BESSEMER'S IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 

SUGAR. 

[We have been favoured by Mr. John Fairrie with copies of a cor- 
respondence between that gentleman and Mr. H. Bessemer, on his 
patent process for manufacturing sugar, which, as we think it will be 
interesting to our readers, in connection with the article in our January 
number, we here give.] 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir— When I addressed Mr. Bessemer, the only attempt that had been 
made to exhibit his process of evaporation was by a vessel the bottom of 
which was formed by the top of a steam boiler, and in this the revolving 
spiral was kept at work, air being driven through the axis of the spiral. In 
this vessel a solution of refined sugar was concentrated, day after day, water 
being used to make the syrup thin, that the experiment might be repeated 
with the same sugar. Now, such an experiment as this could be no test of 
the capability of the plan, since, as every refiner knows, it is very easy to 
evaporate solutions of pure sugar, the difficulty arising with weak or coarse 
syrups, to which water adheres with tenacity. 

No attempt was publicly made to show that a syrup of any kind could be 
evaporated and crystallised, so as to form a solid loaf, nor was the power of 
the apparatus exhibited in the working of low sugars of any kind. 

It was stated to me, on authority on which I can implicitly rely, that a 
refiner having come from Scotland to witness the working of the patent, the 
process of evaporation was carried on in the pan which I have described for 
about three hours, when Mr. Bessemer called the gentleman's attention to the 
crystals, which were showing themselves in the liquid, and proposed to re- 
move the sugar from the pan. This was objected to, because nothing had 
been done to show that the process was available for the formation of solid 
pieces of sugar; but Mr. Bessemer said that he was an engineer and not a 



refiner, and that the process, carried on sufficiently long, would produce a 
favourable result. This was all the degree of satisfaction obtained by the 
stranger for his journey of 400 miles. 

Under all the circumstances of the case, I think it requires no small degree 
of boldness for Mr. Bessemer to assert that he had discovered a plan of re- 
fining superior to that of boiling in vacuo. This, as I have asserted, is only 
to be proved by a continuous working of the process for some months, 
whereas, hitherto, he has only been working for sport, though having an 
ignorant public to deal with, he may turn the sport to profitable account. 

Mr. Bessemer has not in his exhibited experiments confined himself to the 
use of dry or heated air, but has applied steam heat as well; so that he has 
not, hitherto, got rid of the agent whose effects he asserts to be so injurious. 
The possibility of evaporating sugar solutions by means of dry air at a 
moderate temperature I had considered long ago, but gave up the idea from 
believing, that to carry it out would require an extent of apparatus in the 
highest degree inconvenient. Perfectly dry air, at ordinary temperatures, 
takes up, we are told, 10 grains of water to a cubic foot. Now, air, generally, 
in this climate, is nearly saturated with moisture ; and if we suppose, by 
raising the heat to 140°, its power of absorption would be rendered equal to 
that of air perfectly dry, we make, I think, a liberal allowance. Suppose, 
further, that, in applying this heated air, for the purpose of evaporation, 
every particle took up its complement, I calculate that, to carry on the 
ordinary evaporation in the refinery which I conduct, thirty-six millions of 
cubic feet would be required daily. That such a quantity could, after being 
heated, be filtered/ree of every particle of dust or smoke, and driven through 
tubes and through the small apertures in the axles of Mr. Bessemer's revolv- 
ing spirals, appears to me next to impossible. 

Another part of Mr. Bessemer's patent is what he calls a " curing table," 
by which he proposes to remove the brown syrup adhering to the sugar after 
crystallisation. This apparatus has not, I believe, hardly gone further than 
apian on paper, all that has been shown being the driving of water, "by 
means of a vacuum, through a few ounces of sugar, which is thereby 
whitened." This, so far, is a very simple process, and not at all new; but the 
difficulty is to get it to work continuously, to keep up the necessary degree 
of vacuum with a moderate expense of power, and to avoid the necessity of 
producing such a quantity of thin syrup as would increase greatly the ordi- 
nary amount of evaporation. 

Mi - . Bessemer proposes, likewise, a continuous system of filtration ; but 
neither has this, I believe, gone much further than mere description. His 
scheme originates, I think, in ignorance of the business he has undertaken 
to improve. In clarifying sugar, it is not the mere passing through the 
cloth which clears the syrup of its impurities; the filter must be at work 
for some time before it well renders the syrup bright ; for it is the coarser 
impurities filling up the interstices of the cloth which, in fact, forms the 
efficient filter. Thus, it is tolerably clear, that a continuous system will not 
answer ; moreover, the extent of filtering surface required in a sugar house 
must be taken into consideration. This may amount to 10 or 1 5,000 square 
feet almost constantly at work ; and to replace this by a moving apparatus 
would, I think, be rather a cumbrous affair. 

Church-lane, Whitechapel, I remain, &c, 

22nd Feb., 1853. John Fairrie. 



MR. FAIRRIE TO MR. BESSEMER. 

Sir, — I have received, along with the prospectus of the British Sugar 
Refining Company, a copy of a circular of yours intended to puff the said 
company, and I consider myself entitled to make some remarks on your 
statement which has been addressed to me. 

You enter into an explanation of the imperfections of the present mode of 
refining sugar, the most material of which you propose to get rid of by em- 
ploying, as I understand, a revolving apparatus, by which the syrup to be 
evaporated is exposed, on an extensive surface, to heated air. 'That injury, 
to a certain extent, is done by the application even of steam heat to sugar 
in a state of solution, is likely; 2 but this is no discovery of yours; 3 neither is 
it a discovery of yours that heated air may be employed for the evaporation 
of sugar, for it has been tried in various ways long ago. "Your revolving 



1863.] 



Shipbuilding on the Clyde. 



67 



apparatus, too, is, I believe, copied from a patent obtained by Mr. Schroeder; 
so that how your patent is to be defended I cannot comprehend. 5 Besides, 
there are many other ways of applying heated air besides that which, I un- 
derstand, you have specified. C I assert, further, that by the application of 
heated air to 120° or 140°, and without exposing syrup to any heated sur- 
face, it will be impossible to carry on the work of a sugar house, without such 
a complication of apparatus as would be in the highest degree inconvenient. 

7 You estimate the injury done to sugar, in the ordinary process of refining, 
at 10 per cent. I should like to see the experiments by which you establish 
your assertion; but, indeed, I believe, it is merely a random guess. S I have 
exposed a sugar solution for a considerable time to the heat of boiling water, 
and, by the most delicate test I could apply, I did not discover that any 
portion whatever had been converted into uncrystallisable sugar. 9 In boiling 
in vacuo no part of the sugar is exposed to the heat of boiling water; 140° 
or 150° being the temperature usually employed. 10 It is true that the evapo- 
rating syrup is brought into contact with a copper surface heated to 212° or 
214° ; but it does not follow that the sugar is heated to this degree, since the 
moment it comes in contact with the copper, and is heated to a little above 
the boiling point of the syrup, steam is formed, and the particle is driven off. 

"But allowing that some injury arises to the sugar by evaporating in vacuo, 
your process will not prevent it altogether ; for, in clarifying the sugar, a 
heat approaching that of boiling water is necessary ; and, again, after the 
syrup has been sufficiently concentrated, it is necessary to raise the heat, by 
means of a steam surface, to 180° or so, otherwise a hard and merchantable 
loaf of sugar cannot be formed. On the whole, I think I may safely assert 
that your process of evaporation is not new — is not capable of being, in sub- 
stance, protected by patent — is not practicable on a manufacturing scale, and, 
if it were, it does not secure the advantages which you hold out. 

]2 The other part of your so-called patent process is to purify the crystals 
of sugar from the syrup which adheres to them after crystallisation, by 
spreading the sugar thinly over a perforated surface, and, by means of a 
vacuum applied below, driving water through. This, again, is a revival of 
the old pneumatic process ; and if the expired patent proposed to purify 
sugar by driving water through it, placed in boxes, and six inches or a foot 



deep, how can you defend a new patent for the same process, only varying 
the depth of the sugar ? Possibly your revolving table may be patentable ; 
but the same principle may be employed in various other ways. You pro- 
pose to drive water through the crystals in the seventh of a second; and you 
say, in this instant of time no sugar will be melted, and the only effect will be 
to wash off the discoloured syrup from the crystals; but, however rapidly the 
water may pass through, some of it must be left adhering to the crystals ; 
and if an after process of drying is not employed, I am certain the sugar 
will be found so wet, as that, when placed in hogsheads, it will form a wet 
side, and the syrup drain out. 

13 The water used in the process you propose will contain syrup, and must be 
evaporated. The quantity, necessarily, must be so great, as to give rise to a 
vast consumption of fuel and labour; and the operation will be endless, if 
you attempt to carry it on by the application of air only, heated to 140°., 

14 I have had such experience in sugar-refining, and in bringing into opera- 
tion various plans of improvement and attempts at improvement, that I 
think myself entitled to form an opinion of any new process from a descrip- 
tion merely. If I had seen introduced into the sugar market a quantity 
(not a mere sample) of sugar prepared by you, of merchantable quality, I 
should have thought you authorised to speak with some confidence of your 
plan; but as I believe you have hardly seen a ton of sugar refined in your 
life, much less have you refined it by your so-called patent process, I think 
it is premature in you to speak with the confidence which, in your circular, 
you do. Before you write another, I beg of you to produce in Mincing-lane 
a loaf of merchantable sugar. 

It does not appear to me that I require to apologise for the freedom I 
have used in making the above observations. If I am correct in my views, 
I shall benefit the public by producing them; if they are unfounded, you 
have the opportunity of exposing my errors ; and discussion, at all events, 
cannot do injury to truth. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

Church-lane, Whitechapel, John Eairkie, 

London, 11th Jan., 1853. 

(To be continued.) 



SHIPBUILDING ON THE CLYDE, 



JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, 185.3. 



DETAILS OF IRON PADDLE STEAMER " TELEGRAPH," 
BELONGING TO BELFAST STEAM-SHIP COMPANY. 

Built anil engine fitted by Messrs. James and George Thom- 
son, engineers and ship-builders, Clyde Bank, Glasgow, 



Dimensions. 
Length of keel and fore-rake 
Breadth at 'midships 
Depth, moulded 
Length of engine room . . 
Tonnage 
Engine room 
Register 



ft. i 
247 
27 
15 

re n 




9 
9 

6 .„ 

819ff tons. 

*"* „ 
478 

Bitted with a pair of side-lever engines, 440 horse 
(nominal) power; diameter of cylinders, 77 inches; 
length of stroke, 5 feet 6 inches ; with malleable 
iron side-levers, and feathering paddles; diameter 
of wheels, 26 feet; size of boards, 10 feet by 4 feet. 
Two tubular boilers, with brass tubes ; length of 
boilers, 20 feet; breadth of do., 13 feet; height of 
do., 14 feet, fired at both ends ; number of tubes, 
1,140 ; external diameter, 3j inches ; contents of 
bunkers, SO tons; frames of vessel, 4 feet by 3 feet 
by i foot; plates tapering from \ to T 7 g inch. 

Is schooner-rigged, with 3 masts and standing- 
bowsprit ; half-length male figure-head (Jupiter 
wielding thunder) ; square-sterned and clincher- 
built. Has saloon, handsomely furnished in rose- 
wood, with large mirrors all round, and lighted by 
means of upper saloon on deck, similar to those in 
Cunard steamers. 



Has holds fitted for cattle, handsome and com- 
modious cabins for second-class passengers, &c. Ig 
the first of a new line of steamers to be put on the 
Liverpool and Belfast trade, by the Belfast Steam- 
ship Company. Commander. Mr. Hugh Leitch, 
late in the Cunard Company's service. 

GREENOCK. 

Messrs. John Scott and Sons, an iron screw 
steamer, for the coasting trade of Australia, with 
goods and passengers, &c. 

Dimensions. ft. in. 

Length of keel and fore-rake . . . . 128 

Breadth of beam .. .. .. 18 

Depth of hold 9 6 

Tonnage 201°f tons. 

A pair of inverted cylinder engines (fitted with 
reversing-gear), of IS horse (nominal) power; dia- 
meter of cylinders, 20 inches by 1 foot 6 inches 
length of stroke ; diameter of screw, 6 feet; pitch, 
9 feet, with two blades. One tubular boiler. Stem, 
keel, and stern-post, 4 inches by 1 inch ; frames, 
11 inches by 2| inches by \ incb.'and 2 feet apart; 
plates, | to \ inch in thickness. To be flush on 
deck, with a house amidships for the cabins, &c, 
&c. Will be round-sterned, with a clipper bow. 

Also a screw steam-vessel for a Spanish com- 
pany at Barcelona, intended to ply on the Mediter- 
ranean, with goods and passengers, &c. 

Dimensions. 
Length over all . . 
Length of keel and fore-rake . . 
Breadth of beam 



ft. 


in. 


215 





197 





25 






ft. in. 
Depth of hold 15 

Length of quarter-deck . . . . 64 

Depth of do. 2 9 

Tonnage 609^ tons. 

To be fitted with a pair of angular geared en- 
gines, of 118 horse (nominal) power; diameter of 
cylinders, 44 inches by 3 feet length of stroke; 
diameter of screw, 11 feet 6 inches; to be three- 
blade J. Tubular (brass) boilers. Stem, keel, and 
stern-post, 8 inches by 1 f inches ; frames, 4 inches 
by 3.1 inches by -| 7 B inch, and 18 inches apart; plates, 
from \ to f of an inch in thickness. Will have a 
clipper bow, and round-sterned. 



company 


at 


ft. 


in. 


246 





31 


3 


20 


6 



And a screw steam-vessel for 
Glasgow. 

Dimensions. 
Length of keel and fore-rake . . 
Breadth of beam 

Depth of hold 

Tonnage 1,192 S 5 T tons. 

Also to be fitted with a pair of angular geared 
engines, of 184 horse (nominal) power ; diameter 
of cylinders, 53 inches by 3 feet 9 inches length of 
stroke ; diameter of screw, 12 feet 6 inches, and to 
have three blades. Tubular (iron) boilers. Will 
have 18 square feet of heating surface per horse 
power. Keel, 9 inches by 2i inches ; frames, 5 
inches by 3 inches by -^ inch, and 15 inches apart; 
plates average \\ inch. Will have a house on 
deck, to run all the length of the vessel, and be flush 
on deck, having a round stern and a clipper bow. 



68 



Notes and Novelties, 



[March, 



BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 
Near Bristol, on the night of Friday, January 7th, on the Bristol and 
Birmingham branch of the Midland Railway. The accident itself was some- 
what of an unusual character, being no less than the explosion of a locomotive 
boiler, and it took place about two miles and a half from the terminus at 
Bristol. The explosion was described to have been remarkably loud, and was 
preceded by a noise which resembled successive peals of thunder. The whole 
of the cottages in the neighbourhood were shaken, and it was first attributed 
to the shock of an earthquake. The accident happened to a heavy train 
drawn by a (No. 363) powerful engine belonging to the Midland Company, 
and which at the time was employed in driving the up goods train, con- 
taining about seventy-three tons of goods 'and a few empty pickle trucks. 
They started punctually, but after having gone about two and a half miles 
from the terminus, they commenced the ascent of an inclined plane, when 
the rails were found to be in such a greasy condition, that the wheels did 
not bite sufficiently, and after a little time the whole train came to a stand- 
still. Upon this the engine driver, a very careful man, named Henry 
Barness, put on the breaks, in order to prevent the possibility of the train 
running backwards to the station. He had scarcely done this, when the 
boiler of the second engine (for, in addition to No. 363, No. 360 was attached 
to the train) suddenly exploded, shattering everything connected with it to 
pieces. Large pieces of iron were hurled into the air and fell in the adjoining 
fields, both to the right and left of the line of railway. Some of these pieces 
were subsequently picked up at a considerable distance from the scene of 
the occurrence, showing that the explosion must have been very great. The 
escape of the engine-driver was perfectly miraculous, and the fact of the 
stoker (Henry Evans) having sustained litttle injuries beyond some rather 
severe contusions, must be looked upon as providential. To their carefulness 
and attention to their instructions both these men owe their lives. It was 
the custom of the drivers of goods trains to carry with them some " sprays," 
or pieces of elm timber, which, at times when the wheels were in a greasy 
condition, were applied as breaks between the wheels of the tender. As soon 
as the train came to a standstill, both the engine-driver and the stoker 
jumped off, and each took one of these " sprays," for the purpose of perform- 
ing this duty. They had scarcely got to the end of the tender when the 
explosion took place. Had they been on the engine at the time, their deaths 
must have been inevitable. The cause of the accident the superintendent is 
wholly unable to account for, the engine in question having recently under- 
gone a thorough examination and repair, and he does not consider it at all 
likely that there was any scarcity of water in the boiler. 

A dreadful boiler explosion, with loss of life, took place at the Ebley 
clothing mill, near Stroud, on the morning of the 20th ult., about nine 
o'clock. The workmen and women had been to breakfast, and were begin- 
ning to work, when a loud explosion, followed by a crash, which was dis- 
tinctly heard in the town of Stroud, announced a catastrophe. The engine 
boiler had burst, and the building in which it was contained was found to 
be almost a heap of ruins. The end of the factory where the boiler had 
been placed was completely blown out, and a wall forming the boundary of 
the premises next to the canal was also thrown down, the dibris being blown 
into the canal. On removing the rubbish, the body of the engineer was dis- 
covered, dreadfully mutilated and dead. Three women were also found to 
have sustained serious injuries, and were removed to Stroud Hospital, where 
they are now lying. It is a most providential circumstance that the accident 
happened at the moment it did, for in a quarter of an hour after there would 
have been some 500 people in the mill, and some 30 in the floor immediately 
over the boiler. One boy had a very narrow escape. He acted as stoker or 
attendant to the engineer, and just before the accident had been sent by him 
to fetch a hammer. He was returning with it to the building when the ex- 
plosion took place. A coroner's inquest has been opened, but adjourned, to 
give time for the attendance of a government inspector. 

Another dreadful boiler explosion took place at Glasgow on the 22nd, 
in the engineering establishment of Messrs. Forrest and Co. It appears that 
one of the boilers had been lengthened by 9 feet, giving it a total of 25 feet, 
and 15-horse power. On the preceding evening the newly-altered boiler 
had been tested, and found to bear a pressure of 35 lbs. on the square inch. 
When the engineer left on Ericlay evening he caused the fires to be drawn, 
and ordered the private watchman not again to light them sooner than five 
o'clock this morning, stating that he himself would return to the works at 
half-past five. The boiler stood in the lower part of a new two-story build- 
ing, the upper portions being used as a smith's shop. The poor watchman, 
whose name is John M'Kinnon, had not attended to the orders given him, 
and must have lighted the furnace some hours before the appointed time, for 
about ten minutes past five an explosion took place which alarmed and 
shook the whole neighbourhood. The building in which the boiler had been 
placed was shattered to pieces ; the piles of bricks, stone blocks, and broken 
beams lay scattered in every direction. The boiler itself was forced from its 
bed, torn into four separate pieces, and scattered in as many different 
directions. One ponderous portion had been thrown as high as the top of a 
four-storey house, for in its rise or descent it had broken the lintels of the 
windows, and carried away part of the water conductor under the projecting 
part of the roof. On removing the rubbish, the watchman's body was found 
lying a few feet in front of the furnace door. He was a steady, sober man, 
and had been in the employment of the company for upwards of three 



months. The authorities are investigating the circumstances of the acci- 
dent. 

At at the central station of the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway, 
in this town, on the afternoon of Sunday, January 23rd, a locomotive 
boiler exploded ; fortunately, however, unattended by loss of life. It ap- 
pears that the two o'clock train for Tynemouth was about to start; the pas- 
sengers had taken their seats, and the engine had just been attached, when, 
without any previous warning, the boiler burst with tremendous violence, 
projecting fragments of metal and timber into the air, the scene of the cata- 
strophe being enveloped in a cloud of steam. The consternation of the pas- 
sengers in the train, besides those in the Sunderland train adjoining, cannot 
easily be described; some fainted, others screamed, while the great majority 
rushed out of the carriages and made towards the entrance with rapid 
strides. An engineman named Maughan received a severe contusion on 
the loins, which seriously injured him; Nelles the driver, and the stoker, 
were blown over the left side; the latter escaped with trifling injury, while 
the former was much hurt. I At the time of the explosion the principal part 
of the boiler was hurled with great force to the left of the station. One piece 
struck a large metal pillar, and shivered the gas fittings to pieces, while 
another so disabled the engine attached to the Sunderland train as to occa- 
sion another one to be substituted. The dome of the boiler, weighing about 
eight stones, struck against one of the metal pillars which sustain the roof, 
which resisted the blow, and the fragment passed off on the west side, 
carrying away a bracket with such violence as to cast it into Eorth-street, 
where it fell through the roof of a house, within a few yards of one of the 
inmates. A fragment of the boiler struck a girder at the south-east corner 
of the station, and shivered it to pieces. The engine was a perfect wreck, 
and so terrific was the force of the concussion, that nearly the entire plate 
glass (half an inch in thickness) in front of the north dome of the station 
was shattered to pieces. Such was the violence of the explosion, that the 
houses shook and the earth trembled in the vicinity, and the noise was heard 
distinctly upwards of a mile off, the effect being described as resembling an 
earthquake. Several of the windows in the refreshment-rooms at the station 
were broken, and panes were broken at the end of Collingwood-street, up- 
wards of one hundred yards distant. The rails upon which the engine was 
standing were broken in three places. The engine was built by Messrs. 
Jones, Turner, and Evans, of Manchester, about twelve years ago ; it had 
been under repair, and this was the first day of its resuming work. It took 
the nine o'clock train to Tynemouth on Sunday morning, and returned in 
safety, and was about to start on its second trip when the explosion oc- 
curred. Both Maughan and Nelles have been attended by Sir John Fife, 
and it is gratifying to learn that they are in a fair way of recover)'. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



KIMBERLEY'S DOOR-SPRINGS AND FASTENERS, &c. 

We have already noticed Mr. Kimberley's mortising machine (vol x., 

p. 100), and we now proceed to give his ingenious contrivances for doors and 

windows, which, although apparently trivial matters, form important items in 

domestic comfort. The box door-spring and stay- fastener (fig. 1) serve, the 




I 




Kg. 1. 



-rig. i- 

first, to ensure the shutting of the door, and the second, to keep it open. The 
box-spring consists of a volute spring, with chain, which can be attached in 






1853.] 



Notes and Novelties. 



69 



a few minutes, without disfiguring the wood-work, and is very low in price. 
It is disconnected in a moment, when it is desired to let the door free from 
the spring. The door fastener, shown also in fig. 2, is admirably adapted 




Fig. 2. 
for the doors of ships' cabins, and windows of all descriptions. It entirely 
supersedes the awkward "door-porter," and can be adjusted in a moment, 




Fig. 3. 
to set the door or window at any angle. Fig. 3 shows the same stay, with a 
straight, instead of a bent, arm. Fig. 4 is a skylight fastener, and would 




Kg. 3. 
also serve for ships' lights. The screw is made to swivel on the window, and 
the nut to swivel on the sill. Skylight windows are very often broken 
through the snapping of the cord usually employed, which can never happen 
with this apparatus. It has also the advantage of admitting of the adjust- 
ment of the opening to any degree desired. 

Wrought Ikon Manufactured by a New Process. — Some two or 
three years since we took occasion to announce that an important improve- 
ment in the manufacture of wrought iron had been made by Mr. James 
Eenton, of this city, the advantages claimed for it consisting in the produc- 
tion of pure wrought iron directly from the ore, with mineral coal, and thus 
dispensing with the time and money-consuming process of reducing it first 
to pig-iron, and thence to wrought iron by puddling, or with charcoal. 
An association, called the American Iron Company, has recently been 
organised, under the general manufacturing law of the state, and have 
erected their works at the corner of Parker and Passaic streets, in this city, 
which have been in successful operation for several weeks, the right to the 
new process having been secured to them for New Jersey. The chief ad- 
vantages claimed for the invention are, that the iron is produced for some 
Ds. 20 per ton less than the puddled, or charcoal iron, and that it is worth 
Ds. 10 per ton more, on account of its superior quality; that a greater quan- 
tity of the iron is extracted from a given amount of ore than by the old 



process; and that it is the only process by which pure wrought iron can be 
produced. The rationale of the invention is, that the iron is deoxidised by 
heating a mixture of the pulverised ore and coal in close tubes, so that, by 
the combustion of the coal, the oxygen is absorbed from the ore, and passed 
off in a uniform state. The residuum is taken from the tubes, and worked 
into balls weighing about one hundred pounds each. These are taken to 
the trip-hammer, by which they are reduced to blooms. Two tons of the 
iron are now made per day, and it requires about two tons of ore and one 
ton and a half of coal to produce one ton of the wrought iron. The iron is 
extracted and perfected by a continuous process, very simple in its operation, 
and therefore is said to be more uniform, and altogether.superior to that 
made by other processes, by which the ore or iron must undergo two suc- 
cessive exposures to the fire before it can be reduced to wrought iron. — 
Newark, New Jersey (U.S.) Advertiser. 

Pretention of Railroad Accidents. — The committee appointed by 
the legislature of the state of New York in April last have just presented 
their report on the causes and means of prevention of railway accidents, 
after personal examination of the principal railroads in that state. Accord- 
ing to this committee the general causes are — 1st. Defective construction of 
the permanent way, of superstructures, and of rolling-stock. 2nd. Improper 
management ; running engines and trains of too great weight, and at too 
high a rate of speed for the grade, strength and capacity of the road; in- 
competent workmen; want of vigilant supervision; an insufficient system of 
signals; running trains too closely following each other, and too great dis- 
tances without proper inspection, and insufficiency of brake power. " This 
power," says the report, "should be in accordance with the speed at which 
trains are run. Thus, a train running at 10 miles per hour, and another at 
20 miles per hour, the latter will require four times the break-power to stop 
it in the same time and space. The interval of space required to arrest a 
train increases in the ratio of the square of the speed." The remedies re- 
commended for the prevention of accidents are — "Better inspection of the 
engines and cars; heavier rails, and more substantial trucks; more competent 
managers, engineers and general workmen ; and more powerful brakes." 

Sluice Valves. — Mr. Jennings [has recently patented an improvement 
in sluice valves, which consists in simplifying the construction by casting the 
" body " and the " faucit" ends in one pieee, thus avoiding the use of bolts, 
nuts, and joints. The sluice is first fitted and made to work properly on 
the body of the valve ; it is then removed, and, with two gun-metal faces, is 
turned, ground, and accurately fitted. The slide, through which a small 
hole has been previously drilled, is again placed on the valve, the two faces 
are introduced, and all firmly bolted together. The joints of the faces, 
which are dovetailed to the body, are then made with lead, or with iron 
cement; the bolt is removed, the hole plugged, and the valve is completed, 
at considerable saving of time and cost. These valves are stated to have 
been extensively used under considerable pressures. — Soc. of Arts Journal. 

School of Design. — It is stated that the necessity of at once completing 
the new buildings at Somerset House now erecting for the Inland Kcvcnuc 
Offices, and of consolidating the public offices on that site, has induced the 
Government to determine on the immediate removal of the School of Design 
from Somerset House. The opportunity, it is said, will now be seized of 
effecting a public improvement, which will greatly increase the usefulness of 
the school. Instead of having but one Central School of Art for the whole 
of the metropolis, arrangements, in concert with local authorities, will 'be 
made to carry out the wishes, often expressed, of establishing district schools 
in several parts of London. The improvement will not stop here, as facili- 
ties will thus be created of teaching elementary drawing i;i any parochial 
schools which may desire to have it. The few students in the higher stages 
of instruction at Sonrerset House will be removed to Marlborough House, 
where they will be enabled to participate more largely than at present in the 
means of education afforded by the museum, library, and other features of 
the department of practical art. 

Extraordinary Castings. — An iron casting of an unprecedented nature 
was most successfully effected upon Saturday last, at the Caledonian Foundry, 
West-street, Messrs. Bennie and Co. Messrs. Tod and Macgregor are about 
to build a leviathan screw steamer for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Company, larger, we arc informed, than even the Great Britain. 
The machinery for this monster of the deep is to be cast by Messrs. Bennie 
and, on Saturdav, they cast the double condensers and air-pumps in one 
piece, an effort of skill never made before, and which, from the great size of 
the piece, and the intricacy and delicacy of the work, deserves to be chro- 
nicled, as a striking example of the perfection to which all the appurtenances 
of iroD naval architecture have been brought in Glasgow by the aids of 
scientific knowledge and practical skill. The height of this huge casting is 
12 feet, the length 22 feet, and the breadth about 8 feet. The weight of the 
mass is 24 tons, but this gives little idea of the formidable nature of the un- 
dertaking. The difficulty of the work was owing to the peculiarity of the 
shape and cuttings of the piece, and not so much to its size. Some idea of 
the risks attending the operation may be had from the fact that a pressure 
of about 353 tons was required upon the metal while undergoing the casting 
process. We also observed, yesterday, in Messrs. Bennie's works, a cog- 
wheel for the same vessel. The rim of the wheel alone weighs 19 tons, is 13 
feet 8 inches in diameter, and 5 feet 8 inches broad in the face. It is the 
largest wheel ever cast in one piece. — Glasgow Advertiser. 



70 



List of Patents. 



[March, 



NOTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

N. (Isle of Man.) The best self-acting clamper which we know of for high- 
pressure boilers is Craddock's, but we do not think that ordinary boilers re- 
quire them. 

G. B. If the engine only indicates its nominal power, undoubtedly it is 
too small, or the pressure too low. We are not aware whether it has been 
settled by a jury, but it is a question for them, if the case goes to trial. 
Engineers in evidence will probably say an engine should indicate from 
twice to three times its nominal power, and that the pressure with an ordi- 
nary boiler should not exceed GO of 60 lbs. Arbitration is the best way of 
settling these things. Ten square inches of area in p'ston is usually reckoned 
a nominal horsepower. This makes a 16-inch cylinder a 20-horse engine. 

An Architect would be most likely to find the information in some of 
the reports of the French Academy of Sciences. 

Apprentice is wrong. The length of the indicator diagram does not 
affect the calculation, except so far as a mean can be more accurately mea- 
sured on the long than the short diagram. 

Deadening the Floors of Rooms. J. P. P., of Stockton on Tees, in 
answer to "An Old Subscriber " at p. 19, saj's " that sawdust from American 
fir will answer for preventing the noise being heard below. It must be dry, 
and stuffed in tight between floor and ceiling." 

J. V. S. (Kilmarnock.) The second part of the work you allude to has not 
yet been published. 

Books Received. Rudimentary Treatise on the Power of Water, by 
Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. Lectures on the Results of the Great Exibition, de- 
livered before the Society of Arts: 2nd series. The Analytical Chemist's 
Assistant, by F. Woehler. Engineers' and Machinists' Drawing Book : Part I. 



Screw Propeller. — The idea of putting the screw propeller at the head 
of the ship is by no means new, nor is it good, as the water would not escape 
freely from the screw. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS, 

Adcock Engineers' Pocket-book for 1853, 6s. 

Burn (R. S.) Illustrated Practical Geometry, and its Application to Drawing, 8vo. 

Mechanics and Mechanism for Schools, Svo., pp. 115. 

Calder(F.) Arithmetic. Parts I. and II., 1vol., 12mo., cloth, 8s. (id. 

Chevalier (M.) Remarks on the Production of the Precious Metals, translated by I>. F. Camp- 
bell, Svo., pp. 120. 

Crosby's Builder's Price Book, for 1853, 4s. 

Euclid Elements of Geometry, Books I. to IT., by S. A. Good, 12mo.. pp. 180. 

Gilroy (C G.) The Art of Weaving, by Hand and by Power, 2nd ed., royal 8vo., pp. 600. 

Gisborne (L.) The Isthmus of Darien in 1852, 8vo., maps, 6s. 

Glynn (J.) On the Power of Water ; Rudimentary Treatise, 2s. 

Goodwin (II.) An Elementary Course of Mathematics, 4th ed. 

Handbook (The) of Foliage and Design, adapted to the Enamel and .Stained Leather-work, 
8vo., 10s. 

Hunt (R.) Manual of Photography, 3rd ed., 6s., bd. 

Provincial Athenteums, Literary and Scientific Institutions, and Reading-clubs, 8vo. 

Records of the School of Mines, and of Science applied to the Arts, Vol. I., Part II., 8vo., 
cloth, 2s. 6d. 

Reid (H.) First Lessons in Arithmetic, 8vo., pp. 120. 

Elementary Arithmetic on a New Plan. 

Reynolds (S. P.) A Treatise on Practical Arithmetic and Mensuration, 2s. 6d. 

Smith (B.) Arithmetic and Algebra, in their Principles and Application, Svo., cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Tate (T.) Principles of Geometry, 4th ed., 12mo., 3s. 6d. 

The Engineer and Machinist's Drawing Book, imperial 4to., Part I., 2s. 

Watson (J. Y.) The Progress of Mining in 1852, 6d. 

Woehler (F.) The Analytical Chemist's Assistant, Svo., 6s. 6d. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED, 

Dated \ith December, 1852. 
1052. W. Mam — Improvements in railways. 

Dated 1st January, 1853. 
2. H. Bensley — Vulcanised india-rubber springs for trow- 

sers and braces, &c. 
8. J. H. Johnson — Improvements in the manufacture of 

oils. (A communication.) 

Dated 3rd January, 1853. 
12. E. A. Chameroy — Motive power. 
18. C. J. Burnett — Driving machinery by water. 

Dated 6th January, 1853. 
31. "W. L. Sheringham — Illuminating buoys and beacons. 
33. J. Browne — Construction of ships, &c. 

Dated 6th January, 1853. 
35. E. A. Chameroy — New composition of metals. 
37. M. Smith — Separating gold from other materials. 

39. W. E. Newton— Bearings for shafts, turn-tables, &c, 

40. W. Beales — Fire-proof cement. 

called " Parry's improvements.'' (A communication.) 

41. P. Graham — Carpets and piled fabrics. 

42. Vf . S. Ward — A thermostat for temperature and ven- 

tilation. 

43. W. Watson— Apparatus for manufacture of prussiate 

of potash. 

44. C. de Bergue — Permanent way. 

45. T. Pape — Circular frames, and fabrics produced thereby. 

Dated 1th January, 1 853. 

46. W. C. Scott— Improvements in wheels. 

48. G. Stewart — Railways and propulsion of engines. 

49. H. G. James— Retaining corks aad stoppers in bottles. 

50. R. Gittins — Improvements in tills. 

51. H. Marshall— Transmission and emission of air and 

sound. 

52. J. E. A. Gwynne— Propulsion of vessels. (A communi- 

cation.) 

Dated 8th January, 1853. 

53. R. Lovely — Steam to propulsion of carriages ou com- 

mon roads. 

54. T. Smith— Soil-pans. 

55. J. Abraham — Percussion caps. 

56. H. Kibble — Communication between guards and drivers 

57. C. W. Lancaster— An appendage to bullet-moulds. 

58. J. H. Johnson— Stoves for cooking. (A communica- 

tion.) 

59. F. Parker — Improvements in boots and shoes, and spat- 

terdashes, termed antigropelos. 

60. R. Walker — Manufacture of buttons. 

Dated lOtJi January, 1S53. 

Hiron — Copying figures in marble, &c. 

S. Duncan — Rendering jars, bottles, &c, air and 
water-tight, and raising and measuring the liquid 
contents thereof. 
Deane — Diving helmet. 

Fitch — Improvements in ovens. 
. Webb — Manufacture of carpets. 
D. M. Stirling — Percussion caps. 
Schneider — A chair for preventing sea-sickness. 

V. Newton — Separating substances of different spe- 
cific gravities. 

Dated Will January, 1 853. 
69. J. Beattie— Economising fuel in genevaling steam. 



61. 


A. 


62. 


C. 


63. 


J. 


64. 


M. 


65. 


W 


66. 


J. 


07. 


F. 


68. 


A. 



70. W. Weild — Looms for weaving. 

71. H. C. Jennings — Separating fluid parts of fatty and 

oily matters. 

72. J. and J. Thornton — Improved nets and other textile 

fabrics for gloves, &c., and the machinery for the 
same. 

73. J. R. W. Atkinson— Machinery for spinning flax, &c. 

74. T. Cottrill— Manufacture of salts of soda. 

75. J.Petrie and S. Taylor— Apparatus for washing wooL 

Dated 11th January, 1853. 

76. J. Horrocks— Registering passengers in public car- 

riages. 

77. J. M'Dowall — Cutting and reducing wood, &c. 

78. N. Card — Improvements in candle-wick. 

79. J. Hick — Lubricating revolving shafts and their pedes- 

tals. 

80. J. Fletcher — Machinery for spinning, &c, cotton, wool, 

&c. 

81. W. B. Nation and J. Dyer — Manufacture of soap. 

82. J. Arrowsmith — Machinery for shaping metals. 

83. G. A. Huddart — Manufacture of artificial leather. 

84. G. A. Huddart — Steam generators. 

85. W. Nairne — Reeling yarns. 

86. E. Hazlewood — Firearms and projectiles. (A commu- 

nication.) 

87. J. Cupper and T. J. Watson — Bleaching jute, &c. 

88. F. and A. Laurence — Improvements in sluices and 

lock-gates. 

89. J. Bennett and C. Charlesworth— Improvements in 

doffing and preparing rovings of wool. 

Dated 13!h January, 1853. 

M. Cartwright — Manufacture of gypsum. 

C. Bullivant— Improvements in spoons and ladles. 

W. Brown — Treating coals, &c, and their volatile pro- 
ducts. 

J. Kumley — Improvements in pumps. 

E. W. Wren — Manufacture of bricks, pipes, tiles, imi- 
tation stone and peat, bricks for fuel, by means of a 
machine, entitled, " A central circular and horizontal 
motion." 

95. G. Fife, M.D. — Protecting vessels and surfaces from 

injury and decay. 

96. J. W. Wilkins — Electric telegraphs. 

Dated Mth January, 1853. 

97. J. Lillie — Machinery for malting, drying and seasoning 

grain, &e. 

98. R. Taylor and H. H. Salt— Manufacture of spoons and 

ladles. 

99. A. James — Improvements in means of inclosing needles. 

100. J. H. Vries, M.D.— Motive power. 

101. W. Steads— Blinds, maps, &c., wound on rollers. 

102. F. J. Bramwell and J. Baggs — Machinery for driving 

piles, hammering, stamping, and crushing. 

Dated loth January, 1853. 
S. Kincaid — Registering numbers entering and quit- 
ting omnibuses, &c, and other places. 
. Bailey — Construction of railway signals, &e. 
Tasker — Writing and drawing tube. 
H. Young — Brooms and brushing apparatus. 
A. Halkett — Improved construction of inkstand. 
Arrowsmith — Pumping machinery. 

Dated Ylth January, 1853. 
Potts and J. S. Cookings — Manufacture of tubes, &c. 
C. Eyley and E. Evans — Wrought-iron wheels for 
railways, &c, and the machinery for same. 



103. J. 



104. 


W. 


105. 


E. 


107. 


J. 


108. 


P. 


109. 


J. 


110. 


T. 


111. 


T. 



112. A. Yorston— Construction of railways. 

113. W. Nairne — Improvements in power-looms. 

114. A. E. L. Bellford — Manufacture of "batting," or "wad- 

ding." (A communication.) 

115. A. E. L. Bellford— Blocks for printing music. (A com- 

munication.) 

117. H. H. Henson and F. Henson— Signalising on rail- 

ways, &c. 

118. A. E. L. Bellford— Motive power. 

Dated Mlh January, 1853. 

119. C. Binks— Electric light. 

120. J. T. Manifold and C. S. Lowndes— Improvements in 

steam-engines. 

121. H. Browning — Compositions for coating iron, ships' 

bottoms, &c. 

122. F. G. Underhay — Machinery for mowing. 

1 23. O. Reeves— Manufacture of manure. 

124. A. V. Newton — Improved sewing machine. 

125. P. Fairbairn and S. R.!Mathers— Machinery for drawing 

sliver and rove of flax, hemp, and tow. 

126. T. S. J. and T. Lees— Apparatus for admitting water to 

boilers. 

127. J. Sherringham — Improvements in stove-grates. 

128. R. Neale — Improvements in process of copper and other 

plate printing, and in inking, wiping, &c. 

Dated 19(A January, 1853. 

129. W. Vincent — Improvements in cocks or taps. 

130. S. Smirke— Signals on railways. 

131. J. R. Cooper — Improvements in fire-arms. 

132. W. F. Snowden— Improved mangle. 

133. W.E.Newton — Improvements in lamps. (A communi- 

cation.) 

134. T. Judge — Propelling vessels. 

135. C. Malo — Improvements in steam generators. 

136. J. Maudsley — Improvements in steam-engines, applica- 

ble to pumps, &c. 

Dated 20th January, 1853. 

137. J. Crabtree — Machinery for winding and doubling 

yarns. 

138. P. R. Jackson — Hoops and tyres for railway-wheels, 

&e. 

139. J. W. Ward— Manufacture of textile fabrics. 

140. C. Ward — New construction of bassoon. 

141. C. Ward — " A cymbal drum." 

142. R.M. Deeley — Grates of furnaces in glass manufacture. 

143. H. de Manara — Arrangements for preventing sea- 

sickness. 

144. W. Riddle— Ornamenting walls and surfaces. 

146. A. T. J. Bullock — Improvements in taps and cocks. 

147. W. Williams — Refrigerating apparatus. 

Dated 2\st January, 1S53. 

148. G. Carter — Construction of furnaces. 

149. E. Edwards — Knobs and handles of glass for doors, &c 

150. Capt. J. Addison — Communication between guard and 

driver by means of a lamp-sigaal, &c. 

151. A. A. Meijsenheijm Knipsehaar — Illuminated night- 

clock. 

152. G. Thornton— Propelling vessels. 

153. J. Middlemass— Application of a new material for port- 

able houses and other buildings. 

155. W. Taylor — Production and application of heated air. 

156. Rev. M. Andrew — Fastenings for windows. 

157. A. Prince — Articles of furnitme^from produce of plants 

of the cactus tribe, and preparing the same. (A 
communication.) 



1853.] 



List of Patents. 



71 



158. W.J. Curtis— Excavating, or digging-machine, &c. 

159. R. Plant— Construction of glasshouse-furnaces. 

160. J. Chubb and J. Coater— Locks and latches. 

Dated 22nd January, 1853. 

161. L. J. J. Malegue— Composition for dyeing. 

162. B. Quinton— Fastening for brooches, &c. 

163. J. P. M. Myers— Artificial fuel. 

164. W. Sharpies— Apparatus for marking at billiards and 

other games. 

165. W. D. Stevens— Signalising between one part and 

another of railway trains. 

166. G. Fife, M.D.— Safety-lamps, &c. 

167. J. Medworth and L. Lee— Lithographic presses. 

168. J. Paul — Machinery for making drains. 

169. P. H. Desvignes and F. Xavier — Galvanic batteries. 

170. A. W. Callen — Modes of giving and transmitting multi- 

plying rotative motion to shafts, &c. 

Dated 2ilh January, 1853. 

171. H. Brinsmead— Reaping-machine. 

172. H. A. Holden, E. Bull, and A. Knight — Communication 

between guard and driver. 

173. B. Perreyon— Fastening buttons, improved button and 

machinery for same. 

174. D. C. Knab— Process of and apparatus for *istilling, &c. 

175. D. Beatson— Propelling ships. 

176. W. Nairne— Dressing yarns. 

177. C. Randolph and J. Elder — Propelling vessels. 

178. W. Kendall— Manufacture of boxes, &c, and machinery 

for same. 

179. J. H. Johnson— Aerial navigation and machinery for 

same. (A communication.) 

180. J. Stevenson — Machinery for spinning flax and tow. 

181. A. E. Brae— Signals from one part of railway train to 

another. 
183. A. F. Remond — Ornamenting glass, &c. 

Dated 2Hh January, 1853. 

185. W. T. Henley— Covering wires, &c, for telegraphic 

purposes, &c. 

186. F. Roe— Paving roads and streets. 

187. F. Simpson — Combining materials for cleansing stone. 

188. J. Sangster — Umbrellas and parasols. 

189. A. V. Newton— Improvements in manufacture of 

printing surfaces. (A communication.) 

190. J. AViggins — Cement for resisting moisture or damp. 

191. R. W. Sievier and R. W. Waithman — Bleaching. 

192. H. H. Price — Raising and forcing water, &c. 

193. J. E. Mayall— Daguerrotype and photographic processe. 

Dated 26th January, '.853. 

194. T. D. Davies — Improved valve for steam and gas-en- 

gines. 

195. J. Davis — Improvements in optical and mathematical 

instruments. 
397. N. F. Ador — Plastic materials. 

198. T. F. Cashin and J. Stirk — Grinding machine. 

199. C. Nolet — Improvements in indicating time. 

200. J. H. Johnson — Lubricating and apparatus for same. 

201. J. Combe — Hackling and combing flax, &e. 

202. W. H. Moore — Construction of temporary dwellings. 

Dated 27th January, 1853. 

203. C. H. Alabaster— Improvements in ploughs. 

204. A. B. Sturdee — A twin-stern ship, with protected pro- 

peller. 

205. E. Brown— Blades of table-knives. 

206. J. Murdoch — Stamping or shaping metals. 

207. E. J. Biven — Signals on railways, &c. 

208. "W. and J. Galloway — Steam-engines and boilers. 

Dated 2%th January, 1853. 

210. R. Shaw— Starting, stopping, and reversing steam- 

engines. 

211. J. Learmont— Marine pumps and apparatus. 

212. W. Tranter — Improvements in fire-arms. 

213. A.Lucas — Improved inkstand. 

214. L. C. Koeffier — Bleaching and dyeing. 

215. J. Scott — Closing or stoppering bottles, jars, &c. 

216. G. E. Donisthorpe and J. Crofts — Combing wool, hair, 

&c. 

217. J. Poli Kingston — Combining metals for bearings, &c. 

219. J. Scott Russell— Constructing ships propelled by screw, 

&c. 

220. R. Speed — Communication between guard and driver. 

221. R. A. Brooman— Improvements in cables. (A commu- 

nication.) 

Dated 2$th January, 1853. 

222. H. Avins and G. Tarplee— Improved brick. 

223. H. Potter. Method of producing a certain colour on 

woven fabrics, &c, and in machinery, &c. 

224. J. Standish— Machinery for preparing cotton, &c, for 

spinning. 

225. AY. Archer — Preventing accidents by signals on rail- 

Ways, part applicable to blast furnaces. 

226. H. Moorhouse — Preparing cotton, &c, and in machinery 

for same. 

227. F. Mackrory— Preventing entry of dust, &c. into win- 

dows (called Pulviris depulsoi-). 

229. F. Whishaw— Improved lock or system of locks. 

230. J. R. and J. B. Corry — Dressing lambskin leather. 

231. A. B. Brooman— Diving-bells and apparatus. (A com- 

munication.) 

233. M. Spring— Separating gold. (A communication.) 

234. W. H. Hewitson— Suspending mariner's compass in iron 

vessels. 

235. H. Batcbelor— Combining metal plates for ship-building, 

&c. 

236. J. Shand— Improvements, in ships' fire-engines, 



237. S. Rogerson— Manufacture of braid, and machinery for 

same. 

238. L. Jennings— Improved lock. 

239. W. Constable— Transmitting motive power to ma- 

chinery, and regulating rotary steam-engines. 

240. AV. E. Newton — Machinery for dressing cloth. (A com- 

munication.) 

241. J. B. Lavanchy— Construction of collapsible framework 

for portable bedsteads, houses, bridges, &c. 

Dated 31st January, 1853. 

244. T. Knox — Rotatory heel for bouts and shoes. 

245. C. Caulfield— Propelling vessels by tubular propellers 

with pistons. 

246. C. Cowper — Preserving butter and other substances. 

247. S. Perkes— Construction of works applicable to aque- 

ducts, viaducts, &c. 
249. T. M. Jones— Checking or stopping railway-trains and 
steadying carriages, &c. 

251. L. G. Perreaux— Machinery for testing strength of 

yarn-thread, &c. 

252. E. Pugh — Ballasting ships, and rendering them buoy- 

ant. 

253. J. Mason — Improvements in looms. 

254. T. Ligbtfoot— Glaze for pottery. &c. 

256. D. Chalmers — Improvements in looms. 

257. J. P. Magoon — Steam-boiler chimneys. 

259. M. Pizzie— Railway carriage-break. 

260. M. L. A. Tarin — Improved dustpan. 

261. M.L. A. Tarin— Reflectors. 

262. J. Comins — Clod-crusher. 

263. S. Borcham— Improvements in time-keepers. 
265. J. Pinkerton — Ornamental glass. 

26S. G. Stretton — Improvements in soap, called, "Amylon, 
or starch soap." 

267. C. Hadley — Construction of granite and stone pave- 
ments. 

Dated 1st February, 1853. 

E. Edwards — Improved bedstead, which may be used as 
a vehicle. 

T. C. Clarkson — Improvements in giving elasticity to 
certain structures. 

E. AVhele— Improvements in candles, and machinery 
for same. 

J. Murgatroyd — Construction of boilers. 

J. Cockerill and T. Barnett— Construction of coffee- 
roasters. 

T. "Williams, J. Plimpson, and R. Buchanan— Actuating 
ships' primps, &c. 

J. Carter — Rotary engines. 

W. Levesley — Construction of pencil-cases. 

Dated 2nd February, 1853. 
W. Gregory — Bricks and tiles. (A communication.) 
A. E. L. Bellford — Manufacture of candles. (A commu- 
nication.) 

A. E. L. Bellford— Stoppering apparatus for bottles. (A 
communication. ) 

J. Smeeton — Dials for telegraphic instruments, &e. 
O. Williams — Water-closets. 

R. A. Brooman — Expansion valve3. (A communi- 
cation,) 

Dated 3rd February, 1853. 
G. J. Newberry — Improvements in hinges. (A commu- 
nication.) 

B. Dulaurier — Rendering boots and shoes waterproof 
without sewing or nailing, applicable to hats, &c, 
and machines for shoemaking and hatting. 

J. Greenhalgh— Improvements in churns. 
"W. Richards and E. Beck — Machinery for exhausting 
or driving air. 



2 JC. 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Sealed 18th December, 1852. 

116. William Bolivar Davis, of Southampton — Improve- 
ments in ships' buoys, life-buoys, ships' fenders, and 
other similar articles. 

403. Jeremiah Driver, of Keighley, Yorkshire, and John 
Wells, of Bradford, Yorkshire — Improvements in 
mouldings in sand and loam for the casting of iron 
and other metals. 

450. George Heyes, of Blackburn — Improvements in the 
manufacture of fancy woven or textile fabrics, and 
in the machinery or apparatus connected therewith. 

519. Matthew Fitzpatrick, of Upper Cleveland-street, Fitz- 
roy-square — Improvements in machinery or appa- 
ratus to be applied to locomotive engines and car- 
riages for the prevention of accidents, and also in 
the manufacture and application of indestructible 
and non-rebounding cushions, to be applied to the 
above and other similar purposes. 

684. Thomas Dunn, of Pendleton, and "William Watts, jun., 
of Miles Platting, near Manchester — Improvements 
in the construction of railways. 

933. James Rothwell, of Heywood, near Manchester — Im- 
provements in looms for weaving. 

971. Frederick Mackellar Gooch, of Bolton-le-Moors— Im- 
provements in the construction of railway signals, 
and in machinery or apparatus for working railway 
signals. 

1005. Emile Kopp, of Accringtonj and Frederick Albert 
Gatty, of Accrington — Improvements in printing or 
dyeing textile fabrics. 
1108. Juan Nepomuceno Adorno, of Golden-square— Im- 
provements in the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, 
and other similar articles. 



857. 

17. 
113. 



4S9. 

528. 
632. 

654. 

677. 
712. 
759. 

787. 

789. 
791. 

794. 

817. 

820. 
854. 

863. 
867. 
881. 
883. 
897. 
913. 
939. 



75, 

96 
232, 

412, 

451, 

466, 

660, 

729. 

742. 
886, 

894, 



Sealed 20(7* January, 1853. 
John Gedge, of 4, Wellington-street, Strand — Im. 
provements in the mechanism of looms for weaving. 

Sealed 21st January, 1853. 

Claries Henry Newton, of 192, Camden-road Villas, and 
George Ludham Fuller, of Peckham — Improvements 
in protecting electric telegraph wires. 

Richard Harczyk, of St. Mark-street, Tenter-ground, 
Goodman's-fields — Improved preparation or compo- 
sition of colouring matter, to be used in washing or 
bleaching linen and other washable fabrics, and in 
the manufacture of paper and other substances. 

Frederick Richards Robinson, of Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, U. S. — Improvement in the gridiron, or 
instrument for cooking steak and other articles by 
broiling. 

Peter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, 
South street, Finsbnry — Improvevements in appara- 
tus for assaying silk, cotton, and other similar fibrous 
substances. 

Halsey Diaper Walcott, of Roston, Massachusetts, U. S. 
— Improved mechanism or contrivance for cutting 
button-holes or slits in cloth or other material. 

Nehemiah Hodge, of N. Adams, Massachusetts, U. S — 
Invention for discharging water from the hold of a 
vessel. 

Richard "Wright, of Greenwich — Improvements in 
shafts and plummer blocks. 

Andrew Robeson, jun., of Newport, Rhode Island, 
U. S. — Improved mode of bowking or bucking cloth. 

Christian Sharps, of Hartford, Connecticut, U. S.— Im- 
provements in breach-loading fire-arms. 

Abraham Rogers, of Field-house, near Bradford, York- 
shire — Improvements in apparatus used for forming 
sewers, tunnels, and ways. 

Moses Poole, of Serle-street — Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of seamless garments and other seamless 
fabrics. (A communication.) 

George Perry Tewkesbury, of Boston, Massachusetts, 
U. S. — Improved life-preserving seat. 

Richard"Kemsley Day, of White-cottage, Plaistow — 
Improvements in the manufacture of fuel for light- 
ing fires. 

Moses Poole, of Serle-street — Improvements in cement- 
ing matters in the production of ornamental and 
other forms and surfaces. (A communication.) 

John Pepper, jun., of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
0. S. — Improved machine for knitting ribbed 
work. 

Samuel Hunter, of 13, Ravensworth-terrace, Gates- 
head — Improvements in anchors. 

Edward Aitchison, Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 
of 14, Manor-street, Chelsea, and John Evans, of 
8, Hamilton-street, "Wandsworth-road — Improve- 
ments in furnaces. 

Henry Holland, of Birmingham — Improvements in the 
manufacture of umbrellas and parasols. 

Charles Isles, of Birmingham — Improvements in the 
manufacture of chimney-pieces. 

Henry Bollman Condy, of Battersea — Improvements in 
the manufacture of acetic acid and acetates. 

William Massingham, of Ipswich — Improvements in 
carriages and apparatus for carrying the dead. 

George Houghton, of 74, High- street, Birmingham — 
Improvements in the manufacture of college caps. 

James Murdoch, of Staple Inn — Improved materials for 
use in painting. (A communication.) 

James Newall, of Bury, Lancaster — Improvements in 
breaks, machinery, or apparatus applied to rail- 
way and other carriages in motion, and in the 
mode or method of connecting two or more of such 
breaks together. 

Sealed 22nd January, 1853. 

Laurentius Mathias Eller, of Denmark, nowresiding at 
Leadenhall-street — Apparatus to release or separate 
carriages on railroads in case of accident, giving at 
the same time a signal of distress. 

David Dunne Kyle, of 120, Albany-street, Regent's- 
park — Improved method of excavating and removing 
earth. 

John Prestwich the elder, Samuel Prestwich, and John 
Prestwich the younger, of Tamworth, near Bolton, 
Lancaster — Improvements in machinery or appara- 
tus for cleaning and finishing woven fabrics. 

John Howard, of Bolton, Lancaster — Improvements in 
the construction of steam-boilers or steam genera- 
tors. 

Robert Brown, of Manchester — Improvements in the 
method of ventilating buildings or apartments, and 
in the apparatus connected therewith. 

Robert Burns and Richard Pritchard AValett, of Liver- 
pool — Improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
cutting bones. 

James Nichol, of Edinburgh — Improvements in the 
process of graining or ornamenting surfaces and 
fabrics. 

Thomas Day, of Upper Mall, Hammersmith — Improve- 
ments in landing and screening coals, and delivering 
them into sacks. 

Hugh Greaves, of Salford, near Manchester— Improve- 
ments in the permanent way of railways. 

Edward Lewis Brundage, of Jewin-crescent — Improve- 
ments in apparatus for drawing off fluids from animal 
bodies. (A communication.) 

William Joseph Curtis, of Grafton-place, Euston- 
square — Improvements in the formation of tramroadt 
or railroads, and carriages that run thereon. 



72 



List of Patents. 



[March, 1853. 



938. Charles Millar of Dundee— Improvements in time- 
keepers, or clockwork, and in machinery or appara- 
tus worked in connection therewith. 
Sealed 24th January, 1853. 

565. William Henry Fox Talbot, of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire 
— Improvements in the art of engraving. 

568. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 1G6, Fleet-street— Im- 
provements in tackle-blocks. 

601. Julius Jeffreys, of Croydon— Improvements in obtain- 
ing power, when steam or other vapour is used. 

G17. John Macintosh, of Aberdeen — Improvements in the 
manufacture of paper. 

619. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Im- 
provements in the preparation of materials for and 
in the manufacture of candles and night lights. 

683. Jean Jacques Ziegler, of Guebwiller, department du 
Haut Ehin, France — Improvements in machinery for 
preparing to be spun cotton, wool, silk waste, flax, 
tow, and other fibrous substances. 

737. John Patterson, of Wood-street — Improvements in ap- 
paratus for shaping collars and other similar linen 
and cotton articles. 

766. William Marsden,of Blackburn, Lancaster — Improve- 
ments in, and applicable to, looms for weaving. 

782. John Venables Vernon, and John Edge, of Manchester 
— Improvements in apparatus and machinery for en- 
graving rollers of glass, copper, brass, and other 
metallic compounds. 

800. Richard Taylor, of Clayton-bridge, Newton-heath, near 
Manchester — Improvements in heating dye-cisterns 
and soap cisterns, used in the process of calico- 
printing. 

834. Charles Watt, of Brompton — Improvements in obtain- 
ing currents of electricity. 

900. Samuel Cunliffe Lister, of Manningham, Yorkshire, and 
James Warburton, of Addingham, Yorkshire — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of yarn from fibrous 
materials. 

952. Duncan M'Nee, of Kirkintulloch, Dumbarton — Machine 
for printing with colours on cloth, and which is also 
applicable for printing ornamental designs on 
paper. 

Sealed 25th January, IS53. 
20. Charles Frederick Bielfield, of the Strand — Improve- 
ments in constructing portable houses and buildings. 

3G3. John Carter, of Meltham, Almondbury, Yorkshire — 
Improvements in the manufacture of woven fabrics. 

549. Bryan Donkin, the Younger, of Bermondsey, and Ber- 
nard William Farey, of Commercial-road, Old Kent- 
road — Improvements in the machinery for measuring 
and marking off long lengths or continuous webs of 
paper or other materials into any required lengths 
for the purpose of being cut or otherwise disposed of. 

589. William Dantee, of Liverpool — Improvements in pre- 
venting incrustation in steam-boilers. 

907. Jean David Schneiter, of 8, Rue de l'Abbaye, Paris — 
Improvements in maps and charts. 

927. Robert Milligan, of Harden Mills, Bingley, Yorkshire — 
Improvement applicable to combing machinery. 

951. Arthur Wall, of East India-road — Improvements in 
preparing sheet metal for ship-building and other 
uses. 

985. William Mayo, of Berners'-street — Improvements in 
balls or float- valves and cocks. 

Sealed 25th January, 1853. 
691. William Gossage, of Widnes, Lancaster — Improve- 
ments in obtaining sulphur from certain metallic 
sulphurets. 

Sealed 21th January, 1853. 

384. Joseph Henry Tuck, of Pall Mall— Improvements in 
stuffing-boxes, and in packing te be used in stuffing- 
boxes, bearings, pistons and valves. 

456. Anthony Liddell, of Canterbury — Improvements in 
stuffing-boxes, and in packing to be employed with 
stuffing-boxes and pistons. 

716. Richard Barnes, of Wigan — Improvements in cocks or 
plugs for water or other fluids. 

758. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Im- 
provements in knitting machinery. (A communi- 
cation.,) 

Sealed 29th January, 1853. 
62. John Sayers, of 6, Prospect-place, Poplar— Improved 
arrangements for maintaining a level surface or 
level surfaces upon or in connection with bodies 
subject to a rocking motion. 

233. William Crook, of Blackburn— Improvements in looms. 

378. Preston Lumb, of Vauxhall — Improvements in appa- 
ratus for cleansing coal. 

587. James Rock, the younger, of Hastings— Improvements 
in railway carriages. 

721. Caleb Bloomer, of West Bromwich — Improvements in 
the manufacture of anchors. 

895. Emile Martin, of Paris, and 4, South-street, Finsbury — 
Improvements in the mode of extracting gluten from 
wheat, and for preparing and drying the same by 
mixing to several degrees of concentration. 

915. Samuel Clark, of 55, Albany-street, Regent's-park — 
Improvements in lamps. 

932. William Taylor, of 16, Oxford-terrace, Hyde-park— 
Improvements in propelling ships and other floating 
bodies. 

962. William Maugham, of Ilfield-terrace, Surrey— Improve- 
ments in rendering wood fireproof. 

991. Thomas Lovell Preston, of Birmingham — Invention of 
a machine for making links for chains. 



1011. Edward Thomas Loseby, of Gerrard-street, Islington — 

Improvements in the construction of timekeepers, 

and in cases to be applied thereto. 
1013. George Collier, of Halifax, Yorkshire — Improvements 

in the manufacture of carpets and other fabrics. 
1022. Thomas Boardman, of Pendleton — Improvements in 

looms for weaving. 

1031. George Dixon, of Birmingham — Improvements in the 

manufacture of and refining sugar. 

1036. Josiah Glasson, of the Soho Foundry, near Birmingham 
— Improvements in boilers. 

1045. Henry Clayton, of the Atlas works, Upper Park-place, 
Dorset-square — Improvements in the manufacture 
of bricks. 

1051. John Webb, of Coventry — Improvements in ornament- 
ing enamel watch-dials. 

Sealed 2nd February, 1853. 
767. John Ramsbottom, of Longsight, near Manchester- 
Improvements in steam-engines. 
978. James Smith, of 2, Little Canterbury-place, Lambeth- 
walk — Improvements in paving roads and other sur- 
faces. 
994. Henry Jenkins, of 11, Spencer -street, Birmingham 
— Improvements in the manufacture of bracelets, 
brooches, and other articles of jewellery. 
1000. James Lawrence, of Westminster— Improvements in 
the manufacture of projectiles. 

1012. Charles Greenway, of Cheltenham — Improvements in 

anchors. 

1032. Timothy Morris, of Birmingham, and William John- 

son, of Warkwood-heath, near Birmingham— Im- 
provements in depositing alloys of metals. 

1034. John Thomas Way, of Holies-street, Cavendish -square 
and John Mainwaring Paine, of Farnham — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of glass. 

1044. David Napier, of Millwall — Improvements in steam- 
engines. 

104G. William Henry Fox Talbot, of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire 
— Improvements in obtaining motive power. 

Sealed 9th February, 1853. 

355. Peter Warren, of Strathmore-terrace, Shadwell — Im- 
proved material applicable to many purposes for 
which papier macho and gutta percha have been or 
may be used. 

476. Samuel Marsh, of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of woven fabrics, by 
means of lace machinery. 

650. James Wotherspoon, of Glasgow — Improvements in tho 
manufacture or production of confectionary, and in 
the machinery, apparatus, or means employed 
therein. 

753. Robert Sandiford, of Tottington Lower End, near Bury 
— Improvements in apparatus for block-printing. 

757. Thomas Taylor, of the Patent Saw Mills, Manchester — 
Apparatus for measuring water and other fluids, 
which apparatus is also applicable to the purpose of 
obtaining motive power. 

788. William Wiliams, of Birmingham— Improvements in 
electric telegraphs. 

798. Jean Joseph Jules Pierrard, of Paris — Improvements 
in preparing wool and other fibrous substances for 
combing. 

826. Francis iiywater Frith, of Salford — Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for dressing, machining, and 
finishing velvets, velveteens, cords, beverteens, and 
other similar fabrics composed of cotton, silk, wool, 
and other fibrous materials. 

850. William Henry Winchester, of Tamerton Foliott, near 
Plymouth — Improvements in splints. 

903. William Pink, of Fareham — Improved construction of 
stirrup-bar for saddles. 

935. James Edward M'Connell, of Wolverton — Improve- 
ments in locomotive engines. 

1069. Richard Taylor, jun., of Queen-street, Cheapside, and 

John Arthur Phillips, of Upper Stamford-street — 
Improvements in treating zinc ores. 

1070. Clement Dresser, of Basinghall-street — Improvements 

in combining materials to be used in substitution of 
whalebone and other flexible or elastic substances. 
(A communication.) 

1087. George Sands Sidney, of the Willows, Brixton-road — 
Improvements in jugs or vessels for containing 
liquids. 

1097. Joseph Matthews, of Strickland-gate, Kendal — Burglary 
alarm. 

1100. William Robertson, of Barrhead, Renfrew — Improve- 
ments in certain machines for spinning and doubling 
cotton and other fibrous substances. 

1115. William John Silver, of 47, Clark-street, Stepney — Im- 

provements in giving motion to capstan and other 
barrels. 

1116. George Gwynne, of Hyde-park-square, and George 

Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of caudles, nigbt-lights, 
and soap. 
1136. Thomas Greenshieids, of Stoke-works, Worcester — 
Improvements in the manufacture of alkali. 

Sealed 12th February, 1853. 

500. Arnold James Cooley, of Parliament-street — Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of artificial leather. 

585. John Whitcomb and Richard Smith, of Kidderminster — 
Improvements in the manufacture of carpets, hearth- 
rugs, and other similar fabrics. 

611. Robert William Siever, of Holloway— Improvements ap- 
plicable to the manufacture of hats, caps, and bon- 
nets, or other coverings for the head. 



698. Oswald Dodd Hedley, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne — Im- 
provements in getting coals and other minerals. 
944. Page Dewing Woodcock, of Lincoln — Improved prepara- 
tion or pill for medicinal purposes, hereby denomi- 
nated " Page Woodcock's wind pills." 

1003. Sir John Powlctt Orde, Bart., of Kilmorey House, Loch 
Gilp Head, Argyle — Improvements in head-gear for 
horses, and other like animals. 

1063. George Elliott and William Russell, of St. Helens, Lan- 
cashire—Improvements in boiling down saline solu- 
tions. 

1132. Frank Clarke Hills, of Deptford — Improvements in puri- 
fying gas. 

1150. Peter Fairbairn, of Leeds, and Samuel Renny Mathers, 
of Leeds — Improvements in machinery for carding 
flax, hemp, China-grass, and jute, and the tow of the 
several materials before mentioned. 

1152. Fulcran Peyre and Michael Dolques, of LodCve, Depart- 
ment of L'Herault, in France — Improvements in ma- 
chinery for dressing woollen cloth. 

Sealed lilh February, 1853. 
1107. William East, of Spalding — Improvements in machinery 
for crushing clods, for dibbling, and drilling land, and 
sowing seeds. 

SealedlSth February, 1853. 

155. David Stephens Brown, of 2, Alexandrian Lodge, Old 
Kent-road — Improved means of navigating the water 
by ships. 

387. Joseph Major, of 13, Elizabeth-place, Ball's-pond-road, 
near Kingsland-gate — Removing spavins, ringbones, 
curbs, splcnts, and other unnatural ossifications and 
humours from horses. 

430. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet-street — Im- 
provements in vices. 

525. Myer Myers and Maurice Myers, of Birmingham — Im- 
provements in pens and penholders. 

839. James Higgin, of Manchester — Improvements in the 
manufacture of certain mordants used in preparing 
woven or textile fabrics for printing, straining, or dye- 
ing them, and in the mode or method of using the 
same or other mordants for the said purposes. 

970. Asa Lees, of Rhodes House, within Oldham, and Thomas 
Kay, of Mumps, within Oldham — Improvements in 
machinery for spinning and doubling cotton, wool, 
silk, flax, and other fibrous materials. 
1071. Thomas Dunn, of Pendleton, Hugh Greaves of Manches- 
ter, and William Watts, jun., of Miles Platting, near 
Manchester — Improvements in machinery and appa- 
ratus for altering the position of engines and carriages 
on railways. 
1161. George Bower, of St. Neot's — Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of gas for illumination. 
1185. Francis Alton Calvert, of Manchester — A universal 
ratchet-drilL 

PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE SPECI FI- 
CATIONS DEPOSITED. 

145. G. E. Gazagnaire — Manufacture of fishing-nets. (A 
communication.) January 20, 1853. 

182. W. F. Shattuck — A smut-machine. (A communica- 
tion.) January 25, 1853. 

184. T. Ovans— Manufacture of boots. January 25, 1853. 

209. C. Noel— A new regulating bit. January 28. 

H42. G. Twigg and A. L. Silvester— Cutting and affixing 
stamps and labels. January 29, 1853. 

250. W. Williams — Cutting and shearing iron and other 
metals. January 31, 1853. 

268. T. L. Clarkson — Manufacture of hats, caps, and bon- 
nets, &c. January 31, 1853. 

328. A. E. L. Belford — Improvements in metal musical wind 
instruments, to be called, " Besson s system." Feb- 
ruary 5, 1853. 

DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

William Edward Kilburn, 234, Regent-street, 
" A stereoscope, or binocular case." 
Nield and Collauder, 5, Little Friday-street, 
City, " The manifold vest." 
Joiin Paterson, Wood-street, City, "Summer 
collar-tie." 

Thomas and John Driver, 29, Minories, " Im- 
proved bearing and hooks for scale-beams." 
John C. Onions, Bradford-street, Birming- 
ham, "Onion's improved extra-blast tele- 
graph wire- welding forge." 
28 3415 Philip H. de la Motte, Chepstow-place, 
' Wes'bourne-green, "Stokes's portable 
camera." 

William Leggett, Derrythorpe, Lincolnshire . 
" Ploughshare." 
Feb. 1, 3417, William Eassie, Gloucester, " An improved 
' pole and bolster for railway and other trucks." 
VVitton, Daw, and Co., o7, Threadneedle- 
street, City, " A sight for rifles, pistols, &c." 
Henry and John Gardner, 453, Strand "Im- 
proved fiih-tail burner." 
Benjamin »awdon, Huddersfield, " Portable 
gas apparatus." 
Dent, Allcroft and Co., 97, Wood-street. " The 

Club-house cravat." 
Christopher Hodgson and James Stead, Salford, 
near Manchester, " Improved self-adjusting 
tongs, or claws, used for gas-piping shafting 
or other similar purposes." 



1853. 
Jan 


12, 


3410, 


„ 


13, 


3411, 


„ 


14, 


3412, 


„ 


H, 


3413, 




27, 


3414, 



28, 


3416, 


1, 


3417, 


1, 


3418, 


9, 


3419, 


10, 


3420, 


10, 


3421, 


11, 


3422, 




AETIZAN. 



No. CXXIIL— Vol. XL— APRIL 1st, 1853. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



An agitation, which, it is to be hoped, will bear fruit, is taking 
place on the subject of a decimal coinage. We are sadly in arrear of 
all other civilised nations in this respect, and the only conceivable 
reason why the thing has not been done before, is that, being " every- 
body's business," it is "nobody's business." Certainly, it is a subject 
that does not admit of so much sentimentality as some with which the 
public are familiar, but there is, nevertheless, a grave national incon- 
venience and loss, as well as a hindrance to the spread of commerce, 
the civiliser of the world. "With a decimal system like that of France 
or the United States, our coin would annihilate much of the rubbish 
which passes by that name on the Continent. Somebody tells a good 
story of a traveller changing a sovereign on entering Germany, and 
changing it in every place he passed through which had a different 
coinage. The final result of his tour was, that his sovereign was re- 
duced to some three or four shillings. Now, a loss just the same as 
the above in principle, and immense in amount, the smallness of the 
difference being made up by the magnitude of the transactions, is 
continually taking place in our commerce. Nor must we leave out 
of sight the beautiful simplicity which would be introduced into all 
our bookkeeping. The Dutch have a saying, that no man ever failed 
in business who kept good accounts, meaning thereby, that few men 
would persevere in a losing trade, if their books clearly showed them 
their losses every time they examined them. Commissioners of bank- 
ruptcy visit with a severe sentence those unfortunate traders whose 
accounts exhibit " bad bookkeeping," and perhaps justly ; but that 
portion of the public who think it does not belong to their province 
to assist in obtaining a decimal currency ought to remember that 
many a hard-working professional man and tradesman, who cannot 
afford to keep a bookkeeper, has to sit down in the evening, after a 
weary day's work, to the irritating task of entering and balancing his 
accounts. It is well, indeed, for him, if the day of rest is not encroached 
on for the same purpose. Can we wonder, then, that the labour 
is evaded, until the task becomes accumulated to a hopeless extent, 
and the chaos of figures insurmountable ? From some little experience 
in the French system, we believe we are justified in saying that, taking 
the less risk of errors into account, one-half of the labour in keeping 
accounts is saved by the decimal system. We are not speaking now 
of professional calculators, for bookkeeping is an art, but of the daily 
transactions of life. 

Some good articles on this subject have appeared in the Daily News, 
10 



pointing out more especially how our foreign trade would be benefited 
by the change, and the immortality which a chancellor of the Exche- 
quer might acquire by having the courage to carry through a measure 
on the subject. 

The most obvious method is to divide the sovereign into 1,000 cents, 
which would be so near in value to our present farthings, that these 
latter would serve in the meantime. We should require a new silver 
coin, of the value of one-tenth of a florin, or twopence and two-fifths. 
Our accounts would then stand thus : — " Pounds, florins, tenths, and 
cents," or, probably it would settle down into " pounds, florins, and 
cents." A bolder, and, in the end, a really sounder step, would be to 
adopt the French system altogether. We say this advisedly, because 
it would be the only means of approximating to a general European 
currency ; an event which must come some day, as surely as submarine 
telegraphs, railways and steamers exist at present. Certainly, no 
one who has ever had experience of the facility of calculating in francs 
and centimes would use any other method at present known, if he 
could help it. 

The Australian Mail Company have got themselves into a pretty 
mess, by the repeated returns of the Australian, and, apparently, the 
best thing they can do is to sell their contract (with the permission 
of government) to the General Screw Company, who have the means 
of carrying it out efficiently. We do not blame the company for 
buving these vessels, because they were the only ones available at the 
time, and, having been built expressly for the Cunard Company, 
they might have been expected to have been sound boats, and well 
fitted. It is said that the feed pipes were choked with small coal, and 
that steam could not be kept up on that account. If so, that must 
have happened from coal getting into the hot well from injecting 
from the bilge. That shows the necessity of making pipes so that the 
feed pumps can draw directly from the sea, when required, and also 
the necessity of affording the most ample accommodation for cleaning- 
out both feed and injection pipes. The company deserve blame 
chiefly for not sending out a qualified person to make arrangements 
for coaling immediately on getting the contract, and for not securing 
the services of some first-rate practical engineer, who would have 
rigidly examined the engines, and had any deficiencies supplied. Seeing 
that the vessels had been some time out of the makers' hands, we for- 
bear to impute blame to them, because the machinery may have suffered 
by bad usage ; but we think they would consult their own reputation 
best by explaining to what cause these unfortunate breaks down are to 
be attributed. 



74 



Ny strom's Direct-Acting Engines for the Screw. 



NYSTROM'S DIRECT-ACTING ENGINES FOR THE SCREW. 

(Illustrated by Plate vi.) 

In noticing Mr. Nystrom's work {ante p. 1/), we promised to dis- 
cuss the merits of his arrangement of direct-acting engines for the 
screw, the subject now uppermost in the mind of every engineer at all 
interested in marine work. We long since expressed our decided 
opinion on the respective merits of geared and direct-acting screw 
engines, and events seem likely to corroborate that opinion to the 
fullest extent. Whilst the General Screw Company, under the advice of 
Messrs. Maudslay and Field, have been particularly fortunate in their 
fine fleet, the Australian Company have been just as unfortunate with 
their geared engines. It is true that Messrs. Tod and Macgregor have 
turned out some creditable specimens of geared engines, but whilst we 
can find a sufficient number of cases of direct-acting engines doing well, 
to found an argument upon, we need not discuss the merits of different 
sorts of geared engines, for the whole of their case turns upon the 
economical possibility or impossibility of using direct-acting engines. 

It is a matter of the deepest importance to steam navigation com- 
panies adopting the screw propeller, that they should select such a 
type of engine as will do them good service, and we shall, therefore, 
offer a few remarks on the engines of various makers, before describing 
Mr. Nystrom's arrangement. 

The different sorts of direct-acting screw engines may be divided 
into three classes — that in which the cylinders are vertical and inverted, 
that in which they are angular, and that in which they are horizontal ; 
each system having its peculiar advantages and defects. 

The vertical system has been adopted by Messrs. Caird and Co., of 
Greenock, in numerous instances, amongst which are the Kestrel, 
British Queen, Secret, &c., of which dimensions will be found in the 
Artizan. It has also been adopted by Messrs. G. and J. Thompson, in 
the Frankfort (vide Bourne's Treatise on the Screw Propeller J, which 
is a very good specimen of the class of auxiliary screw vessels. In these 
engines the two cylinders are supported by framing similar to that 
employed by Mr. Nasmyth for his small high-pressure engines, an en- 
graving of which will be found at p. 12S, vol. 1851. The engines 
stand lengthwise in the ship, and the air pumps are behind the engines, 
and are worked at about half-stroke, by connecting links hanging from 
the crosshead, which take on to a pair of wrought-iron beams, at the 
opposite end of which are the air, feed and bilge pumps. These latter, 
with the pull of the air pump, serve to balance the weight of the pis- 
tons, crossheads, rods, &c, the momentum of which is inconveniently 
felt at high speeds. This arrangement could, we think, be improved 
by making the air pumps double-acting, and worked off the cylinder 
crossheads. 

Double-acting air-pumps have several advantages over single-acting 
ones for high-speed engines, but for small engines they are rather more 
expensive, since, in small engines, it is the number of the parts which 
governs the cost, rather than the size of them. In some of the early 
vols, of the Artizan will be found indicator diagrams off the tops of 
single-acting air-pumps, from which it will be seen that near the ter- 
mination of the stroke a very considerable strain is thrown on the air- 
pump bucket and its connections. This is sufficiently bad in ordinary 
engines, but is still worse in screw engines, where, owing to the position 
of the pump, and the deep draught of water, the water has to be lifted 
out of the condenser against a very high column. This explains many 
of the breaks down which have been experienced in engines fitted in 
this way. At p. 16 is a drawing of Mr. Holm's double-acting air- 
pump. The bucket being only half the area of a single acting pump, 
there is only half the total strain, and, farther, this is distributed over 
the whole stroke, instead of being concentrated just at the end of it. 
The horizontal form is the best for double-acting pumps, but in some 



cases the vertical form may be more convenient. Mr. Borrie has made 
pumps of this kind, with brass hanging valves, a drawing of which will 
be found in the Artizan, 1845, and, with the substitution of india-rubber 
valves for brass ones, would serve equally well. 

The angular variety has been largely employed by Messrs. Maudslay 
and Field for the boats of the General Screw Company. The cylinders 
are placed opposite each other, at an angle of 45° with the horizon, and 
both the connecting rods take hold of the same erank pin. The cylin- 
ders are bolted to two strong triangular frames, on the tops of which 
are the erank shaft plummer blocks. Theslide valves are double, that is, 
there are two to each cylinder; the faces being inclined from each other, 
and being parallel to tangents of the piston. The air pump is vertical 
and single-acting, and is worked off a crank on the end of the crank 
shaft. This forms a very strong and compact arrangement, but it has 
its inconveniences. The cylinders being in the bottom of the ship, 
either the shaft must be considerably raised, or else the stroke must be 
very short. It is true that the shaft can be inclined to suit the desired 
centre of the propeller, but still the shaft and its tunnel occupy valuable 
space in the hold, and it is not desirable to put the coal bunkers over 
the engines to economise the space left there. On the other hand, the 
stroke of most of our screw engines needs lengthening rather than 
shortening. 

These reasons attach with greater force when we attempt to put con- 
siderable power into a vessel of moderate beam and fine lines, and when 
it is desirable to put the engines well aft. In such a case the arrange- 
ment of Mr. Carlsund (Artizan, Dec, 1851) is to be preferred. This 
is just Messrs. Maudslay's arrangement inverted, the shaft being put 
down in the bottom of the ship. Mr. Carlsund builds his engines into 
the ship in a very ingenious manner, by fixing the cylinders between 
two wrought-iron bulkheads reaching across the engine room. Other 
forms of framing might be devised which would, perhaps, be more 
suitable for large engines. When framing of this kind is employed, 
great care should be taken in the riveting, as the rivets are very 
likely to work loose, unless they are very perfectly fitted. Wrought- 
iron entablatures for oscillating and other paddle-wheel engines have 
failed from the same cause. 

A very neat pair of engines of this kind with single trunks, have been 
constructed by Messrs. Summers and Co., of Southampton, for the 
Brilliant Madeira packet. The trunk projects at the crank -end of the 
cylinder only, and the brass of the end of the connecting rod attached 
to the piston is adjusted by means of a long steel pin, which works in a 
hole bored through the centre of the connecting rod. This pin is set 
up by a key going transversely through the connecting rod. Owing to 
the space occupied by the trunk, there is a slightly greater pressure on 
the back than on the front of the piston, and this can be equalised, if 
desired, by adjusting the slide valve accordingly. 

Engines, with the cylinders similarly placed, were constructed about 
the year 1844 by Mr. Grantham, C.E., of Liverpool; but, unfortunately, 
the cylinders were made oscillating — an arrangement not well adapted 
for the high speeds required. Although the immediate results were 
satisfactory, we believe that the engines did not maintain their good 
condition long. More lately, horizontal oscillating engines have been 
applied by Messrs. J. Watts and Co., in H.M.S. Sanspareil, with no 
better result. Indeed, it is pushing the oscillating principle, so admi- 
rable for the paddle-wheel, too far ; and the oscillating cylinder could 
not be placed in a worse position than the horizontal one. 

The horizontal class of engines are very numerous, which is probably 
to be accounted for by most of the leading engineers having been called 
upon to design engines for ships of war, where it is indispensable to 
have the machinery as low as possible. 

We have already described, in our volume for 1850, Mr. Penn's trunk 
engines, which he has now constructed as large as 500-horse power, 



1853.] 



Nystrom's Direct-Acting Engines for the Screw. 



75 



with two cylinders only. All the other makers have used four cylinders 
for large powers. The smaller cylinders are more manageable, no doubt ; 
but four cylinders have more friction, more cooling surface, and more 
waste of steam, and are more expensive than two-eylinder engines of 
equal power. 

The engines of H.M.S. Amphion (described at p. 15) undoubtedly 
deserve all that Mr. Bourne has said in their favour. We should, how- 
ever, prefer a species of frame similar to that employed by Mr. Penn, 
which serves to distribute the strain equally over the cylinder — a point 
of great importance in large engines. We also think that the connec- 
tion between the cylinder and condenser should consist of a large copper 
pipe, which will permit of any slight deviation from the original shape 
of the ship, without risking the breaking of the joints. We have no- 
ticed these points, embodied in some engines constructed by Messrs. J. 
and A. Blyth, of London, for the Portuguese navy. These engines are 
simple horizontal engines, with the two cjdinders on one side of the 
keel, and two double-acting air-pumps opposite to them on the other 
side — an arrangement which appears to satisfy all the conditions neces- 
sary for ships of war. The only advantage which the engines of the 
Amphion possess over this arrangement is, that a longer stroke and a 
longer connecting rod can be got in a given breadth, which might be an 
object in a full-powered vessel. 

Messrs. Maudslay's four-cylinder engines form a neat arrangement. 
The cylinders are placed opposite each other, in pairs, and each pair of 
pistons are connected together by two piston rods, placed obliquely, one 
being below the crank shaft, and the other above it, as in the Amphion. 
A cross-head is attached to the two piston rods, nearer to one cylinder 
than the other, and the connecting rod is attached to it, in a line with the 
centre of the cylinder. The slides are on the tops of the cylinders, which 
involves the use of a weigh-shaft, to connect them to the eccentrics. 
There are two horizontal air-pumps, worked off one crank on the in- 
termediate shaft, the connection being made in the same way as for the 
cylinders. Intermediate cranks of this kind should be avoided as much 
as possible, as there is some difficulty in forging them to make a safe 
job, and they always require to be made of enormous strength. 

Messrs. Seawards' system is still more complicated, and occupies a 
still larger space. The cylinders are placed opposite each other, but 
each has its cross-head guides and connecting rod. This takes up 
more room in the width of the ship than Messrs. Maudslay's plan ; 
and, in addition to this, the air-pumps are placed vertically in the 
length of the ship, and are worked off two cranks in the intermediate 
shaft. 

Messrs. Rennie's engines are arranged in the same way, as regards 
the cylinders ; but the two air pumps are worked off one crank on the 
end of the shaft, and are placed at an angle, on each side of the keel. 
The condensers are placed between the cylinders, a passage being cast 
under the cylinders to convey the water to the air pumps. 

It has been stated, that experiments have been tried in the govern- 
ment dockyards on the effect produced by working with two only out 
of the four cylinders, and that, when the same quantity of steam was 
used in both cases, no advantage was obtained by working expansively. 
Thus, suppose two cylinders, containing each 100 cubic feet of steam, 
beefed throughout the stroke; and, in the next experiment, let the 
four cylinders be half filled, it is obvious that the same quantity of 
steam is used in both cases ; but, in the second case, all the power de- 
veloped by the steam in expanding into double its volume is gained, 
minus the friction of the cylinders, &c, and the condensation by the 
larger cooling surface. These two items, no doubt, form a deduction, 
to be made from the gain by expansion ; but it is obvious that, if no 
gain was made, all expansive engines are a delusion — a doctrine which 
government engineers can hardly be consistent in advancing, since they 
stipulate for expansion gear in all their contracts with engine makers. 



We are not in possession of the details of the trials ; and it would be 
well if all such experiments were published as soon as made, at the 
government expense, in the Blue-book style. At present, they are 
occasionally printed for " private circulation," and only fall into the 
hands of those who are in the secret, and who do not mind using " back- 
door influence " to obtain them. If a proper publicity were given to> 
them, any errors which they might contain would be exposed by fair- 
discussion, and any good in them would be available for all, without, 
distinction or favouritism. 

We have notes on some other forms of screw engines, which we must 
reserve for another occasion. 

Let us now turn to Mr. Nystrom's arrangement, plate vi. Fig, 1; is* 
a longitudinal elevation of a pair of inverted engines, and fig. 2 a trans- 
verse section of the same ; fig. 3 is a section on a larger scale of the 
half cylinder and the two slides, and fig. 4 is an elevation partly in, 
section of the double-acting air-pump, showing one pair of foot and. 
delivery valves. A glance at the plate of screw engines in the Artizan- 
for December, 1851, will show that Mr. Nystrom has derived his details- 
from his talented fellow-countryman, Mr. Carlsund (the objection being 
fully acknowledged), with the exception of the slide-valve motion, the- 
peculiar arrangement alone being claimed by Mr. Nystrom. 

The framing of the engine consists of a strong sole plate, a a, carry- 
ing the crank-shaft bearings, and forming a portion of the condenseiv 
On this sole-plate are bolted two pairs of cast-iron columns, b c, which 
support the steam cylinders, d d. One pair of columns, b b, form the 
condensers (see fig. 2), the water for condensation being admitted 
through the pipes, x x, provided with injection cocks, y y. The other 
pair of columns, c c, contain the air pumps. These pumps are double 
acting, with solid-packed buckets (fig. 4). 

There are two foot valves and two delivery valves to each pump, the 
valves being arranged in pairs, e and/, each pair being held down with 
one spindle, on which the valve moves. These valves are made of a 
parabolic shape, which diminishes the shock of the water striking them, 
and they are made to close quickly by means of spiral springs pressing 
them down into their seats. A hollow spindle is cast on each valve to 
receive the spring, and some small holes are bored at the bottom of the 
recess, to allow the water contained in it to escape freely when the 
valve rises. The valve covers are made of a parabolical form, so as to 
serve as air vessels, to diminish the concussion. It will be observed 
that, part of the condenser being below the top of the air pump, the 
water has to be drawn up the passage, g, when the air-pump bucket makes 
its down stroke. As the pressure on the water is only the difference of 
the pressures in the pump and the condenser, the atmospheric pressure 
not being available, as in ordinary pumps, there is some danger that the 
pump may not be properly filled, on the down stroke. To diminish 
this risk to a certain extent, a short copper pipe is inserted in the 
bottom of the passage, g, so as to draw the water from the very bottom 
of the condenser. 

A little reflection will show that, in direct-acting engines working in 
one direction, the angular thrust of the connecting rod is all on one 
guide. Advantage is taken of this fact to place the air pump on the 
side of the cross-head, where it will balance the thrust of the rod. In the 
present case a guide is fixed on each column, and we may remark, in 
passing, that they are hardly so deep as they should be, for the sake of 
steadiness. 

The branch pipes from the four delivery valves unite in the overflow- 
pipe, h. The distribution of the steam next comes under notice. A 
circular valve, m, admits the steam to both cylinders, which have a 
slide box common to both. On the back of each valve is a supple- 
mentary valve, n, which is worked by the slide of the opposite cylinder, 
and which serves to cut off the steam at any desired point within a 
certain range. Two eccentrics are thus all that are required, and they 



76 



Geometrical Method of Finding the Pressure of Steam . 



[April, 



are moved on the shaft by being attached to a worm wheel, o, moved 
by hand by a suitable worm. We could wish that Mr. Nystrom had 
been a little more explicit on this part of his invention. The worm 
wheel has a V thread, and is so constructed that, if the engine is started 
when the worm is in gear, it throws itself out of gear. With high rates 
of expansion it may happen that both valves are closed when it is 
desired to start the engines, and, to obviate this difficulty, passages, s s, 
are cast on the side of the valve, which are opened or shut by a sliding 
plate, at the command of the engineer, and by this means full steam 
can be given, either for going ahead or astern. 

The piston, it may be observed, is of the dished form invented by 
Mr. Carlsund, with the piston rings forced in. This piston is both 
light and strong, as well as cheap. The cylinder bottom is shown cast 
in, but this should be eschewed with such a complicated form, as diffi- 
cult to bore out and to cast. 



GEOMETRICAL METHOD OF FINDING THE PRESSURE 
OF STEAM, 

AT ANT POINT OF THE STROKE OF A STEAM ENGINE DURING EXPANSION, ACCORDING TO 
MARBIOTTl'S LAW. 

By Mr. J. Simon Holland, 

Of the Steam Branch, Admiralty, Somerset House. 

Draw a cylinder, as in fig. 1, and let the diameter be drawn to any 
convenient scale representing the full pressure ; let such scale bs placed 
parallel and even with the top of the cylinder, at the distance from it 
equal to the cut off measured on the scale of feet representing the 
stroke, which last scale must be placed parallel and even with the side of 
the cylinder, and at the distance, from the near inner edge, of the dia- 
meter of the cylinder. To find the pressure of steam at any point of the 
stroke, draw a line from the scale of feet representing that point 
through the point o at the top of the cylinder, continued to the scale of 
pounds, and on that scale we have the corresponding pressure. If we now 
draw perpendiculars from these two points, they will intersect in a 
point in the hyperbolic curve representing the varying pressure. 



„- n .'"5 1" 



25 eo <z* 

3J3JO-J-J til 




Demonstration. — If in fig. 2 we draw a line through the point o, so 
a3 to cut the lines ab and cd, the rectangle ab.cd will be a constant 
quantity, and equal to the rectangle eo. This will at once be seen, on 



reference to fig. 3, which is that of Euclid, b. 1, prop. 43, where it is 
shown that the rectangle eo is always equal to the rectangle of. Now 
the scale of pounds represents the line ab, and the scale of feet represents 
the line cd. 

Fig. 1 represents a cylinder with steam of 24 lbs. cut off at 2 feet. 
The pressure at 4 times 2 feet will be £ of 24, or 6 lbs. On looking at 
the figure, we find that a line drawn from 8 feet through the point o 
gives 6 lbs. on the scale ; and a vertical line from 6, to cut a horizontal 
line drawn from 8, gives a point in the curve. The scale of feet is 
placed from the near side of the cylinder, at the distance 24 measured 
on the scale of pounds, and the pounds scale is placed 2 feet above the 
top of the cylinder, as measured by the scale of feet. 



MEMOIR OF ORFILA. 

Orfila, the great chemist, is dead ; and his death has left a vacancy 
which society will not fill up without difficulty. A short notice of his 
career cannot fail to be interesting. 

Mathieu Joseph Orfil was born at Mahon, in the island of Minorca. 
His father, a merchant of moderate means, sent him, at nineteen years 
of age, as mate of a small coasting vessel in the Mediterranean. 
Three years afterwards, however, his invincible passion for medical 
studies led him to give up his profession, and become a student at 
Valencia, where, a year later, we find him carrying off the first prize 
in physic and chemistry. His indefatigable perseverance and 
talents soon brought him into notice, and, in 1807, induced the 
Junta of Barcelona to send him to Paris to study natural philosophy, 
with a stipend of 1500 francs. The war which broke out six months 
afterwards, between France and Spain, deprived him of his stipend, 
and threatened to annihilate all his prospects of advancement, had not 
an uncle at Marseilles supplied him with the means of continuing his 
studies. With this aid he quickly obtained his diploma of Doctor, 
and, with a reputation already established, he found no difficulty in 
obtaining pupils, amongst whom were Beclard senior, Jules Cloquet, 
and Edwards, all of whom have arrived at distinction. 

From this time his course was a continued success. In 1816 he was 
made physician to Louis XVIII. In 1819 he was naturalised in France, 
and, thanks to the protection of M. Dubois, received the Professorship 
of the Faculty of Legal Medicine, whence he passed to the Chair of 
Chemistry. In 1820 he was named Member of the Academy of 
Medicine. 

The revolution of 1830 opened to M. Orfila a new era of honours. 
He was named, successively, Dean of the Faculty ; Member of the 
Council General of Hospitals ; he replaced, at the Royal Council of 
Public Instruction, M. Guenean de Mussy ; and was named Com- 
mandant of the Legion of Honour. 

M. Orfila's reputation as authority on medical jurisprudence was 
world-wide. Toxicology was his specialty. Amongst other works, 
his Treatise on Poisons, or General Toxicology, commenced his repu- 
tation. We may also mention his Elements of Legal Medicine, published 
in 1816, which has since passed through six editions ; his Lessons on 
Legal Medicine, 1820; his Exhumations Juridiques j and a host of me- 
moirs and articles on kindred subjects, inserted in the various scientific 
and medical journals. During the whole of the reign of Louis- 
Philippe M. Orfila remained at the head of the Faculty of Medicine, 
only to lose office under the Provisional Government after the revolu- 
tion of February. 

His last illness was very brief, and he left the lecture room only to 
be laid upon the bed of death. The numerous pupils who followed 
him to the grave showed that he was not less loved as a friend than 
admired as a man of talent. 



1853.] 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



77 



INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Jan. 26, 1853. 



ON IKON, AND SOME IMPROVEMENTS IN ITS MANUFACTURE, 

BY JIB. J. D. MORRIES STIRLING. 

The following remarks will but slightly touch on the ores, chemical 
composition, and general manufacture of iron; these subjects being 
greatly too important to be treated of in a communication like the 
present, and requiring much more research and time than the writer 
can at present devote, even did he feel himself qualified to undertake 
the task. 

It is most desirable that these subjects should be thoroughly studied, 
as we are certainly more ignorant of the nature and qualities of iron, and 
of the differences produced by slight modifications in the mode of manu- 
facture, by varieties of fuel, ores, fluxes, &c, than we are of the nature of 
any other article of manufacture ; and it is to be regretted that, in a dis- 
trict like this, where iron manufacture is all-important, so little has as yet 
been done to elucidate the theory and to improve (on scientific and un- 
erring grounds) the general make of iron, which the writer believes is 
only to be accomplished by our becoming thoroughly acquainted, as well 
with the chemical constituents of the various ores, fluxes, &c, as with 
the changes which these undergo in the various processes of calcining, 
smelting, refining and puddling. To do this is probably not in the 
power of those actively engaged in the making of iron, as their other 
pursuits would materially interfere with the carrying out the necessarily 
long series of experiments which would be requisite ; and, even could 
such time be devoted to the pursuit, then we should only have, in all 
probability, the results of trials made in one district. 

There is no doubt that many most valuable improvements have been 
introduced (more especially of late years) by ironmasters and others 
connected with the iron trade ; but these have chiefly had reference to 
the later stages and finishing processes in iron making, and to the ma- 
chinery connected with these processes. Of the chemistry of the blast- 
furnace, of the changes produced by the process of refining, and in 
puddling, we are still ignorant. Having devoted a good deal of time 
to this subject, the writer may be allowed to say, that the more he has 
studied it, and the more he has seen of iron-making, the more convinced 
he is of our ignorance ; and it is to be hoped that some steps will be 
taken to improve our knowledge, and render the various processes 
certain and economical. 

The improvements in iron manufacture which are touched on in the 
following remarks are not of the nature of those alluded to above ; they 
are of an inferior class, and should properly be called improvements in 
iron, or in the manufacture of certain kinds of iron for certain purposes. 
It will be unnecessary to enter minutely into the various processes for 
converting the iron ore into cast and malleable iron, or to describe at 
length the various materials used. 

The chief varieties of iron ore which are used in this country are the 
clay-band, the black-band, and the hematite. From the hematite the 
purest pig iron and strongest bar iron are said to be made ; and from 
clay-band a stronger malleable iron is generally supposed to be obtained 
than from the black-band ; but the various qualities can be altered by the 
judicious ironmaster, and malleable iron of as good quality can be pro- 
duced from black-band as from the hematite or clay-band. The writer 
does not here allude to improvement of quality by mixing different ores 
(by which it is well known the bad qualities of some descriptions are 
entirely removed), but to the skilful treatment of one or more ores of a 
somewhat similar character. 

The first stage in the manufacture of iron is the conversion of the 
ore into cast iron, which is accomplished in various ways. In Great 
Britain, the ore, after being calcined, if necessary, is introduced, with 
layers of coal or coke and a flux (usually a carbonate of lime), into a 
large furnace, and a strong blast (either hot or cold) is urged through 
the previously kindled mass, to accelerate the combustion of the fuel, 



and the conversion and fusion of the metal, which is usually tapped from 
the furnace once in the twelve hours, and run into pigs or ingots, which 
go by the name of " hot or cold blast iron," according to the nature of 
the blast employed. The subdivisions of both these sorts of iron are 
the same, viz., Nos. 1, 2, and 3, when for foundry purposes, and forge 
or white iron, when intended for heing converted into malleable iron ; 
these numbers and qualities of iron are supposed to differ from each 
other in the quantity of carbon contained in each, although this is 
doubted by many eminent chemists. No. 1 is certainly darker, softer, 
and more carbonaceous-looking than the other numbers, and forge or 
white iron appears to contain much less carbon than any iron intended 
for foundry purposes; but, as we see a similar effect produced on 
foundry iron by rapid chilling to that produced in forge iron by the 
supposed abstraction of carbon, it will, perhaps, be more readily admitted 
that colour is not a test (or at least not a certain one) of the quantity 
of carbon which iron contains. 

It may be here remarked, that the Nos. 1, 2 and 3 give no real idea of 
the nature of the iron ; they are relatively comparative, and only in- 
dicate the differences between cast iron of the same district and make ; 
thus, what is called No. 1 in Wales resembles hard No. 2 in Scotland, 
and corresponds to Staffordshire No. 2 (average) ; Welsh No. 2 is 
fully as hard as Staffordshire No. 3, or Scotch No. 4 (a brand), inter- 
mediate between No. 3 and forge iron. As a general rule, Nos. 1 and 
2 are adapted for small castings, Nos. 2 and 3 mixed, for medium cast- 
ings, and No. 3, or 3 and 4 in Scotland, or 3 in England, for heavv 
castings; but the mixtures of Welsh and Scotch, or of Staffordshire, 
Welsh, and Scotch, are found to make stronger and better castings than 
those made from one sort of iron. 

This mode of producing strong castings has been long practised, and 
is in many places convenient ; and the increase of strength is no doubt 
satisfactory ; but there is still a want of uniformity in result, and an 
occasional difficulty in keeping to the proportions, and even in obtaining 
the brands specified by the engineer or architect, or chosen by the 
founder on his own experience. 

It seemed to the writer very desirable, therefore, to obtain, if possible, 
a kind of iron which should be either uniform and constant in its 
strength, or, at least, not under a certain standard, and, after numerous 
experiments and trials, he attained this object by making certain mix- 
tures of cast and wrought iron, which have been called " toughened 
cast-iron." 

Allusion has already been made to the different numbers of east iron, 
and to their qualities ; and it ought further to be stated, that No. 1 is 
considered the weakest, and No. 3 the strongest. To render these 
uniform in strength, and at the same time to equalise that of cast iron 
from different districts, it is only necessary to vary the quantity of 
wrought iron introduced, by which means all other mixture is avoided, 
and so much greater strength insured, as to allow a margin for con- 
siderable variation in strength, from any accidental defect, as well as 
for a diminution in weight, taking the averages of the toughened cast 
iron and of the best mixtures. 

Transverse strength of bars, 1 inch square, 4 feet 6 inches between 
supports.* 

Cast iron, average breaking weight . . . . . . 436 lbs. 

Toughened cast iron, ditto . . . . . . . . 733 „ 

Tensile strength.* 

Cast iron, average breaking weight . , . . . . 7'036 tons. 

Toughened cast iron, ditto .. .. .. .. 11*790 „ 

Crushing strength. 

Cast iron, average crushing weight . . . . . . 38*582 tons. 

Toughened cast iron, ditto . . . . . . . . 59*522 „ 



* The averages of the transverse and tensile strength are from the experiments of Mr. 
Hodgkinson, in the government report and elsewhere, and other experimenters ; Mr. Hodg- 
kinson is the sole authority for the resistance of crushing force. 



78 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



[April, 



To render the above more intelfigible, the proportions are given 
below, which have been found to bring very soft Scotch (No. 1 hot- 
blast) and very hard Welsh (No. 2 cold-blast) to nearly the same 
strength. 

Scotch, No. 1 hot-blast, breaking, when unmixed, at . . 430 lbs. 
With a mixture of 33 per cent, of wrought-iron scrap, 

broke at . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 „ 

The same Scotch iron as the first, with only 20 per cent. 

of malleable scrap, broke at about . . . . . . 620 „ 

Showing a deficiency in the quantity of the scrap. 
Welsh, No. 2, cold-blast, breaking, when unmixed, at. . 440 „ 
With a mixture of 10 per cent, of wrought-iron scrap, 

broke at . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 „ 

The results obtained by Mr. Hodgkinson are very favourable, as 
shown in the following table, where the breaking weights of common 
cast iron and toughened cast iron are given, from the report of the 
commissioners appointed to inquire into the strength of iron. 

Table of Comparative Strength of Cast Iron. 



Description of Iron Bars, all two inches 
square. 


Transverse 

Breaking Load, 

in Centre. 


Tensile 
Breaking 
Strength. 


Crushing 
Strength. 


Toughened cast iron, with 20 \ 
per cent, wrought scrap . . J 


1 lbs. 
2,174 


Tons per inch. 
11-50 


Tons per inch. 

54-64 


ow Moor, No. 1 
Blaenavon, No. 2 
Warrington best gun mixture . . 


1,207 
1,220 
1,375 


5-67 
7-46 


27-00 
f49-ll 
\ 30-50 



Comparative trials, on a larger scale, made by Mr. Owen (by com- 
mand of the Admiralty), give equally satisfactory results. Tensile 
strength, according to Mr. Owen, 12*50 tons. 

Since these experiments and trials were made, the toughened cast 
iron has been successfully used in the construction of several public 
works, Windsor bridges, Chelsea Bridge, Yarmouth Bridge, &c, &c. ; 
and it may be mentioned that, by being allowed to reduce the scantling 
in proportion to the increased strength gained by employing the tough- 
ened cast iron, the contractors for the heavy castings of the Manchester 
viaduct were enabled profitably to fulfil their contract, whereas, had 
they used common iron, and been confined to the specification, they 
would have been heavy losers. 

For shafting, rolls, pinions, cog wheels, cast-iron railway-carriage 
wheels, cylinders, and other castings where strength and closeness of 
texture are desirable, the toughened cast iron will be found most use- 
ful ; also, cast iron, which will not chill in its unmixed state, readily 
chills, with less loss of strength than usual, when mixed in proper pro- 
portions with malleable iron. 

To ensure that the proper proportion of malleable iron is contained 
in each pig, and also to render the mixture more easily conveyed from 
place to place, the writer prefers making the mixture at the blast-fur- 
nace ; and this is done by distributing the proper weight of malleable 
scrap in the moulds into which the melted iron is to be run. It is thus 
firmly fixed, and melts more easily and regularly with the cast iron 
in the cupola or other furnace, the cast and wrought iron heating 
gradually to the melting point of the former, when the wrought iron is 
easily acted upon, and fluxed by the cast iron. 

The process of converting cast into malleable iron is much more 
varied than that of converting the ore into cast iron. In some districts 
a great proportion of the cast iron is refined previous to its conversion ; 



in others little refined iron is used, and in some works cast iron is at 
once converted into malleable iron ; and this latter process seems to be 
gaining ground. 

Refining is, perhaps, the least understood, and the least capable of 
being explained, of any process connected with iron manufacture. The 
iron is kept in a fluid state in contact with carbonaceous matter ex- 
posed to a blast, and, although it would seem that by such means more 
carbon ought to be combined with the iron, experience shows that a 
great change is produced in the nature of the metal, and that, as far as 
we know, the quantity of carbon is diminished, and the iron rendered 
more nearly akin to malleable iron, or at least so altered as to he more 
quickly converted into it. 

Refining is an expensive process, great waste of material being un- 
avoidable, but it is still necessary for certain descriptions of iron, and 
the expense is partly compensated by the greater quickness with which 
the conversion takes place in the puddling furnace. 

Puddling is the last and most important process in the conversion of 
cast into malleable iron. It is still an extremely rude one, and its 
theory is not understood ; it consists in melting, in a peculiarly-con- 
structed air furnace, refined or cast iron, or a mixture of them, and, as 
soon as the fusion is complete, in continually stirring the melted metal 
till spicular or granular particles show themselves. Previous to this 
the melted metal swells up, and what is technically called boils ; gas is 
evolved, and this appears to be the period at which conversion com- 
mences : the solid particles increase in quantity, and the whole mass 
acquires a semi-solidity ; the workman keeps collecting the more solid 
portions and forming them into balls, which become larger and larger, 
until the whole of the malleable iron is collected, and nothing remains 
but what is called cinder, in a perfectly fluid state, which is afterwards 
removed from the furnace by tapping, and again used in certain pro- 
portions along with ore in reproducing cast iron. On the removal of 
this cinder from the iron, by puddling, squeezing, and rolling, the 
quality of the resulting wrought iron very much depends. 

To avoid the process of refining, to shorten the process of puddling, 
and to improve the quality of the resulting wrought iron, are, un- 
doubtedly, most desirable. The writer has endeavoured to accomplish 
this, and has reason to believe that partial success has attended his 
efforts. Instead of using refined iron, a mixture of wrought and 
cast iron (as already described) is taken, and, after being melted and 
run into pigs or slabs of the requisite size, it is puddled in the usual way, 
and the process of puddling is found to be thus so shortened, as to allow 
of from one to two heats more being brought out, in the course of the 
twelve hours ; the yield is greater, and the quality of the iron is much 
improved, as regards fibrousness and tensile strength, rendering such 
iron particularly well adapted for cable iron, tension bars, shaftings, 
axles, &c, but not for the wearing surfaces of rails, nor for the tires of 
of wheels. 

Before proceeding to touch on certain other processes, which the 
writer believes to improve iron for special purposes, it may be well to 
point to some alloys of cast iron, as the making these led him to make 
the addition of the same and other metals to wrought iron. 

The first is an alloy of iron and tin, which is extremely hard, sonorous, 
and capable of receiving a very high polish ; the addition of manganese, 
and a very small per-centage of zinc, gives somewhat greater tenacity. 
Bells made of these alloys have a pure and clear tone. Cast iron will 
take up from 20 to 25 per cent, of tin. 

Cast iron, alloyed with zinc, becomes closer in its texture, and, as far 
as the writer's experiments have yet gone, stronger, and not less mal- 
leable. Alloys of bismuth, antimony, copper and silver, possess some 
scientific interest, but it would be out of place to touch on them now. 

Having observed the hardening effect which tin produces upon cast 
iron, the writer tried a similar mixture in the puddling furnace, and 




PLATE, VL 



P_H_I L A D E L P H I A. 1851. 




-^^- . 



1853.] 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



79 



found a corresponding result, with this essential difference — that 
whereas cast iron will take up about a fifth of its weight, wrought iron 
is rendered too hard for subsequent working by any quantity exceeding 
one per cent. ; and, taking the various descriptions of iron (Stafford- 
shire, Scotch and Welsh), one-half per cent, of tin produces a descrip- 
tion of iron crystalline, close in texture, and harder than common 
wrought iron. 

This quality of iron appeared to be suitable for the wearing surfaces 
of rails and tires of wheels, and subsequent trials which have been made 
have fully confirmed this opinion. Lamination is prevented, and the 
rail, when properly made, wears smoothly and evenly. As in all iron, 
and particularly in rails, much depends on manufacture ; but points and 
crossings made of this hardened iron, and rails upon sharp inclines, 
where the wear previously had been very rapid, have been found to last 
more than double the time of any rails previously tried, and, as they are 
yet not worn out, it is at present impossible to say how much longer they 
will last. The writer does not believe their increased duration to arise 
solely from the greater hardness, but more from the peculiar crystalline 
texture and fine grain of the iron resisting the lamination, which great 
speeds and heavy engines so rapidly produce. The sections of the rails 
show the proportion which it is considered best that the crystalline 
should bear to the fibrous iron, or to whatever other iron the rail may 
be composed of. 

The addition of zinc, its oxides and other ores, produce the very op- 
posite effect to tin and the other metals above named. Iron of what 
is called cold-short quality is rendered, by this means, fibrous, tough 
and strong; red-short iron is also improved in quality by the same 
means, but it is found that a larger addition of zinc or its ores or oxides 
is required to effect an improvement in red-short than in cold-short iron. 
The quantity necessary to improve cold-short iron varies much in dif- 
ferent districts, and each peculiar iron requires to be separately con- 
sidered ; it is also necessary to know the per-centage of zinc in the ore, 
if ore be employed, and to ascertain that such ore does not contain 
foreign matters, which might counteract the effect of the zinc. The 
addition of these metals to the iron is best made when the iron in the 
puddling furnace is beginning to boil. 

The writer was much gratified to observe in the American department 
of the Great Exhibition a confirmation of his experiments on this 
subject ; iron, naturally cold-short and red-short, being rendered free 
from each of these qualities by the addition of an ore of zinc. Samples 
in all stages of progress were exhibited. 

Table of Comparative Strength of Wrought Iron. 



Description of Iron. 


Tensile 

Breaking 

Strain. 


Deflection, 

with Strain 

of 

Si cwt. 


Permanent 

Set, 
in Lengths 
of 2\ feet. 


Final 
Stretch, in 
Length of 

2 feet. 


Hardened wrought iron, "1 

with § per cent, tin. . . J 

Toughened wrought iron .... 


Tons. & in. 

22-92 

27-81 


Inches. 

1-42 


Inches. 

1-02 


Inches. 
l 

4- 




24-33 

24-47 

23-33 


2-02 


1-60 


34- 


S. C. Crown average result . . 
Hartley's general average of \ 





Had the limits of a mere sketch like this permitted, the writer would 
have entered on the consideration of the relative qualities of cold and 
hot blast iron, and of the effects produced by the use of cinder ; also, 
on some combinations of iron with the earthy bases, and on the effects 
of various salts and fluxes in the blast and other furnaces. Several 
other alloys of iron possess considerable interest, and, in conclusion, 
allusion may be made to a remarkable property which iron possesses of 



closing the grain of other metals and alloys to which it is added in 
minute quantity. 

Mr. Stirling exhibited a number of specimens of the toughened 
wrought iron in bars, and the hardened wrought iron, as applied to the 
surface of rails, showing their fractures, and specimens of the toughened 
cast iron, showing the mode of mixing the wrought-iron scrap with 
the pig metal ; also specimens of an alloy of zinc, copper and tin, and 
another of the same composition, with an addition of 1| per cent, of 
iron, showing the great closeness and fineness of grain that were pro- 
duced by this small admixture of iron. It was explained that it was 
advisable to alloy the iron with the zinc before mixing with the copper, 
otherwise, there would be imperfection and unsoundness in the metal, 
the iron appearing in the form of what are technically called "tears." 

The Chairman said he considered it a very important subject, and 
thought the paper showed valuable results of extensive practical trials 
combined with scientific inquiry. He asked at what period the tin or 
zinc was added to the wrought iron. 

Mr. Stirling replied, that it was put into the puddling furnace when 
the extreme of the boiling was just passed, or passing, and conversion 
just commencing, and the formation of spicula beginning. A more fluid 
iron required the metal to be put in at a later period, and iron that came 
to mature sooner required the metal put in earlier. It was difficult to 
give a definite rule, it could only be judged of by particular experience. 

Mr. Duclos thought the presence of zinc in the iron was doubtful ; 
from its volatility, the greater proportion would probably be dissipated 
in the furnace. He considered it more probable tbat the change in the 
iron was caused by the physical quality of the iron undergoing some 
alteration in consequence of the presence of the zinc. 

Mr. Stirling said he did not consider the mixture of zinc with the 
iron to be in all cases an alloy, as the proportion was occasionally 
only \ per cent., and he felt uncertain about its mode of action; the 
quantity of zinc required varied very much ; it had to be determined by 
experiment with the different ores and furnaces. 

Mr. Duclos observed that, in some iron works he had been acquainted 
with in Belgium, he had never found any trace of zinc in the iron made 
from ore containing zinc, but metallic zinc was found to accumulate in 
the top of the furnace. Many years since a series of experiments had 
been made by M. Carsen on various mixtures of iron with zinc and 
other metals, but they had not led to any practical application. There 
was no question that sufficient attention had not been paid to the pro- 
perties of the alloys that can be made with iron, and he was glad to see 
the steps taken by Mr. Stirling ; he did not quite agree as to the want 
of knowledge of the iron manufacture, he thought there was a great 
deal of knowledge on the subject, but he would wish the principles 
carried out further. 

Mr. Stirling remarked that, in the case mentioned, in Belgium, two 
processes — smelting and refining — intervened, by which most, if not all 
the zinc might be volatilised. There was no doubt that the practical 
making of iron was well understood, but not the theory and principles, 
otherwise the processes might be further simplified, and, as the result, 
iron would most probably be produced complete at one process, instead 
of two or more. He thought that further improvements would be more 
studied and accomplished when iron and coal were dearer. 

Mr. M'Connell said there was great room for improvement in railway 
tires and rails. If the tire now lasted 70,000 miles on the driving wheel 
of an engine, it was considered very good work. The expense of replac- 
ing tires, and of failure, was a very serious item; and if, by Mr. Stirling's 
process, the iron could be made to last longer, it would be a great source 
of economy and convenience. 

Mr. Beasley inquired why the wrought-iron scrap was put into the 
pig mould, in making the toughened cast iron ? 

Mr. Stirling replied, that one object was to ensure a definite propor- 



o 



80 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



[April, 



tion for each charge ; also, the wrought iron melted more easily in the 
furnace, when mixed in that manner with the cast iron, which seemed 
to act as a flux, the whole getting heated together ; the cast iron drop- 
ping, eats away the wrought iron. If thrown separately into the cupola, 
part of the cast iron would melt down first, and the two would not get 
uniformly mixed ; the wrought iron was liable to get oxidised, and 
wasted. 

Mr. Beasley observed, that he was aware if the wrought iron was 
thrown into the puddling furnace with the pig, it would bum away and 
not improve the quality ; but if it was thrown into the fire a little time 
before the puildler commenced balling his iron, it would very much im- 
prove the quality. 

Mr. Stirling said that it was an old practice to add wrought iron in 
the puddling furnace, in order to get a quicker yield ; but it would not 
melt thoroughly in that case, and make a uniform mixture. It should 
be first remelted in the cupola from the mixed pig, to make a uniform 
mixture, and then remelted, and worked in a puddling furnace. 

Mr. Beasley remarked, that he had melted wrought iron in the cu- 
pola, and then worked it in the puddling furnace, and he had found the 
result to be better than from the ordinary pig iron alone ; but it was 
not a sufficient advantage to make it worth the extra expense ; he had 
obtained a greater yield. 

Mr. Stirling observed there was a process for melting wrought iron, 
which was then converted back, by decarbonising, to a state approaching 
to steel ; it was intended to be used for small articles, such as snuffers, 
scissors, &c, instead of forging them. 

Mr. Adams inquired about the application of the hardened iron to 
tires. The best scrap tires were found the worst to wear ; they laminated 
more, and, consequently, he did not use them. Those he used were 
made, he believed, of two blooms, the lower one of scrap or other tough 
iron, and the upper one from a puddled ball not piled ; the wearing sur- 
face was, consequently, crystalline iron, hard, not laminated, and was 
more suitable to resist the rolling and crushing action that the wearing 
surface of the tire was subjected to. 

Mr. Stirling replied that he had seen a similar process extensively 
carried on ; the lower part of the tire was made of No. 3 iron, and the 
wearing surface of No. 2 iron, consisting of two puddled balls hammered 
thoroughly, then reheated and passed through rolls, and lastly welded 
to the No. 3 iron for the lower part. For such purposes as the wearing 
surfaces of wheel tires and rails, scrap iron was certainly the worst, from 
the inequality of the pieces united by weldings, necessarily numerous 
and irregular ; when the wearing and rolling action came into effect, 
unequal wear and lamination of the surface must be the result. 

Mr. T. Fairbairn said the results of the trials he had made of the 
toughened cast iron were a near approximation to Mr. Hodgkinson's 
experiments ; but he did not think it would be prudent, or altogether 
safe for an architect or engineer to reduce the section of a girder to the 
extent which the relative transverse strength given in the tables would 
appear to warrant ; he would rather retain the large section, and avail 
himself of the additional security which the use of the toughened iron 
undoubtedly gave. 

Mr. Stirling observed that, to obtain the full increase of strength, 
would require different trials with different iron, in order to ascertain 
the best proportion of scrap ; but, in the right proportions, from the 
general results of observations, he believed it might be confidently 
stated that one-fifth of the weight might be taken from ordinary sec- 
tions of girders, by using the toughened cast iron, leaving a greater 
strength of girder; however, he would much prefer seeing all the 
strength of the ordinary section left for extra safety. The strengths 
given in the tables in the paper were chiefly taken from Mr. Hodgkin- 
son, and were the average results of his experiments, showing an in- 
crease of transverse strength of 78 per cent. 



Mr. R. Williams asked whether, in practice, any difficulty was found 
to arise in uniting the two qualities of hard and soft wrought iron ? 

Mr. Stirling replied, that no difficulty was found in the manufac- 
ture, and they were found to be soundly welded together. 

Mr. R. Williams observed that, as the hard iron, which melted at 
a lower temperature than the soft iron, was necessarily the topmost in 
the pile, when placed in the furnace to be welded, either that would be 
over-heated at the expense of its quality, or the inner piles would be 
under-heated, and endanger the soundness of the bloom. With regard 
to the lamination of tires, this was not so much owing to the fact of 
their being made of piled iron, as to the mode of piling ; and, by piling 
the bars edgeways instead of flatways, there was little, if any, liability 
to laminate. Puddled iron could be made hard or soft, at pleasure, 
according to the management of the process, without the introduction 
of any alloy into the puddling furnace. 

Mr. Stirling replied, that the hard iron came quite as soon to a 
welding heat as the other iron, and a most perfect weld resulted. 

Mr. McConnell remarked that, in the manufacture of steel tires, the 
steel did not lengthen so much as the iron in rolling, and it made a 
difficulty, in rolling the tires, to make them sound throughout ; and he 
inquired whether any difficulty of that kind was found with the 
hardened iron for the wearing surface of tires and wheels ? 

Mr. Stirling replied that, in rails, no separation between the ma- 
terials had been found ; he had not yet had experience in tires. On 
the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, on the steep incline, at Cowlairs, 
Mr. Adie had had rails hardened on this plan laid down for some years, 
and had found them to last better than steel-covered rails, which had 
been also tried, and usually wore out in a considerably shorter time ; 
the hardened rails were still going on well, and an additional portion of 
that line was now being laid with them. In consequence of the first 
rails manufactured being made too hard, they showed distinctly a 
tendency to separate, and the failure was valuable as experience ; also, 
they were made more liable to separate, by the hardened piece laid on 
being round-topped in the pile; 50 or 60 rails, made at the very first 
works where the plan had been tried, had been broken at different times, 
for examination, and were found quite sound. 

Mr. E. A. Cowper said he had used wrought-iron scrap mixed with 
cast iron in the ladle, the metal being rather hotter than usual ; it 
closed the grain of the iron very much, and was found advantageous in 
casting hydraulic presses, or other castings where a very close grain 
was required. He had put in as much as 15 per cent, of scrap. 

Mr. Stirling observed that he had never found that more than about 5 
per cent, could be combined in that manner, and then the mixture must 
be more or less imperfect, and the metal would be partially chilled. 

Mr. Cowper said he had not found any objection from the metal 
being cooled ; it was taken pretty hot, and clean iron turnings were put 
into the ladle, and well stirred up, which secured complete mixture and 
fusion. 

Mr. Slaughter inquired, what was the relative cost of toughened 
cast iron? 

Mr. Stirling replied that, in a girder, if the section were reduced 
one-fifth, the cost would be cheaper; if the price of cast iron were very 
low, the toughened iron would then be proportionately dearer. 

Mr. Slaughter said he had tried the toughened iron for a number 
of locomotive cylinders, at the recommendation of Mr. Gooch, on the 
Great Western Railway, and found it made very fine, perfect, and sound 
castings, better than he had ever made before. He intended to continue 
the use of it, and considered it an excellent material for cylinder 
castings, and preferable for any purpose for which the strongest and 
best iron was required. He did not find the iron dearer, but, on the 
contrary, less expensive than the iron he had previously used for the 
purpose. 



1853.J 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



81 



Mr. Stirling explained that the toughened iron might be made from 
a cheaper iron, such as the Scotch hot-blast, which, at £3 per ton, 
would be about £3 10s. for the cost of the toughened iron, which 
would then surpass in strength a dearer iron, such as Blaenavon, at £5 
or £5 10s. per ton ; so that, although the increased expense of the 
process was 10s. or 12s. per ton, the final cost was less, because a 
cheaper description of iron could be used, and a greater strength was at 
the same time obtained, as shown in the table of experiments. 

Mr. Slaughter said he had found that the toughened iron was less 
expensive. That which he used was made from Dundyvan or Calder 
iron, at £3 or £3 10s. per ton, and he found it better, when toughened, 
than the cold-blast iron which he had previously used, at £5 or £5 10s. 
per ton. 

The chairman proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Stirling, for his 
valuable and interesting paper, which was passed. He thought that 
important practical results were likely to follow from such an able 
investigation, and they were much indebted to Mr. Stirling for bringing 
it before them ; and he trusted that he would continue the course, and 
favour the institution with the further results. 



The following paper, by Mr. Alexander Allen, of Crewe, was then 
read : — " Description of an Oil Axle-box for Engines and Tenders." 
An axle-box for the driving-wheels of passenger engines, is shown in 
1 and 2. 




Kg. 1. 



Kg. 2. 



A is the axle-box, of cast-iron, with two wrought-iron pieces cast in 
the sides of it. 

b, the axle-step, which is carried 1 inch below the centre, to assist 
the sides in resisting the horizontal thrust ; the inside edge, w, is also 
carried lower thau the outside of the sponge box, which carries the oil 
over the joint of axle step and sponge-box joint. 

s, the sponge box. In it are placed one or two pieces of sponge, a 
little thicker than the distance from axle to bottom of sponge box. 

The axle is 6§ inches in diameter, and is supplied with oil by a 
covered syphon box on the top of a straight tube about 3 feet long, and 
directly over the axle at x, which tube goes 1£ inches into the axle 
box, and allows the engine to rise or fall 1J inches. The delivery of oil 
on the proper place is therefore certain. 1 1 are two pins, ^ inch round 
iron, to support the sponge box. 

e, the connection with the spring. 

f, the pin which connects e with the sides of axle-box. 

t are pieces of wrought iron cast in the axle boxes. The lower ends 
are drilled for the pin f. 
Axle boxes for the leading and trailing wheels of passenger engines, 
11 



also of tenders similar to those experimented on, are shown in figs. 3, 4, 
and 5. 





Kg. 3. Pig. 4. 

a, a cast-iron axle box, with strong covered 
top, to support the weight. Under there is a 
cored-out hollow space, open at one end, and 
into this hollow the brass oil cup, c, is fitted. 

b, the axle step, 1 inch thick, with 3 snugs, 
to resist the lateral strain, and with two counter- 
sunk oil holes. 

c, the oil cup, with two tubes forming 
syphons ; and, h, a handle for lifting it out to 
trim, &c. 

s is the sponge box, into which the narrow 
slip of sponge is placed, to catch the surplus oil 
as it leaves the axle bearing. 
In accordance with the request at the last meeting of the institution, 
the following experiments have been made on the consumption of oil 
in the axle boxes of tenders alone, fitted with oil receivers and sponges 
for collecting the oil, as described above. These experiments lasted 
seven days. 




Kg. 5. 



6 - 08 quarts of oil used, at 9d. per quart 
Four sponges, at %d. each 

For running 6,000 miles . . 



a. 
6J 

2 



4 8| or %d. per day. 



N.B. — This result was obtained by running 1,972 miles, with three 
tenders, and reduced to 6,000 miles, as a mean of comparison with the 
axle box described at the last meeting. The same system has been in 
operation on the northern division of the London and North Western 
Railway for the last ten or twelve years. 

Mr. Lea inquired how many bearings had been tried in Mr. Allan's 
experiments ? 

Mr. Allan replied that the four bearings of the tender alone were 
tried ; he had checked the experiment by trying it with other men, and 
found very little variation in the consumption : they had never exceeded 
one penny per day. 

Mr. Lea said he should be glad to try a corresponding experiment 
with the new lubricating composition that he had mentioned at the last 



82 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[April, 



meeting of the institution, which was quite applicable to that kind 
of axle box, and he considered would effect a considerable further 
economy. 

The chairman remarked that, in any comparative experiments, care 
should be taken to have the weights on the journals equal. 

Mr. Lea said he proposed to try the journals on the opposite sides of 
the tender or carriage, with the two different lubricating materials at 
the same time, so as to ensure equality of load and mileage and all 
circumstances. He had obtained results from several railways of the 
cost of lubrication, and he hoped to have an opportunity to make 
further experiments before the next meeting of the institution. 

Mr. Fothergill observed that the diameter and width also of the 
journals was of much importance in the lubrication ; in small machinery, 
in particular, the size of journals made a great difference. 

Mr. McConnell remarked that the most economical mode of lubrica- 
tion was certainly an important subject for experiment on railways, as 
it was a serious item of expenditure ; the two points should be tried 
separately — the best material for lubrication, and the best mode of 
applying it. 

The chairman proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Allan for his com- 
munication, which was passed. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

March 8th, 1853. 

James Meadows Rendel, Esq., president, in the chair : — 

The paper read was " Experimental Investigation of the Principles of 
Locomotive Boilers," by Mr. D. K. Clark (Edinbro'). 

The paper commenced with some historical facts in locomotive progress, 
showing that the general design of the locomotive was matured immediately 
after the trials on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1 829 ; combining 
the multitubular horizontal boiler, the horizontal cylinders, and the blast-pipe. 
Reference was made to the various systems practised in working out the 
general design, and to the necessity for fixed principles in proportioning the 
locomotive to the work for which it was destined. For the proper discussion 
of the question, it was indispensable to distinguish the three elements of the 
machine — the boiler, the engine, and the carriage ; and to consider them 
separately, with respect to their proper functions, as the mixing up of one 
with the other had caused much of the confusion with which many of the 
recent discussions on the subject had been invested. 

The paper was chiefly devoted to the discussion of the physiological prin- 
ciples of locomotive boilers. It was argued that the combustion of coke in 
the firebox was, in practice, very completely effected ; that it was quite inde- 
pendent of the strength of the draft, being equally complete with fast and 
slow drafts ; that expedients for improving the combustion were superfluous; 
and that the combustion of coal might also, in practice, be perfected by a 
judicious use of the ashpan, damper, and the fire door. The evaporation of 
12 lbs. of water per pound of pure coke was found, by careful laboratory 
experiments, to be the maximum evaporative performance ; in the best 
ordinary practice, an actual evaporation of 9 lbs. of water per pound of 
coke, or 75 per cent, of the possible maximum, was readily obtained, the 
balance being lost by leakage of air and by waste ; and it was adopted by 
the author as the ordinary standard of practical economical evaporation. 

It was shown, by numerous examples, that the question of the relative 
value of firebox and tube surface was of no practical importance, as the 
efficiency of boilers was not sensibly affected by their relative amounts ; that 
the superiority of firebox surface was due, merely, to its greater proximity 
to the fire ; and that the distinction of radiant and communicated heat was 
merely circumstantial ; that what was gained in radiant heat was lost in 
communicated heat ; and that, whether it was all radiating, or all communi- 
cated, mattered not to the total efficiency of the fuel. On these grounds the 
author regarded with indifference the use of such expedients as extended 
fireboxes, midfeathers, corrugated plates, and combustion chambers ; and it 
was asserted that, where the addition of midfeathers had been found advan- 
tageous, there had been a deficiency, or mal-arrangement, of the tube- 
surface 



A minute analysis was made of the results of numerous authenticated 
experiments on the evaporative power of locomotive boilers of very various 
proportions, comprising several made by the author on the engines of the 
Caledonian, Edinburgh, and Glasgow, and Glasgow and South-Western 
Railways. It was concluded, that the economical evaporative power of 
boilers was materially affected by the area of the fire grate, and by its ratio 
to the whole heating surface ; that an enlargement of the grate had the effect 
of reducing the economical evaporative power, not necessarily affecting the 
quality of combustion in any way, but governing the absorbing power of the 
boiler, as the lower rate of combustion, per foot of grate, due to a larger 
area, in burning the same total quantity of fuel per hour, was accompanied 
by a reduced intensity of combustion, and by a less rapid transmission of heat 
to the water ; in consequence of which, a greater quantity of unabsorbed 
heat must escape by the chimney. An increase of heating surface, again, 
reduced the waste of heat, and promoted economy of fuel, and added greatly 
to the economical evaporative power. In short, the question resolved itself 
into the mutual adjustment of three elements — the necessary rate of evapo- 
ration, the grate-area, and the heating surface, consistent with the econo- 
mical generation of steam, at the assumed practical standard rate of 9 lbs. 
of water per pound of good coke. An investigation of the cases of economical 
evaporation in the table of experiments conducted the author to the follow- 
ing very important equation, expressing the relation of the three elements of 
boiler power ; in which c was the maximum economical evaporation, in 
feet of water per foot of grate per hour ; h was the total heating surface, in 
square feet, measured inside ; and g was the grate-area, in square feet: — 

c = -00222 — 
9 

From this it followed : — 1st. That the economical evaporative power de- 
creased directly as the area of grate was increased, even while the heating 
surface remained the same. 2nd. That it increased directly as the square of 
the heating surface, when the grate remained the same. 3rd. That the 
necessary heating surface increased only as the square root of the econo- 
mical evaporative power. 4th. That the heating surface must be increased 
as the square root of the grate area, for a given economical evaporative 
power. It was contended, thence, that the heating surface would be econo- 
mically weakened by an extension of the grate, and would be strengthened 
by its reduction ; and that, whereas large grates were commonly thought to 
be an unmixed good, and being generally recommended, were usually 
adopted, still they might be made too large ; not that their extension affected 
the quality of combustion, but that the economical evaporative power might 
be reduced. Concentrated and rapid combustion was, alike, the true practice 
for the largest and the smallest boilers ; and in locomotives, where lightness, 
compactness and efficiency were primary objects, the boilers should be de- 
signed for the highest average rates of evaporation, per foot of grate, that 
might be followed in good practice, consistently with the highest average 
rate at which coke could be properly consumed ; as, in this manner, the 
smallest grate, and the smallest amount of heating surface, consistent with 
good practice, might be employed. It was stated that 150 lbs. to 160 lbs. of 
good sound coke could be consumed per foot of grate per hour ; and, 
allowing for inferior fuel, an average maximum of 112 lbs. per foot of grate 
per hour, was recommended as a general datum. This determined the 
average maximum of economical evaporation to be 16 feet of water per foot 
of grate per hour, allowing 9 lbs. of water per pound of coke ; for which 85 
feet of heating surface per foot of grate should be provided. It was ac- 
cordingly recommended that a heating surface at least 85 times the grate 
area should be adopted in practice. 

It was also shown, by examples of inferior economy of evaporation, that 
the clearance between the tubes, for the circulation of water and steam, was, 
in many boilers, much too small ; that the clearance should be in proportion 
to the number of tubes, and that, for good practice, a clearance at the rate of 
\ inch for every 30 tubes should be allowed. 

The author supplied several practical rules deduced from this examination, 
and stated his conviction, that the deductions from his experience with 
locomotive boilers were, in the main, applicable to all other forms of boiler. 
He applied the rules to several conspicuous examples of locomotive boilers 
of the present day, and endeavoured to show in what respects they were de- 



1853.] 



Royal Scottish Society of Arts. 



83 



fective ; he also suggested simple means of rectifying them, and of improving 
their action, and alluded to the long hoiler of Stephenson, as affording the 
best example of combined lightness, compactness, and evaporative power. 

The author, finally, referred to his practical investigations on the subject 
of the blastpipe ; from these he concluded that, in all practical cases, the 
blastpipe was susceptible, by a correct adjustment of the details of the boiler, 
of being made abundantly wide enough, consistently with the demands for 
steam, to afford a free and sufficient exhaust, at all speeds, so as practically 
to remove all back pressure by imperfect exhaustion. 



March 15th and 22nd, 1853. 
Robert Stephenson, Esq., M.P., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Both evenings were entirely devoted to the discussion of Mr. D. K. Clark's 
paper " On Locomotive Boilers." 

The proceedings were commenced by an explanation of the diagrams ex- 
hibited, and by reference to examples, from the experience of Pambour and 
other experimentalists, in corroboration of the views propounded in the 
paper. 

The author's deductions were admitted, as to the practical identity of fire 
box and tube surface, for evaporating action, and as to the constancy of the 
evaporative efficiency of fuel, whether by radiant or communicated heat, or 
both together, or whether the draught was mild or strong. It was consi- 
dered that heat was specific and certain in its effects. Such expedients as 
" mid-feathers," &c., which were resorted to for specially increasing the fire- 
box surface, were condemned, as they were considered to be no better than 
tubes, whilst, practically, they were inconvenient and costly ; as, among 
other reasons, plates of T 7 e ths or |- inch in thickness were employed to do the 
work of the tubes, which were less than ^th inch in thickness. 

A practical rule, followed by some engineers, and stated to be founded on 
extensive experience, was to allow 5 feet of heating surface for 1 foot of 
water evaporated per hour, and 100 feet of evaporating surface per square 
foot of grate. Those results were found to agree with the maximum rates 
recommended in the paper. It was also argued, that the intensity of com- 
bustion materially affected the amount of heating surface necessary for 
economical evaporation, being less as the intensity was greater. 

It was, on the other hand, contended, that the formula, as stated in the 
paper, would not apply to all engines ; and the following table of actual 
results was given, showing the performance of various engines, several of 
which exhibited a greater and others a less evaporation of water and con- 
sumption of coke per square foot of grate surface per hour than the formula 
would have given : — 



Eailway, before and after alteration. That engine originally had tubes 14 
feet long, with a total surface of upwards of 800 feet; the length of the tubes 
was diminished to 4 feet 9 inches, and the total surface was reduced to 
about 500 feet, when it was found that a saving in fuel of 40 per cent, per 
ton per mile moved was produced, with a saving of 23 per cent, per mile 
run ; the coke used, per ton per mile, with long tubes, before alteration, 
being -504 lb., and with the short tubes -298 lb. 

The back pressure was contended to be a serious drawback to the long 
tube engine, and an example was given of a trial of a single engine on the 
new plan, against two of the ordinary kind, with a load of 170 tons in both 
cases; and, although the single engine was 43 percent, less powerful than the 
two engines together, and had 20 per cent, less heating surface, yet it had 
performed the same distance of 111 miles in ten minutes less time, and with 
3 lbs. per mile less fuel. This, it was argued, was owing to the engine ex- 
erting a greater dynamic force, by being relieved from the back pressure of 
the blast pipe, which, in the case of the other two, was applied to force the 
fire and to draw the heated air through the long tubes. 
(To be continued.) 



BOYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ABTS. 
Monday, February 28th, 1853. 

" Description of a new Process of Stereotype Moulds; with Notices of 
the History and Results of the Process of Stereotyping," by Daniel Wilson, 
LL.D., F.S.A., Scot. V.P. 

Dr. Daniel Wilson, in exhibiting this new method, stated that it was cal- 
culated to facilitate the process, and to introduce it into more general use, 
by diminishing the cost. In introducing the subject, he reverted to the 
curious fact — by no means singular in the progress of inventions — that, in 
the economic adaptation of printing to its fullest extent, by means of stereo- 
type plates, we are returning to a state of things nearly similar to the " block 
books," as they are called, which, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
preceded the great discovery of moveable types, and by means of which the 
first essays in printing were made by Guttenberg, Faust, and Mentz. Dr. 
Wilson also called attention to the character of a certain class of bronze 
Boman stamps, of common occurrence, several of which he exhibited, both 
from Scottish localities and from Pompeii. These were obviously designed 
to be used for impressing certain characters, by means of a pigment applied 
to the flat surface, like types or woodcuts; and afford one of those curious 
examples so frequently seen in relation to modern inventions, of others — 
many centuries previous to their practical application — having trod, as it 
were, on the very threshold of the discovery. He then entered on the subject 



ACTUAL WORKING RESULTS OF ENGINES, COMPARED WITH DEDUCTIONS BY THE FOBMULA 












Actual 




Actual 










Name or No. 


Total 


Total 




Speed 


Evapora- 


Evapora- 


Coke Con- 


Coke Con • 


Per- 


Per- 


Date, and Name 


of 


Heating 


Fire Grate 


No. of 


per 


tion per 


tion by 


sumption 


sumption 


centage of 


centage of 


of 


Engine. 


Surface. 


Surface. 


Carriages. 


Hour. 


square 


Clark's 


per square 


by Clark's 


difference 


difference 


Observer. 












Foot per 


Formula. 


Foot per 


1' ormula. 


in Water. 


in Coke. 














Hour. 




Hour. 






























fFrom March 10 


234 


1,125 


14-32- 


12-3 


26-5 


5-41 


16-05 


44-9 


126-3 


180 


118 


I to 12, both in- 
1 elusive — 
[ Mr. Alexander. 


291 1 

1st experiment J 


1,325-8 


18-8 


9 


42-1 


4-72 


11-04 


40-8 


116-5 


175 


190 


5 24 February — 
i Mr. Forsyth. 


291 ) 

2nd experiment^ 


1,325-8 


18-8 


17 


38 


5-12 


11-04 


58-43 


102-7 


120 


76 


(7 March — 
\Mr. Alexander. 


300 


1,133-21 


23-5 


34 


36-4 


8-21 


5-16 


65-5 


40-37 


60 


62 


> 8 March — 
t Mr. Forsyth. 


Eocket — 7 
1st experiment ) 


707 


10-6 


9 


42-1 


8-99 


9-89 


78-4 


86-2 


12 


10 


3 24 February — 
\ Mr. Alexander. 


Rocket — ) 
2nd experiment £ 


707 


10-6 


13 


34-5 


11-9 


9-89 


102-3 


88-4 


22 


21 


j 25 February — 
{ Mr. Alexander. 


Heron & Prince) 
of Wales ) 


707-54 


10-6 


34 


34-5 


10-68 


9-89 


72-1 


73-7 


11 


10 


S 8 March— 
I Mr. Alexander. 



It was further argued that, from various causes, no formula could be 
framed to be of service, unless all the circumstances, in each case, were pro- 
perly taken into account. 

As an example of the objections to long tubes, the results were given of 
the work done by a luggage engine on the London and North Western 



of stereotyping, or the process of taking casts from forms of moveable types. 
The discovery of this important process was made by William Ged, a gold- 
smith of Edinburgh, about the year 1725 ; though imperfect attempts had 
been previously made to attain the same important end by Van der Mey, 
of Leyden, by soldering together the forms of ordinary moveable typss 



84 



Society of Arts. 



[April, 



for a quarto bible, so early as 1711. Dr. Wilson exhibited to the meeting 
one of the original plates of the edition of Sallust published by Ged in the 
eighteenth century, and interesting, as the first specimens of the practical 
application of the stereotyping process ever executed. He then detailed the 
various efforts at further improvement on this process —including those of 
Brunell, Allan, Sinclair, &c; after which he described and exhibited the 
new process introduced by him to the notice of the society, which consists 
in taking the casts of the types, not in gypsum or stucco, but in blotting- 
paper, overlaid with a thin layer of whiting, starch, and flour-paste, covered 
with a sheet of tissue paper, and impressed on the types by means of beating 
it with a fine brush. It is then dried on a hot steam-chest, while still ad- 
hering to the types; and by this means a matrix is produced, and the types 
are again ready for distribution to the compositors within one hour. The 
advantages of the new process are — 1st, The greater certainty of the process, 
the new matrix not being liable to warp or break, as the stucco is. 2nd, 
The greater rapidity; the process being completed in one hour by it, which 
could not be done in less than six by the other. 3rd, The practicability 
of using the matrix, in certain cases, for casting several plates ; whereas 
the stucco mould is always destroyed in a single casting. And, 4th, The 
much greater simplicity of the apparatus required ; which, added to the 
economy of time, and the consequent diminution of the quantity of type 
required for the compositors, give the important economic results which 
form the great merit of the new plan. A mould was made and a cast taken 
in presence of the meeting; and Dr. Wilson concluded by remarking that he 
believed it was by the improvement and more general application of such 
processes as this, that the great desideratum of cheap literature was to be 
achieved, and not by diminishing the profits of retail booksellers, as had 
recently been attempted. If publishers could be induced to try it, there was 
no real obstacle in the way of applying the stereotyping process, with all its 
adjuncts, to such standard works as Layard's " Nineveh,'" or Macaulay's 
"History of England," than to Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom;" and if the pub- 
lisher calculated his price for editions often, twenty, or thirty thousand of the 
one, as they had already done of the other, people would learn to purchase, 
instead of merely borrowing a hasty reading from some lending library. This, 
he thought, was the direction in which we must now look for securing the grand 
desideratum of cheap literature of the highest class, in a way that would 
secure at once the best interests of author, publisher, and readers; whereas, 
by reducing the profits of the retailer on the present costly two or three 
guinea editions, the price was, in reality, brought no nearer the means of the 
ordinary reader; while the bookseller's interest in their sale, and even in 
their publication, must be greatly diminished with the increase of his risk; 
and the chance of sale of costly and valuable books was thereby not unlikely 
to be diminished. 

The thanks of the society were voted to Dr. Wilson for his interesting 
communication, which were given to him from the chair. 

Referred to a committee. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, March 2nd, 1853. 

Mr. Lacon's paper was read " On the Management of Ships' Boats, and 
the Loss of Life at Sea." Mr. Lacon's apparatus has already been described 
in the Artizan, vol. x., p. 71. 

A model of a small apparatus recently patented by Mr. Brae, of Leeds, 
was then exhibited. Its immediate destination is a self-retaining support for 
Venetian blinds; in which the inconvenience daily endured by the present 
mode of fastening down the lifting cords by twisting them round a couple of 
hooks in the window frame, must be too present to every one's domestic ex- 
perience to need description. 

Contrivances for the purpose of self-supporting Venetian bunds are, it is 
true, already in partial use; but they are subject to many objections, one 
only of which need be alluded to— so weighty, that, of itself, it recommends 
any improvement that may obviate it : this is the necessity for the blind being 
originally designed and manufactured for the express apparatus intended to 
be applied to it, thereby excluding from help the many thousands of existing 
blinds constructed upon the old principle. 

A distinguishing advantage, therefore, possessed by the apparatus exhibited, 
ie the facility it presents for being attached to any blind, old or new; but 



there is another peculiarity which may or may not be considered an advan- 
tage, which is the option of placing the raising cords so as to hang down in 
the centre of the window, instead of at the side, and thereby removing the 
operation to a more convenient and accessible situation. 

The whole apparatus is contained in a small casing scarcely exceeding the 
size of a snuffbox, the interior of which is represented in the annexed drawing 
(fig. 1); a, b, c, — d,e,f, — are two eccentric segments revolving upon the 
pivots a, d. 

Fig. 1. 




The radiia b — d e are shorter than the radii a c — df; consequently, when 
the segments are in the position represented in the drawing, their circum- 
ferential edges are nearly in contact; but when they are drawn down so as 
to cause the shorter radii to approach, a considerable space or opening will 
then exist between them. Each segment is provided with a similar segment 
of cogged teeth, only that these are not eccentric, hut are portions of true 
circles, so that, when together, the teeth of one working between those of 
the other, the two segments are always constrained to move simultaneously. 
Eor the sake of clearness, these cogged portions are omitted in the figure. 

Two straps are seen beneath the segments, uniting in one shorter strap, 
from which the middle tasseled cord depends. These straps pass up behind 
the segments, and, pulling from the points b and e, cause the segments to 
descend and increase the opening between them. Finally, the segments are 
impressed with a constant tendency to close upon any intervening substance 
by the action of the spring, g. 

d d are leading pulleys, over which the ends of the double cord, h, are led, 
in the usual way, down through the blades of the blind, so as to gather it up. 

It will be apparent from this description that, when the double cord, h, is 
pulled downwards, the segments will at once give way and admit of the blind 
being pulled up, but it cannot recede, because the tendency is then reversed, 
and the greater the pull the greater the resistance to it; therefore the blind 
remains at any altitude: and when it becomes desirable to lower it, the tas- 
seled cord is pulled, by which the segments are again reversed, the resistance 
to the descent removed, and the extent of the descent regulated by the prin- 
cipal cords in the usual way. The small box containing the apparatus may 
be so constructed as either to be screwed on to the exterior of the top rail of 
the blind, or it may, as in the model, be bodily let into its substance. 



r& z 




Mr. Brae believes that the principle shown in this - little invention may be 
usefully applied in many other cases, and especially in certain of the name- 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



85 



rous operations on board ship, in which the power of tightening and firmly 
holding a rope or cord is required. 

Fig. 2. represents the construction of the segments of the detainer in its 
application to lowering boats from the davits, freeing life-buoys, and other 
purposes on board ship ; when, instead of a string for the back, and a spring 
to incline the longer radii to be opposed, a lever and counterpoise are used. — 
Society of Arts Journal. 

COEKESPONDENCE. 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — After reading your cautious misgivings of the possible success 
of the caloric engine, in last month's Artizan, I took a stroll to visit 
the works of the new Victoria Docks, now constructing by Peto and 
Betts ; where, I find, two large pumping-engines are about to be erected, 
together with six of the now popular Lancashire double-furnaced 
tubular boilers ; when, among other things, the pleasure of my visit was 
not a little enhanced by having an opportunity of inspecting two or 
three of those portable travelling steam engines so indispensable to 
contractors for all large works like the present. Two of those engines 
had already been used, I believe, in the construction of the Great 
Northern Railway ; but the third, which attracted my attention the most, 
had only just arrived, and was about being set to work to drive two 
10-inch pumps, used for the purpose of draining off the surface water. 

This engine appeared to me to be such a very complete thing, that 
I took some pains to obtain a sketch of one, of the same general de- 
sign, by the same maker, as a contribution to your pages, which the 
practical portion of your readers will, no doubt, appreciate. Mr. Bach, 
of Birmingham, the inventor and manufacturer of the engine, being 
an engineer of the most extensive experience in this class of engines; 
and, if it is important to make steam available to the million, it may 




This is a very handsome 10-horse engine. It is in all respects similar 
to the drawing, except that it has two cylinders, apparently 7 to 8 
inches diameter, and 12 inches stroke ; the pumps being worked by 
gearing off the fly-wheel shaft, a pinion being substituted for the pulley 
shown thereon in the engraving. The boiler is of the locomotive kind 
about 10 feet long, including the fire and smoke-boxes, and 3 feet dia- 
meter. The fire-box is of ample dimensions, having nearly 10 square 
feet area of fire-grate, with the sides very judiciously inclined towards 
the fire. The whole weight of the engine complete, including its car- 
riage, I was told, did not exceed three tons, — it being brought from 
the railway station, and a long way on to the soft ground, the site of its 
operations, by two horses only. Such engines as this are evidently 
well suited for working the pumps for dockwork excavations, railway 
cuttings, and tunneling ; at the same time they are easily applied to 
the sawing of timber in the green state for railway fencing, sleepers, 
&c. There are many other obvious purposes to which an engine of 
this kind may be applied : — To grind mortar for builders or clay for 
brickmakers ; starting the sinking of mines or wells ; draining land 
assisting watermills in the dry, or windmills in the busy, seasons 
drawing coal from temporary pits; auxiliary power to workshops 
threshing corn in place of horse-gins; assisting loaded carriages up 
inclines ; crushing bones for manure ; and ultimately for steam-plough- 
ing, reaping, &c. Indeed, this list might be lengthened ad infinitum 
with kindred objects of great utility. Moreover, they are very important 
engines for the colonies, and all new settlements, saving the expense of 
separate carriages or conveyances for moving them up the country, for 
the wheels may be taken from under them, and used for an ordinary 
waggon, after the engine arrives at its destination. 

The expense of foundations, chimney, &c, is no small matter in such 
situations, and particularly the skilled labour required for setting up an 
ordinary fixed engine abroad. In the above engine, on the contrary, 



BACH S IMPROVED PORTABLE ENGINE. 



he added that he has deserved well of his country in being the means 
of very greatly reducing the price of engines of this character. 




BACH'S IMPROVED STATIONARY ENGINE, p. 86. 

no skill is required except, merely, that of resting the hind axle on two 
pieces of timber and the front of the engine on another. Consequently, 



86 



Correspondence. 



[April, 



it may be taken up a strange country and fixed at once, without the 
necessity of sending out a special workman for that purpose, and where 
such things as screw jacks and cranes are not always available. 

Having said so much of the almost universal applicability of this en- 
gine, it is necessary to state that I do not wish it to be inferred that it 
•is preferable to a permanent stationary engine for nearly all manufac- 
turing purposes, or for any settled business, and, in such a case, I would 
not refuse to include that of the farmer, such as threshing corn, and 
some of the pther purposes enumerated above. The fixed engine is 
simpler, can be made cheaper, and, when out of order, is more easily 
repaired by a common workman. The boiler being detached, also, 
admits of being conveniently made larger at the same expense, and, con- 
sequently, more economical of fuel. 

It is not surprising to find that Messrs. Bach and Co. have also 
turned their attention to the manufacture of small fixed engines with 
considerable success, and that, too, after the approved fashion of a Bir- 
mingham manufacture, that is, not by isolated ones or twos, which 
frequently comprise the extent of a London engine- maker's experience, 
but by the dozen or score. A sketch of one of these fixed engines is 
herewith forwarded to you, for the purpose of submitting its many points 
of excellency in design to the judgment of your readers. 

In offering some remarks on this engine, perhaps I cannot do better 
than contrast some of its distinctive peculiarities in principle with those 
of other engines that we commonly see set before the public with very 
great laudations. Prefacing what I am about to say with expressing a 
hope that, in pointing out apparent faults in the design of one piece of 
machinery, or in praising the design of another, I shall not be con- 
sidered presumptuous, even if afterwards proved to be wrong j the pro- 
gress of mechanical science and the edification of your readers, which are 
aided in either case, being the main objects I have in view. I state this 
much, to prevent invidious feelings, although it is well known that an 
independent course, and total avoidance of the system of indiscriminate 
praise of all that comes to hand in a professional way, so usual in many 
illustrated periodicals, has been a characteristic feature of the Artizan 
from its commencement. 

In taking a review of the articles in your last number I find, at p. 
52, " a novel form of steam engine" for agricultural purposes, to which 
you award some praise, but which, I think, may admit of being qualified 
to a certain extent. The most important object, in designing machinery, 
I take to be simplicity without distortion or departure from correct 
principles. Now, a fly wheel, being in motion, should not, as a general 
principle, or where it can be avoided, be hoisted up some seven or eight 
feet in the air, as in this instance. In small steam engines also the 
power is usually taken off the rim of the fly wheel by a belt or band, 
but, as the angle of direction the latter makes with the driven shaft 
cannot always be previously determined, it is necessary that the wheel 
should have ample space for clearance, which is not at all the case here. 
The cylindrical frame of the engine, although very heavy, will still be un- 
steady ; the pull and thrust of the connecting rod must have a tendency 
to give the whole fabric a rocking motion ; and, if the power is given off 
horizontally by a belt, there will be the additional tendency to pull the 
engine over, after the fashion of a man hanging to a robej*vhile another 
rocks, when they soon manage to uproot a tree between them. The 
guides for the piston rod are on a very poor plan— satisfactory while 
new, but let the least wear take place and where are they? In many 
other respects, as well as the important one of admitting of a firm 
position for the piston guide, I would point attention to the superior 
facilities in construction afforded by the A shaped frame of Mr. Bach's 
fixed engine. Engines with " A frames" have been at work for half a 
dozen years or more, at very high velocities (300 feet a minute), and still 
continue to be, without any detriment to speak of. This extreme 
Velocity in small direct-acting engines is a great advantage in making 



an engine of given dimensions more powerful; thus, 25 per cent, 
added to the usual speed enables you to get an ample amount of 
power for one horse (nominal) out of every ten circular inches area of 
piston, which appears to be the proportion allowed in the Birmingham 
engine at 30 lbs. boiler pressure, instead of the more usual allowance of 
ten square inches. In short, instead of working at a low speed and 
pressing the boiler with 40 lbs. steam, you obtain the same amount of 
power from the Birmingham engine, of equal area, at a little over 30 lbs. 
pressure per square inch in the boiler. 

The great element of steadiness at high velocities, in engines on Mr. 
Bach's plan, is, that the forces exerted are all in the general direction 
of the framing, and within the limits of a moderately extended base ; a 
system which always gives greatest strength with the least weight of 
metal. Cylindrical framings for steam engines were, it is supposed, first 
brought into use by Mr. Fairbairn ; but the simplicity thereby obtained 
for a reciprocating engine is only in appearance, unless some necessity 
should exist for enclosing the engine within the case, which is not the 
case in the present instance. The greatly enhanced price of an engine 
of this kind must also be an obstacle to its general introduction. The 
Birmingham fixed engine, of the kind represented above, I am assured, 
can be sold with Cornish boilers, including all fittings, at a price con- 
siderably lower than any other now offered to the public. 

An Old Member of the Aetizan Club. 

[We give insertion to the letter of our old and valued correspondent 
at full length, although, in his enthusiasm for Messrs. Bach's engines, 
he seems to forget that what he has said about the many purposes for 
which their portable engines may be used is applicable to engines of 
that description in general. — Ed.] 



POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SLIP OF THE SCREW. 

(LETTER FROM MR. BODMER.) 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — I postponed my reply to your correspondent's letters, in the 
expectation of finding, in your Journal for this month, a statement of 
your own opinion upon the subject of my explanation of the causes of 
the positive and negative slip of the screw propeller. 

As your correspondent " W.," besides differing from me for reasons 
similar to those urged by the other two, is more liberal in arguments, 
and less so in assertions than they, I shall reply to " W.'s" letter only, 
reserving to myself the right to make a few observations upon those of 
" Goose-Quill " and " Navalis." 

It did not, perhaps, occur to Mr. Isherwood that when a man wheels 
a wheelbarrow, it is just as impossible for the wheelbarrow to go slower 
than the man as to go faster. Mr. Isherwood's argument, therefore, 
if it holds good for the "negative slip," must apply with equal force to 
the "positive slip." Upon the supposition, then, that there can be 
neither positive nor negative slip without the intervention of a current, 
it must be assumed that, in the first case, the current causes the screw 
to revolve faster, and, in the latter case, slower, than it would revolve if 
there were no current. But, as it requires a certain power to cause the 
screw to revolve at a given velocity, so, a corresponding power must be 
required, either to increase or decrease that velocity. Now, the current 
— if there be one — owes its origin altogether to the forward motion of 
the vessel ; and I am at a loss to understand according to what laws of 
hydrodynamics or mechanics a current so produced — whether with or 
without the assistance of the wind — can be once more made available 
as a power affecting the vessel, either directly, or through its propeller. 
" W." observes, that he, for one, sees no reason to impugn the correct- 
ness of Mr. Isherwood's opinion upon the " negative slip " in a vessel 
propelled by the screw alone, until the existence of negative slip, under 
such circumstances, has been established on evidence that cannot be 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



87 



disputed. I am sure that "W." will excuse me, if I ask him whether 
it has heen established, on evidence that cannot be disputed, that in 
those cases where a " negative slip " has occurred there was a current 
in the supposed direction? Are the experiments made with the Plumper 
doubtful? and if not, as the screw of that vessel had a " positive slip " 
on the 1st of September, 1848, and a "negative slip" on the 13th of 
November of the same year, was there, in the first-mentioned case, a 
current in the direction of, and, in the latter case, a current contrary to, 
the vessel's motion ? Was there a current in the case of the Arrogant ? 
And if there is no positive and indisputable evidence of the existence of 
the current, what is there to recommend the theory ? 

" W." accuses me of imagining that the case of the screw working 
in a solid nut is analogous to that of a screw working in the water. 
This, I am afraid, is rather the view " W." takes of the matter ; at least, 

v — u -(/H 

I must conclude so, from his formula = . In my opinion, 

u i/A 

one of the most important questions to be decided, in reference to screw 
propulsion, is whether the pitch of the screw, in itself, can be taken as 
a measure either of the motion of the screw-blades, or of that of the 
vessel. It appears to me that, inasmuch as the pitch of the screw 
represents neither a lever nor a surfacej but merely a ratio, it is perfectly 
impossible for it to transmit the power of the engine to the vessel ; and 
it might, with equal truth, be asserted that, in a, paddle-wheel propeller, 
the length of the paddle-board determined the motion of either the 
wheel or the vessel, as that the pitch of the screw, in itself, had such a 
function in a vessel propelled by the screw. The whole of the experi- 
ments show that, although the pitch of the screw may remain the same, 
every alteration in its diameter or length produces a different " slip " 
when applied to the same vessel ; and that, with the same screw, the 
" slip" varies as the vessel is altered either to a greater or less resistance 
(A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, by J. Bourne, C.E., pp. v. to xxiii. 
of the Appendix). 

It is true, as " W." says, that we have to deal with the relative 
velocity of the screw and vessel, and that, in my explanation, I have 
neglected the influence of the forward motion of the vessel. That 
circumstance, however, can only affect the numerical result of my cal- 
culation, and not the principle for which I am contending; unless, 
indeed, it could be proved, either that the screw-blades do not act upon 
the water as inclined planes, or, that the effect of the forward molion 
of the vessel counterbalances the effect of the screw ; which latter would 
imply an absurdity. 

Although the theories which have been, hitherto, brought forward to 
account for the " negative slip," have certainly not been of a nature 
to induce me to suppose that my explanation would be set aside for 
want of precision, I am quite willing to supply that deficiency; and 
I trust I shall not be blamed for submitting the arguments of others to 

v — u \/ll 

the same test. " W." gives the measure of the slip as = 

v 1/A+t/H, 
where v represents the velocity of the screw in the direction of the 
ship's motion, u the ship's velocity, H its effective midship section, 
and A the effective resisting area of the screw. Such a formula, to be 
useful, ought at least to produce results differing not more than, say, 
20 per cent, from the truth. " W." says that the principles upon which 
it is based accord admirably with the general results of experience; I 
shall take the liberty of applying it to the case of the Rattler. Accord- 
ing to an experiment made on the 17th of October, 1844, with a screw 
of 10 feet diameter, 11 feet pitch, and 1 foot 3 inches in length, the 
effective midship section was about 41 — but I will allow it, as it favours 
" W.'s" views, to have been 16 only ; the total area of the screw-blades 
was about 22 square feet— and I shall allow that quantity to stand for 
the effective area, for the same reason. These data give, for the slip of 



the screw, under the circumstances, 



V16 



= 0'46, whereas, in 



1/22+^16 
reality, the slip was only - 1565. Also, since {v — m) 2 A =w 2 H, and, 

therefore A = ; asi(= 16715, and v = 19-822, we should 

0— m) 3 
obtain A = 463. Any application of this formula to other cases will 
produce results equally at variance with the facts. I cannot understand, 
however, by what mode of reasoning " W." arrives at the conclusions 
expressed by his equation, if he in earnest adopts the theory of the 
current advocated by Mr. Isherwood. 

Experience demonstrates, and it particularly appears, from trials which 
have been made with screws when the vessel was at rest {Rudimentary 
Treatise on the Marine Engine, &c, by Robert Murray, C.E. London : 
J. Weale. P. 151), that the motion of the screw-blades in the water 
is subject to the same laws which regulate the motion of the paddle- 
boards in a vessel propelled by paddle-wheels. The screw, like the 
paddle-wheel, before all things, has a rotatory motion, and meets with 
a corresponding resistance, whether the vessel be moving or not; and 
if we call the velocity of the blade, measured at its centre of pressure, 
v, the velocity of the vessel, u, the effective area of the blades A sin.'a 
(where a represents the mean angle of incidence), and H the effective 

v 
midship section of the vessel, we shall have ( — V— « 2 )Asin. 2 a = w 2 H, 

u 



whence u = v\/ 



I Asin. 2 a 



Or, if we call the radius corresponding to 



H-J-A sin.*a 

to the centre of pressure y, the effective pitch, or the real forward motion 
of the vessel for one revolution of the screw, P, the number of revolu- 

NP 

tions of the screw per minute, N ; and* consequently, u = ■, and 

60 

N?ry 3 /Asm. s a 

v = , the above formula will become P = 2iry\/ ; 

30 H+Asin. s a 

showing that the " slip" is independent of the velocity of the screw, 
which is in accordance with the facts {The Artisan for 1852, p. 204). 
It also follows, as a necessary consequence, that, in a vessel propelled 
by the screw, a resistance (or additional effective midship section), equal 
to the quantity Acos. 2 a has to be overcome, which, in my opinion, 
accounts for the difference between the dynamometer and indicator 
diagrams {Rudimentary Treatise on the Marine Engine, fyc, by Robert 
Murray, C.E., pp. 149 and 150.) A vessel propelled by paddle-wheels 
will, therefore, always be able to attain a higher speed than a vessel 
propelled by the screw, both having exactly the same effective midship 
section, and working under equally favourable circumstances as to the 
quality and system of the engines, the supply of steam, and the velocity 
of the propeller. 

The same equation applies to the paddle-wheel propeller, if P be 
taken as the measure of the forward motion of the vessel for one revolu- 
tion of the wheel, and A substituted for A sin. 2 a ; A then representing 
the mean immerged area of the paddle-boards, and y the mean radius, 
corresponding to the centres of pressure of the boards. No one has ever, 
I believe, contended that a vessel propelled by paddle-wheels could 
advance a distance exceeding the circumference of a circle described by 
the centre of pressure for one revolution of the wheel; nor will any one 
maintain, I should say, that the progress of a vessel propelled by the 
screw could exceed the quantity 2iry for each revolution of the screw. 
The anomaly of the "negative slip" merely lies in the supposition that 
the pitch in itself determines the progress of the vessel ; whereas, the 
pitch is, in. fact, only one out of four elements which influence that 
progress. The effective area of the screw-blades depends upon the 



88 



Correspondence. 



[April, 



pitch, the diameter, and the length ; and the " slip" depends upon the 
proportion between this effective area and the effective midship section 
of the vessel, and upon the radius corresponding to the centre of pres- 
sure. "W." will find that numbers of combinations of Asin. c s and H 
are possible, which shall allow the engines to work under the same cir- 
cumstances, as to power and speed. I presume that practical men have 
to derive their information from experiments as well as others. 

Having compared the results of " Ws." formula with those derived 
from experiments, I think it but right to follow a similar course with 
regard to mine ; premising that each of the quantities H, A, y, and sin. 8 a 
has, in every instance, been calculated according to uniform principles, 
which I am ready to explain, if called upon to do so. For the first ex- 
ample I shall select the case of the Dauntless, as tried on the 28th of 
August, 1844. The data are H = 170, 2iry — 30-472, sin.'a = 0-2582, 
A sin. s a == 13 - 525; and, according to the formula, we obtain P = 12*773 
instead of 13'507. On the occasion of the trial, subsequent to altera- 
tion, there was H = 96'86, and the formula gives P == 15-132 instead 
of 15'284. In the case of the Battler, as tried on the 17th of October, 
1844, the data were H = 41-25, 2ny = 20-873, sin. 2 a = 0-2173, 
A sin. 2 a = 3-9658, A cos. 2 a = 14-29, P = 9-276. According to the 
dynamometer diagram the thrust of the screw was 8,086 lbs. or 3'61 
tons; whilst m 8 (H — A cos. 2 fl) = 7>533 lbs., or 3'368 tons. If we 
suppose that the effective midship section of the Alecto, when being 
towed by the Rattler, was equal to that of the Rattler after removing 
the screw, we should have, for the sum of the two midship sections 
H = 68 - 21; and, therefore, as the screw made 98 revolutions per minute, 
the speed of the vessel = 7'671 knots, instead of 7'05 knots per hour. 
The effective midship section of the Alecto must, therefore, have been 
greater. According to Mr. Isherwood, the screw of the Arrogant (The 
Artizan for 1852, p. 205), when the ship was going with a strong free 
wind and all sails set, had a "negative slip" of 11-94 per cent. Now, 
a force acting in favour of the vessel's motion reduces the total resist- 
ance, and, therefore, the resistance at the unity of velocity ; and in this 
case a force equal to 35,400 lbs., independently of the power of the 
engines, would produce that amount of negative slip. (Compare with 
the results of experiments made on a small scale, and recorded at p. 
381 of A History of Naval Architecture, by John Fincham, Esq.) 
Mr. Isherwood further says, that the screw of the same ship had, on the 
5th of August, 1851, a " positive slip" of 44'34 per cent. According 
to the same principle, a force equal to 24,900 lbs., acting in the con- 
trary direction to the vessel's motion, would produce that amount of 
" positive slip." 

I am not prepared to deny " Goose-Quill's" assertion that, if he is 
not mistaken, I have propounded an egregious fallacy ; it now only re- 
mains for him to prove that he is not mistaken. " Goose-Quill" speaks 
of actual slip ; of other things unconsidered ; of the screw being " pulled 
up," in the case of positive slip, assumed by me ; of cylinders of water 
transferred aft for every revolution of the screw ; of the slip bearing a 
certain proportion to the entire cylinder, and to the obliquity of the 
blades, &c, &c. : but, although he demands further explanations from 
me, the idea of giving even the slightest hint as to the meaning of the 
expressions he makes use of, or of showing, with reference to facts, 
where and how the phenomena he mentions exhibit themselves, and 
how they affect the question.under consideration, appears never to have 
occurred to him. If " Goose-Quill" had given himself the trouble to 
examine my figures, he would have found that they express neither 
more nor less than that the blades of the screw act upon the water as 
inclined planes, and that, uniform motion being established, there must 
be equality between the thrust of the screw and the resistance of the 
vessel ; and that, therefore, they mean exactly what he thinks they do 
not mean. It would be difficult to collect, from " Goose-Quill's" 
observations, whether he thinks it possible for a "negative slip" to 



occur without the intervention of a current or not ; and whether, when 
he speaks of negative slip, he means the actual slip, or the kind of slip 
which is generally meant and understood. There also appears to be a 
marked difference, in " Goose-Quill's" opinion, between adapting the 
screw to the vessel, and adapting the vessel to the screw. 

" Navalis" will find that the only reason why the term 1 1 X 8568 = 
94,248 does not, to him, express any power, capability or condition of 
the screw, is because he has omitted the words during one revolution. 
I must trouble " Navalis" to show why the changing of the same screw 
into a vessel of finer lines or lesser resistance does not constitute an 
analogy from which to deduce its negative slip in its own vessel ? I 
cannot at all comprehend the difference, especially as the Teazel's re- 
sistance, for instance, was reduced to the extent of nearly 60 per cent., 
the vessel all the time remaining the same. Besides, the question is as 
to the absolute possibility of the occurrence of " negative slip" without 
the intervention of a current. "Navalis" will observe that lamas far from 
maintaining that an inert body can assume a velocity exceeding its 
moving cause, as that the same inert body can assume a velocity less 
than that which it ought to have to balance the moving cause— to which 
latter opinion " Navalis" seems to incline. Has " Navalis" any reason 
to suppose that the pitch of the screw is the moving cause ? 

Your obedient servant, 

London, 9th March, 1853. R. Bodmer. 



BESSEMER'S IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 
SUGAR. 

(Continued from page 67.) 
MR. BESSEMER TO MR. FAIRRIE. 

Sir, — I have just received a printed circular bearing your name, com- 
menting with more warmth than candour on my improvements in refining 
sugar. If, before thus forcing yourself on public attention, with innuendoes 
conveyed under the shield of "I believe," "I understand," and "I think 
I may safely assert," &c, you had looked into my patents and informed 
yourself correctly on the subject, or had taken the trouble of coming up to 
my factory, as you were invited to do, you might have spared yourself the 
pains you have taken to prove to the world how little you really know of my 
inventions. 

The paper which I published is nothing more than a popular description 
of the main features of my new process, intended to convey only a general 
idea of it to those who have not witnessed the apparatus in operation. I have 
no need to "puff" the company; some of the more intelligent British refi- 
ners having joined it, and others are now in treaty to take licenses to refine 
under the patents. "Were this question a mere matter of opinion and not of 
facts, the judgment of these gentlemen would, at least, balance that of yours. 
But let us examine, categorically, the allegations your letter contains. 

* ' Firstly, This mere tacit admission of the injury which is done to sugar 
by the heat of steam is most disingenuous, or else it goes to prove that, after 
refining sugar for forty years, you think it " likely " that sugar is injured by 
" steam heat," but have not yet been able to discover whether this is really 
so or not. 

2 To prove this assertion, you must know that the fact has been discovered 
by some one else at a former period. This admission greatly strengthens 
my position, if your testimony has any weight; because my patent is not for 
the discovery of an abstract principle, or law of nature (which is the common 
property of all mankind), but simply for the adaptation of such principle to 
the manufacture of sugar. 

3 If you will take the trouble to read a pamphlet which I published last 
year, on the manufacture of sugar, you will find that I have therein shown 
the utter insufficiency of the early attempts that were made to use air in 
conjunction with steam heat, for evaporation— and I cannot suppose you so 
obtuse as not to be able to distinguish the marked difference between the 
inventions referred to and mine ; as well may you affirm that Watt had 
nothino- to do with the discovery of the steam-engine, because several crude 



* The paragraphs numbered in Mr. Bessemer's letter have a direct reference to the 
sentences with the corresponding number in Mr. Fairrie's first letter. 



1853.] 



Industrial Progress m France. 



89 



attempts were made to generate power by steam before his time. The first 
commercially useful application, of any principle is considered, both in law 
and in equity, the first discovery. You will, doubtless, remember that when 
you were first told of my invention (by a gentleman connected with me), 
you said there was one objection which would render any mode of using air 
totally destructive to sugar, that the enormous amount of soot and dust 
which must be driven into the solution by bringing 10,000 cubic feet of air 
per minute in contact with it must be fatal to the process. This, I most 
freely admit, was a sensible objection ; but it was met by my friend, who told 
you that the air used in my patent process is filtered before using it, by 
simply passing it through closely woven silk or woollen cloth, which entirely 
removes every particle of objectionable matter. I am in a position to speak 
with some confidence on this point, because I have filtered more than half 
a million of cubic feet of air per clay for the last ten years, and can quite 
confirm your views of its extreme impurity in London ; but, with a know- 
ledge of the fact that I had entirely removed this fatal objection to its use, 
you state that " air has been tried in various ways long ago," as though you 
saw nothing either new in my mode of using and filtering it, and nothing 
objectionable in those methods which had hitherto been proposed. Is this 
suppression of known facts the way you endeavour to " elicit truth?" Is it 
the way you would warn the public from the statements of interested persons? 
Is it fair? Is it just? 

4 Tour knowledge of previous inventions in your own trade is exceedingly 
convenient; you appear to know all that has been done in attempts to use 
air for evaporation, but you are purely innocent of any knowledge that could 
limit Mr. Schroeder's claims to originality. Let me inform you, sir, that, at 
vast labour and cost, I have obtained extracts and copies of some 300 patents 
for the manufacture of sugar, extending over a period of more than 100 years, 
in order that I might make myself thoroughly acquainted with all that had 
been previously done in this branch of industry; and if you desire to learn 
the history of Mr. Schroeder's discs, search the Rolls Chapel Office, and, 
under the date June 3rd, 1817, you will find a patent granted to J. Charles 
Wyatt, for manufacturing and refining sugar, in which are the following 
words : — 

"But when shallow, and particularly when hemispherical vessels are used, 
I prefer a number of discs, or circular plates, placed on a horizontal axis, in 
which case the alternate submersion in the liquor, and exposure to the air, 
is performed by the revolution of the said discs." 

These discs having thus, by the expiration of the patent, become public 
property, Mr. Schroeder conceived the idea that, if he separated these discs, 
and placed a zigzag steam pipe between them, it would be a new combina- 
tion, which might be patented; but with your accommodating knowledge of 
past inventions, I think you will be able, if you make an effort, to remember, 
that zigzag steam-pipes are not new for boiling sugar. Thus your protege, 
Mr. Schroeder, having borrowed two very old ideas from the public, makes 
a new one by combining them. But here his very limited claim stops; 
separate either of these public properties, and Mr. Schroeder's claim is totally 
annihilated. I have thought it necessary to be explicit on this point, because 
another of Mr. Schroeder's supporters has said so much about infringements 
and injunctions, that some unwary people may really be made to believe 
that there is some truth in the allegation. This charge of similarity of in- 
vention is the more extraordinary, as I totally repudiate the use of steam- 
pipes and steam beat, as applied to sugar, under any circumstances what- 
ever. But, to return : " You cannot comprehend how my patent can be 
defended." Doubtless, there are many things which you cannot comprehend; 
but this point will be rendered more clear to your mind by the perusal of the 
opinions of the most eminent counsel, which can be seen at the offices of the 
company (as well as a complete copper model of Mr. Schroeder's pan and 
my own, made accurately from the patent drawings and specifications of 
each), where sugars also can be seen treated by my process. 

5 There are, no doubt, various ways in which heated air may be apulied 
with greater or less advantage, but it does not follow that such applications 
would not be infringements of my patents. You have found, of all the 
various modes that are known of boiling sugar, that there is one mode of 
doing so which is superior to all others ; may there not be a superiority in 
my mode of applying heated air over any former mode of doing so ? 

(To be concluded in our next.) 

12 



INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS IN FRANCE. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

Brass Tube-making Machinery. — A very ingenious machine 
for making brass tubes without seam, the invention of M. Degrand, 
has been recently established here, and promises very excellent results. 
The tubes are cast in brass, say 20 inches long, and of a great thickness. 
These are then put on steel mandrils, the diameter of which answers to 
the interior diameter of the finished tube. The tubes on the mandrils 
are then placed in the machine, and pass between fluted rollers, under 
a considerable pressure. A reciprocating motion is given to the tube 
on which the mandrils are fixed, and, at the end of each stroke, the 
tubes are slightly turned round, to expose a fresh surface to the action 
of the rollers. A continuation of this process swages out the short 
thick tube to a long thin one, of the desired dimensions. A machine, 
under the same patent, has been set to work in England ; and, having 
been constructed after the one above mentioned, is still more simple 
and effectual. 

Under the ordinary system of making brass tubes, the brass is cut 
into sheets of the proper size, the alternate edges beveled off in a 
planing machine, and the plate is then bent on a mandril with the 
hammer, and brazed, the beveled edges forming the joint. The rough 
ends are then cut off in a lathe, and the tube cleaned with acid to 
finish it. 

Copper Mines of Algeria. — The immense rise in the price of 
copper has caused particular attention to be directed to the copper 
mines of Algeria, and a company is about to be established near Mar- 
seilles to smelt the products of the Monzala mines. In the opinion of 
those well qualified to judge, however, the high price of coal will seri- 
ously interfere with their attempt to compete with the smelters of 
Swansea. The coal mines of France offer an excellent investment for 
capital, the majority of them being conducted in a slovenly manner. 

The Transatlantic Steamers. — Nothing official has yet trans- 
pired on this subject, but the commission are now examining witnesses 
from the various ports. Even after the commission has made its re- 
port, a considerable time must elapse before the government can come 
to a decision upon this question. In the meantime private enterprise 
is taking advantage of the present furor for steam navigation, and 
several companies are being organised. The General Screw Company 
have two iron boats nearly completed ; one of 1000 tons, and another 
of 700 tons, and 100-horse power, by Messrs. Taylor, of Marseilles. 
These boats, and others to be built, are intended for the Morocco trade. 
Another company, founded at Bordeaux, are building three screw boats, 
of 100 to 120-horse power, which will be constructed by French firms. 
These boats are intended to replace the present coasting vessels between 
Bordeaux and the north of France, and the company do not hesitate 
to promise their shareholders a dividend of 20 to 25 per cent. 

Galvanic Railway Signal. — M. Hermann, engineer of the 
Orleans Railway, has applied galvanism to convey signals along a train. 
Two wires, covered with gutta-percha, or otherwise insulated, are fixed 
under each carriage, and are connected between the carriages by small 
chains. A feeble battery on the engine has a bell apparatus attached 
to it (on the system commonly in use in electric telegraphs), which is 
silent as long as the connection of the wires with the battery is pre- 
served. Should, however, the guard break the communication, or 
should, as sometimes happens, a portion of the train break away, the 
signal is sounded close to the ear of the engine driver. This apparatus 
is said to answer perfectly in practice ; aud, assuming this to be the 
case, the most superficial reader of the daily papers can recall to his 
recollection numerous instances in which accidents might have been 
prevented, bad any such means of communication been at the command 
of the guard of the train. 

Water and Gas Supply to Paris. — Although large sums of 
money have been spent on the waterworks of Paris, the supply is still 
inadequate to the population. Thus, while London, New York, and 
Philadelphia have a daily supply, varying from 100 to 3,000 litres per 
head, Paris has only 69 litres. Owing to the high rate charged, only 
5,300 bouses, or about one in seven, are supplied with water laid on. 
In the cases of railway stations, and other large establishments, a reduc- 
tion of the tariff has been made ; but, this system not working well, it 
has been determined to abolish all variations of charge, and establish a 
uniform rate, as follows : — 

Rate per annum for a hectolitre per day : — 

Water of TOurcq. Water of the Seine, &c. 

From 1 to 50 hectolitres . . 5 francs . . 10 francs. 
From 51 to 100 „ 4 „ . . 8 „ 

From 101 upwards „ 3 „ . . 6 „ 



90 



JsFotes by a Practical Chemist. 



[April, 



Some new pumping engines are now being erected, which will increase 
the supply, and enable the higher districts of Chaillot, the faubourgs 
Montmartre and of the Temple, to enjoy that benefit of which they 
have been hitherto deprived. A project is also in agitation to form a 
" Great Central Gas Consumers' Company" at Paris, the two existing 
companies having amalgamated, keeping the price at monopoly point. 
A good story is told of the days of competition, when the pipe-layers of 
one company would connect the service pipes of their customers with 
the mains of the opposing company, and thus " steal the gas ready 
made." 

A Railway Squabble. — A story. is going the round of the papers, 
which will serve as a companion to your method of catching Great 
Northern locomotives, elephant fashion, by putting the wild animal 
between two tame ones. It is this : — The directors of the Turin and 
Savigliano Railway had taken a trip over the line, preparatory to its in- 
auguration ; and, on their return to Turin to dinner, found, to their 
surprise, the train came to a stand-still about two leagues from its 
destination. On getting out to ascertain the cause, they not only 
found the rails in front taken up, but workmen busy performing the 
same office behind the train. A difference between the company and 
the constructor of the line, Mr. Pickering, the English contractor, is 
said to be the cause of this incident, which entailed on the party a walk 
for a league through a heavy snow storm, in no very amiable state of 
mind. The true cause was, probably, a difficulty in getting payment 
from the company. 

NOTES BY A PKACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Remarks on the Texture of Iron. — The difference between 
the various kinds of iron has been generally ascribed to the presence of 
certain foreign substances, such as carbon and silicium, which occur in 
the largest quantity in raw iron ; in the smallest in bar iron : and in 
steel in an intermediate proportion. The amount of carbon bears, how- 
ever, no constant proportion to the iron, nor are these three kinds of 
iron separated from each other by any definite limits. A new view has 
been proposed by Fuchs. He considers iron as a dimorphous bod}', 
capable of assuming two different crystalline forms, the tesseral and the 
rhombohedral, Malleable iron belongs to the former, and cast iron to 
the latter. These two kinds of iron may, therefore, be compared to the 
varieties of sulphur, phosphorus, arsenious acid, and glass. Steel he 
regards as an alloy of the tesseral and the rhombohedral varieties of 
iron. The per-centage of carbon which it contains ranges from 0"625 
to 1*9. It cannot, therefore, be regarded as a definite and constant 
compound. It differs from other alloys, as its characters may suffer 
considerable alteration without an accompanying addition or loss of 
substance, as in the hardening and softening of steel. These changes 
Fuchs refers to an internal and alternating metamorphosis, by which 
the relative proportion of the two species of iron is altered. He sup- 
poses that the rhombohedral variety predominates in hard steel, and 
the tesseral in soft. Very hard steel will, consequently, from the very 
small proportion of tesseral iron, approach closely to cast iron. This 
supposition is confirmed by the low specific gravity of hardened steel. 
By the process of tempering, the proportion of tesseral iron in steel 
will increase with the temperature. The two kinds of iron in steel may 
be regarded as in a state of constant mutual polarity, which is, pos- 
sibly, the cause why steel retains imparted magnetism, whilst soft iron 
does not. This view derives some confirmation from an experiment of 
Schafhaeutl's. He treated a piece of a razor-blade with moderately 
strong hydrochloric acid for several days, when it was found to have 
been attacked in a very unequal manner. "When washed, dried, and 
bruised in a mortar, it yielded fragments ; some capable of being pul- 
verised, and others brittle. With regard to the alteration which malle- 
able iron sustains, when exposed to prolonged vibration, percussion or 
torsion, causing it to assume a granular fracture, Fuchs supposes that 
it consists in the passage of the iron from the fibrous crystalline to a 
granular crystalline state, an alteration in the mode of aggregation, not 
an essential metamorphosis. When iron passes from the fibrous to the 
granular state, the molecular cohesion is diminished, and, by the aggre- 
gation of the atoms into rounded groups, a heap of distinct particles is 
produced, resembling what mineralogists call granular minerals. The 
cohesion of the mass is thus to some extent destroyed, and the greater 
the size and number of these particles, the greater is the decrease in 
tenacity. The original condition of iron thus altered cannot be restored 
by heating to redness and forging, but only by exposure to a welding 
heat. Fuchs regards this circumstance as full proof that this alteration 
consists in a breaking up of the continuity of the mass. The restora- 



tion of this continuity requires that the granular iron should, by ex- 
posure to a welding heat, be rendered amorphous, when the cohesive 
force again becomes active ; a condition which, in the case of most 
other bodies, occurs only when they are liquid. 

Detection of Cotton in Unbleached Linen. — A piece of 
the stuff in question is well washed with boiling water, and dried ; then 
laid in a mixture of two parts dried nitrate of potassa and three of sul- 
phuric acid, and left in contact with it for eight or ten minutes, accord- 
ing to the strength of the fabric. After complete washing and drying, 
the piece of stuff is exhausted with boiling ether, to which some alcohol 
has been added ; the more consistent the collodion thus obtained, the 
more cotton there was in the linen. If no cotton was present, the 
ether is scarcely thickened. If it is wished to find the quantity of 
cotton, it is only necessary to weigh the linen after being boiled with 
water and dried; then to proceed as above; separate the collodion ob- 
tained from the residue (which is unaltered linen), wash this well with 
some ether and alcohol, dry and weigh it ; the loss of weight gives the 
amount of cotton with tolerable accuracy. 

answers to correspondents. 

" J. H., Belfast." The iron articles intended for tinning must first 
be rendered perfectly clean by immersion for a short time in a bath of 
41bs. muriatic acid to three gallons of water, exposure for a short time 
to a red heat, steeping ten to twelve hours in a lye of bran, and pickling 
(as it is called) in dilute sulphuric acid for about an hour. They are 
then rinsed with water, scoured with hemp and sand, and left in a bath 
of pure water until wanted. These various operations require some 
experience to manage them rightly. The plates are then dried by rub- 
bing with bran, and left singly, for about an hour, in pots of melted 
grease, which should have been slightly burnt. They are then removed, 
with the grease adhering to them, into the metal bath, consisting of 
equal parts of block and groin tin, covered with grease enough to form 
a layer about four inches deep. The bath is heated so as almost to 
inflame the grease. In about 90 minutes they are taken out, and 
plunged into another bath of pure grain tin ; then rubbed with a 
peculiar hempen brush, plunged again into the second bath, and finally 
into a pot of melted tallow. Saucepans are generally tinned by cleaning 
the inside perfectly, heating the vessel, pouring in some melted tin, and 
rolling it about ; rubbing the tin all over the surface with tow. Pow- 
dered resin is used to prevent the formation of oxide. 

"Anti-Humbug." We perfectly agree with the strictures which 
have lately appeared in our contemporary, the Chemist, on the exor- 
bitant prices charged for chemical and other scientific apparatus in this 
country. 

" P. T." Ferro-cyanide of potassium is sometimes, but improperly, 
called ferro-cyanate of potassa; a name which implies a compound by 
an oxyacid with a basic oxide. This salt contains, however, not a par- 
ticle of oxygen, except in its water of crystallisation, which may be 
driven off at a temperature of 212°, without in the least affecting the 
chemical properties of the salt. A compound of ferro- cyanogen with 
oxygen has, besides, not yet been discovered. Its ordinary commercial 
name, prussiate of potash, is open to the very same objections. 






BEVIEWS. 



By Joseph Glynn, 



Rudimentary Treatise on the Power of Water. 

F.R.S. London : John Weale. 
Mr. Weale continues to issue his Rudimentary Treatises with un- 
tiring energy ; and we are glad to perceive that they do not decline in 
value as they proceed. The present volume is one of the most inter- 
esting, as it brings the science of practical hydraulics down to the 
present day, whereas most of the treatises which hare appeared in 
encyclopedias and similar works have conducted us through the 
ancient paths, in company with overshot, undershot and breast wheels, 
and there left us, in happy ignorance of anything beyond. The author 
has, likewise, taken unusual pains with the numerous illustrations, 
which are carefully and truthfully drawn. 

Commencing with the antique conical millstones found at Pompeii, 
Mr. Glynn proceeds to describe the Indian machines for irrigating, 
which are the simplest and most effective means of employing a run- 
ning stream for the purpose. A kind of water wheel with bamboo 
spokes is placed in the stream, and is turned by it ; the water being 
lifted in pieces of bamboo placed across the periphery of the wheel at 
an angle. The mouths of these dip into the water as the wheel 
revolves, and they empty themselves, as they rise, near the top, into 
a trough on the bank of the river. 



1853.] 



Reviews. 



91 



The theory of the measurement of the quantities of currents of 
water is illustrated by reference to the experiments of Mr. Kennie, 
Mr. Mylne and Mr. Blackwell, and more especially those undertaken 
at the expense of the French government, by MM. Poncelet and 
Lesbros. "The importance of the application of water power as an 
economical substitute for steam is shown by the results obtained by 
Mr. Fairbairn, at the Lough Island Reavy, in Ireland, and by Mr. 
Thorn, at the Shaw's Water Works, at Greenock. 

Mr. Glynn next gives an account of rain gauges, and their applica- 
tion. One of the rnosfc approved rain gauges has a funnel a foot in 
area, mounted on a stand pipe which receives the water, which should 
be carried down to the bottom by a slender tube trapped with water 
at the end ; and the stand pipe has a suitable base or foot. The rain 
received in the pipes is read off by means of a small graduated glass 
tube fixed to its side, and communicating with it. If the section of the 
stand pipe be one-tenth of a superficial foot in area, and theglass be 
divided decimally, every inch of water in the glass will indicate one 
tenth of an inch of rain ; or the glass may be graduated by trial, to 
suit the stand pipe. 

On the subject of horizontal water wheels and re-action wheels Mr. 
Glynn is very minute, since it is that branch of the subject of which 
least is known in this country. A very perfect machine, on the sys- 
tem of Mr. Fontaine Baron, and constructed by Messrs. Fromont, _was 
exhibited by the makers at the Great Exhibition of 1851, and gained 
for them the council medal. This machine consists of a vertical cast- 
iron cylinder, into which the water is admitted. At the bottom of this 
cylinder is a horizontal wheel, having a series of curved arms or guides, 
arranged in two concentric circles. Below this_ wheel is a siinilar 
one, the arms of which are curved in the reverse direction, and against 
which the water impinges, and causes it to revolve. The shaft is 
attached to the lower wheel, and rises upwards through the cylinder, 
the power being taken off by the method most suitable to the work to 
be driven. Each of the openings by which the water enters the wheel 
has a sluice in it, and these sluices are all moved simultaneously by 
being attached to two concentric rings which are commanded by screws, 
so that they can be raised to allow more water to pass through the 
wheel, or lowered to admit less. A governor (similar in arrangement 
to that used in Petrie's expansion gear, Artizan, vol. 1S50) is con- 
nected by gearing to these screws, so that the velocity of the wheel 
can be self-adjusted. In awarding the council medal to this machine, 
the jury mentioned the advantages possessed by it, and by similar well 
constructed horizontal wheels and turbines, of frequent use in France, 
but almost unknown in England :— First— that they occupy a smaller 
space. Second— that, turning very rapidly, they may, when used for 
grinding flour, be made to communicate the motion directly to the 
millstones. Third— that they will work under water. Fourth— that 
they will work equally well under small and great falls of water. 
Fifth— tha,t they yield, when properly constructed, and with the supply 
of water for which they have been constructed, a useful effect of from 
68 to 70 per cent., being an efficiency equal to that of any other hy- 
draulic machine. Sixth— that the same wheel may be made to work 
at very different velocities, without materially affecting its useful effect. 
There is another simple and useful water wheel used by the French 
in Guienne and Languedoc, sometimes called roue a poire, or the 
pear-shaped wheel. It is also a horizontal water wheel, with a ver- 
tical axis, and, when the power required is not great, the water plen- 
tiful, and the means of construction limited, it may often be adopted 
with advantage. It consists of an inverted cone, with spiral float 
boards of a curvilinear form winding round its surface. This wheel re- 
volves on a pit or well of masonry, into which it fits pretty closely, like 
a coffee mill in its box. The water, conveyed by a spout or trunk, 
strikes the oblique float boards, and, when it has spent its impulsive 
force, it descends along the spiral float boards, and continues to aid, by 
its weight, until it reaches the bottom, where it is carried off by a canal. 
There °is considerable ingenuity in this contrivance; for the jet of 
water, beino- first applied to the upper or largest part of the cone, 
strikes the float boards at the point where they move with the greatest 
speed, the radius there being longest ; but, as the water loses its velo- 
city, in consequence of the motion it has imparted to the wheel, it 
descends in the cone, and acts upon the floats lower down, where,_ the 
radius being less, they move more slowly, and the water is beneficially 
employed until it quits the wheel. 

(To be continued.) 

The Analytical Ckemist's Assistant. By Professor F. Woebler. Trans- 
lated from the German by O. M. Lieber. Philadelphia: Baird. 
London : Triibner and Co. 1852. 

That public attention is largely and increasingly turned towards che- 



mical science is fully proved by the many treatises on its various de- 
partments annually issued from the press. This we deem a satisfactory 
feature, even though there may appear some danger lest the student 
should be bewildered with too much choice. Each of these works has 
its advantages ; it is especially adapted to the use of some particular 
class of students, or for the attainment of some given object. Hence, 
it is no disparagement to the invaluable writings of Rose and Frese- 
nius, if we say that there is full room for the unassuming manual before 
us. The author, Professor Woehler, of Gottingen, is well known as a 
chemist of the very highest order; one whose reputation has been fairly 
earned without the slightest particle of intrigue and puffery. 

The translation is founded upon the German edition of 1849, but is 
announced to contain " copious additions," which, however, are, unfor- 
tunately, not distinguished from the original text by any kind of 
discriminating mark. This we regard as an omission of some conse- 
quence. The translator has, upon the whole, executed his task fairly, 
although his style is not free from Germanisms. Mere literary defects 
may, however, pass unnoticed in a work of this kind, as long as no 
obscurity is occasioned. The manual opens with a brief introduction, 
describing the various tests and manipulations required. Here we were 
astonished to find bromine and chlorine-water arranged among basic 
substances along with potassa and soda. Without any systematic ac- 
count of the behaviour, separation, and estimation of the various bases 
and acids, the author proceeds at once to the compounds, natural and 
artificial, whose analysis is most frequently demanded for practical pur- 
poses. Especial reference is made to the detection of adulterations. 
That this method would prove an insufficient guide to the student who 
wishes to qualify himself for original research, is manifest. At the 
same time it must be recognised as a decided saving of time to the 
technologist concerned with results rather than with principles, and for 
whom the elaborate precautions of a Rose might prove a mere incum- 
brance. As a specimen, we extract the analysis of white lead, contami- 
nated, as is frequently the case, with sulphates of lead and baryta : — 

" The carbonate of lead is dissolved in dilute nitric acid, the two other 
admixtures remaining. The leached (angliee, washed) precipitate 
(better, residue) we dissolve in a solution of tartaric acid containing an 
excess of ammonia, by which process the sulphate of lime is dissolved. 
From this solution the lead is precipitated by hydrosulphuric acid, or 
chromate of potash. After this, the sulphate alone remains." 

The solvent powers of tartrate of ammonia are remarkable, and may, 
when more widely known, admit of some highly important applications. 
Should sulphate of lime be present, the above quoted process might 
lead to fallacious results, since we have found it soluble in tartrate of 
ammonia to a very perceptible extent. The sections on the examina- 
tion of iron ores, crude iron, and the ash of vegetables, and the direc- 
tions for performing the chemico-legal examination of bodies, where 
poisoning by arsenic is suspected, are very carefully written. 

In conclusion, we can decidedly recommend this work to manufac- 
turing chemists, agriculturists, mining engineers, and others who, with- 
out entering into the niceties of philosophic research, wish to ascertain 
the composition of the principal substances occurring in their various 
professions* 



The Engineer and Machinist's Drawing Book ; a Complete Course of 
Instruction for the Practical Engineer, forming a Progressive Series 
of Lessons in Drawing, and Examples of Approved Construction, on 
the Basis of the Works of M. Le Blanc and MM. Armengaud. 
Blackie and Son. 
This work appears to be of a highly useful and most important cha- 
racter; and we have been much gratified by the perusal of the' first 
and second parts, which are all that are yet published. Besides a 
great number of engravings on wood, illustrating the construction and 
use of every description of drawing instrument required by the me- 
chanical draughtsman, they contain several beautiful engravings on 
steel of complete machines. In the letter-press we are pleased to see 
that, while the practical use of the various scales is taught, the 
principles of their construction, and method of laying down the lines 
and divisions thereon, is very fully elucidated. 

In the nine large plates contained in the first and second numbers 
we have, besides the various projections of a prism, pyramid, bevel 
wheel, and the " construction of the conic sections," a large " spur 
wheel and pinion in gear," to a scale of two inches to the foot. There 
is also a plate of various methods used for converting reciprocating 
into rotatory motion, including the connecting rod and crank of the 
modern steam engine, in several varieties and positions, with parallel 
and link motions in full detail, having dimensions marked on the 
figures. 



92 



Notes and Novelties. 



[April, 



Two of these large plates are devoted to the " End View " and 
" Sectional Elevation " of a 6-horse power high-pressure table-engine 
of the most approved modern construction, elaborately finished in 
every detail; an excellent example for the mechanical engineer as 
well as the draughtsman. In addition to sections on the principles of 
perspective, of shadows and of cast shadows, with tinted drawings, &c, 
we are promised a section of examples of hand sketches taken from 
actual machines, and of executing the drawings from these sketches ; a 
novel but important feature that we shall look forward to with very 
much interest. On the whole, from the specimen before us, we can 
undertake to heartily recommend the work to our readers generally, 
and must say that, at the astonishing low price at which it is pub- 
lished, it is a marvel of excellency and cheapness combined. 

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

The startling frequency of railway disasters during the past few months 
has justly claimed, and in part obtained, that share of public attention which 
such serious calamities ought at all times to command. The resulting 
investigations set on foot cannot help but be eventually beneficial in ensuring 
increased safety to travellers. We may also expect that boiler explosions, 
as an important branch of the subject, will not be neglected, though it would 
be more satisfactoiy if the inquiries could be also extended to others than 
those of locomotives. The constantly-increasing pressure, necessarily ensuing 
on the extension of the economical practice of working steam more and more 
expansively in steam ships is certain, at least, to tend towards danger. If, 
then, inquiry is important in the case of locomotives, how much moro is it 
in that of marine boilers, looking forward, as we must, to a greatly aug- 
mented number of emigrants, who will trust themselves to the volcanic 
agency of high-pressure steam. Of little less importance is it to the manu- 
facturing community at home, who are continually, in large numbers, in 
close contact with so destructive a power. 

These considerations have induced us to continue the article on this sub- 
ject contained in last month's Artizan, with such particulars of interest to 
the engineer, though sufficiently scanty, as we are able to obtain on reliable 
authority. 

We have no fewer than five new explosions to record in this month's 
Artizan (a rate of sixty per annum), and an equal number last month ; two 
of the latter being locomotives, one occurring near Bristol and the other at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. We remark that, in both cases the engines had just 
previously undergone repair. During the month just passed we have had 
two more explosions of locomotives; one of them at the Longsight station, 
near Manchester, whence it was about starting on its journey, and also, as 
in both the previous instances, it had just been repaired. We may remark 
also, that all the three locomotives now referred to were about the same age. 
We shall resume our remarks on this singular coincidence in our next 
number. 

A frightful accident occurred on the premises of the London and North 
Western Railway Company, at Longsight, near Manchester, on Tuesday 
morning, March 8th, whereby four men lost their lives, and at least a dozen 
received serious injuries. It seems that the engine No. 1, an old four-wheeled 
engine, made by Sharp, Roberts and Co., some fourteen years ago, and one 
of the first put upon the line, if not the very first, having undergone " a 
thorough repair," was in the Polygon shed, at Longsight, ready to start to 
act as pilot engine at the Standedge tunnel, on the Huddersfield and Man- 
chester line. In a few moments more the driver would have taken the engine 
forward upon the turntable in the centre of the building, in order that its 
head might be reversed, when suddenly the men in the Polygon were 
alarmed by a tremendous report and concussion of air. The place was im- 
mediately filled with steam and smoke, and a portion of the building came 
rattling down, overwhelming a very large number of them. As soon as the 
smoke and steam had cleared away, the persons uninjured found the tender 
standing where it had been before the occurrence, with the back wheels of 
the engine and the plate over them, on which the driver stands, still adhering 
to the tender; the engine itself was some thirty paces off, beneath the centre 
of the building, and it was from that the firebox had exploded. On looking 
for the persons injured, they discovered four men dead in the ash pit next 
to that upon which the engine had been standing. Seven persons were got 
from beneath the debris, and, having been removed to the Manchester Royal 
Infirmary, one of them has since died. The cause of the explosion, as far as 
can at present be ascertained, is clearly over-pressure of steam. The engine, 
it seems, was worn out; some of the tubes at the side were quite filled up and 
useless, and some of the long stays were corroded very much; facts which 
seem to prove a want of supervision. The force of the concussion was so 
great, that it blew away every window in the shed, although the frames were 



cast iron ; and it lifted up the floor of the reading room, and threw the men 
from their seats. Three cast-iron pillars, 27 feet long, and about 12^ inches 
in diameter, were thrown down with the roof. We have collected" all the 
evidence upon the inquests that have been held ; hut, as other and more 
stringent investigations are in hand, we defer our remarks until their com- 
pletion. 

A locomotive boiler has exploded at the Brighton station. At about ten 
minutes to seven the engine of the short train which leaves Brighton for 
Littlchampton daily at 7-15 was standing attached to its train, and ready 
for departure, when it exploded suddenly, and the various parts of the ma- 
chinery were driven through the roof of the shed under which it was stand- 
ing. The driver, the fireman, and a fitter, who were upon the- engine at the 
time, were killed, and their bodies were found at some distance from the en- 
gine. Although some of the passengers were seated in the train, they all 
escaped without the slightest injury. Prom evidence already obtained, the 
directors have too much cause to believe that the accident arose from the 
driver having screwed down the safety valve shortly before the explosion 
took place. On the inquest, Mr. Chester Craven, locomotive superintendent, 
said, in answer to the coroner, that he had foremen in different departments to 
inspect everything; he himself interfered only when his attention was called 
to serious defects. The exploded engine was built by Messrs. Rcnnie in 
1S40, but had been patched and patched, till it had been nearly rebuilt. 
On the 4th of March, it was inspected by Ardron, inspector of working 
engines, and pronounced perfect. It had run 95,000 miles ; but they ex- 
pected 300,000 miles from an engine before parting with it. In 1340 boilers 
were made with 5-16ths plates, but now with 7-16ths. They did not put 
new boilers into engines. When a boiler had worn out two new boxes and 
two new sets of tubes, the engine was given up. He believed that this acci- 
dent arose from over-pressure, arising from the safety valve being unduly 
pressed down. 

A fatal steamboat explosion occurred on board the Engineer steamboat, 
off Tyne bar, on Thursday, the 10th March. One of the joiners, who was 
scalded, is dead, and a baker, of the name of Elliott, is in a very dangerous 
condition. The other seven persons scalded, though suffering much from 
the wounds they sustained, are recovering. It seems the Engineer was a 
new vessel, and was making her trial trip. She left Mr. Almond's works 
about five o'clock in the afternoon, with about twenty persons aboard, and 
had crossed the bar, and got about a mile and a half to sea, when the explo- 
sion took place. In a moment, and without any previous warning, what 
is called the " tubing " of the 6tarboard boiler gave way with a terrible 
noise, the steam and water washing the coals from the coal-hole into the fore 
cabin, and bursting open a portion of the deck, some of the planks of which 
were blown into the sea. The boiler has since been carefully examined, to 
ascertain the cause of the explosion, and a wooden plug has been found in 
the boiler that exploded. The presence of the plug, and the origin of the 
explosion, are accounted for in this way : — The boat has two boilers, one on 
the starboard, and one on the larboard side. They are connected together 
by a pipe which feeds the engine and communicates with the safety-valve. 
The pipe is screwed on to the boilers at each end, and, to prevent the escape 
of steam, is also cemented at the ends. Before screwing the pipe to the 
boiler, a wooden plug is driven in, to keep it steady, but which is taken out 
after the screws are fastened. The plug fastening the piping to the starboard 
boiler, there is every reason to believe, had been forgotten by the workmen, 
and left in, and, effectually preventing the steam from escaping, had occa- 
sioned the explosion. 

We are compelled, from want of space, to defer particulars of the other 
explosions till our next number. 

NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



Gkiffiths's Screw Propeller. — The Fairy h£s made another trial of 
Griffiths's patent propeller. The trials hitherto made with the screw on this 
patent were with a three-bladed screw; but, as the rule of the service is to 
have all the screws to Her Majesty's ships so fitted that they can be lifted on 
deck through an opening constructed for that purpose, and through which 
only a two-bladed screw, with the blades placed in a vertical position, can 
pass, it was deemed necessary that an opportunity should be given to ascer- 
tain if the same results could be obtained from a two-bladed screw on this 
patent, as was obtained from that of three blades. Purther trials are to be 
made with this two-bladed screw, which has been fitted by Messrs. Bovill 
and Swayne, but the results of Friday's trials are given in the subjoined 
table, the pressure of steam in each trial being lllbs., and the vacuum 26J 
inches: — 

Revolutions 
Eemarks. of Engines. 

1st. Run with tide.. .. 37 .. 
2nd. Against tide and ) „ fil 

strong head wind .. > 2 

3rd. With tide 31^ .. 

4th. Against tide and a > 

strong head wind ... } ' 

5th. With tide 26j 

6th. Against tide and a i 

strong head wind 



Pitch of 
Screw. 

8ft. 6in. 



30 



?} 2 4 







11-092 



1853.] 



Shipbuilding on the Clyde. 



93 



Nixet's Patent Revolving Till. — The sketch represents an improved 
till, lately patented by Mr. Nixey, of Soho. The improvements consists in 
the use of a cylindrical metal box, either flush with the counter or standing 
slightly above it. In the centre is an upright axle, on which is fixed a tray 
divided into six compartments. Over the tray is a thick plate of glass, in 
which an aperture is cut. By means of an ivory handle, which impels an 
escapement action, each compartment is brought in succession under this 




aperture, where it receives a payment. It is obvious that five payments will 
remain in sight, enabling both the tradesman and his customer to satisfy 
themselves, should any disputes arise respecting the identity of the coin. As 
No. 6 compartment receives the coin, No. 1 deposits its charge in the till 
beneath. This is a most simple and useful invention. 

Manufacture of Gun Cotton. — The Austrian government, it is said, 
have paid Professors Schoenbein and Bottger the sum of 30,000 florins, of 
which the latter, as the prior inventor, receives two-thirds. This would 
appear as if the gun-cotton were being usefully applied on the Continent ; 
we do not hear of its coming into use here ; the fatal explosion at Messrs. 
Hall's mills having frightened everybody, apparently, who had anything to 
do with it. 

Improvement in Looking Glasses. — Mirrors are sometimes tinned 
instead of being silvered. M. Gully has invented a process for protecting 
the tin so applied ; which consists in putting a coat of varnish on the tin 
then a coat of plumbago, and then depositing copper on it by the, usual 
electrotype process. 

Effect of Grease in Boilers. — M. Borme, of Paris, has taken out a 
patent for the employment of fatty matters in boilers, particularly loco- 
motives ; whereby, he asserts, that a saving of 35 per cent, of fuel is 
effected ! This appears incredible ; but the wonder ceases when we find 
that the experiments were made on a boiler of one-horse power. On such a 
small scale experiments do not deserve the name. The grease employed 
consists of 75 per cent, of soap and 25 per cent, of pork fat, which is added 
to the water in the boiler in the proportion of 1-6 per cent, by weight of the 
water evaporated by the boiler per hour. Grease of all kinds has been 
always put in boilers to prevent priming; and, though we are not prepared 
to deny that a slight economy of fuel may be attained by its use, we doubt 
if it is so much as 10 per cent., without ocular demonstration. 



STEAM-SHIP " BENGAL. 

Built by Messrs. Tod and M'Gregor. Engines by Tod and 
M'Gregor, of 465 horse (nominal) power. 



Dimensions. 
Length on deck 
Breadth of beam (for tonnage) 
Length of engine space 



ft. tenths. 
300 6 



39 
93 

ft. 
18 
25 



Depth of hold at beam 
Do. from spar deck 

Tonnaure. Tons. 

Hull (iron):— 

Engine room l,009f| 

Register, N. M 1.175^, 

Do., 0. M 2,203$ 

Screw engines, wrought by beams and gearing. 
Boilers fitted with Messrs. Lamb and Summers' 
patent flues ; diameter of cylinders, 80 inches ; 
length of stroke, 60 inches; diameter of screw, 14 
feet; length of screw, 14 feet 6 inches ; pitch of 
screw, 18 to 22 feet; number of blades of screw, 3; 
number of boilers, 4; number of furnaces, 12 ; 
breadth of do., 3 feet; number of tubes, 108 (patent 
flues) ; length of do., 6 feet 9 inches; diameter of 
chimney, 7 feet; height of do., 46 feet 6 inches; 
load on safely-valve, in lbs., per square inch, 12; 
average revolutions, 27 ; weight of engines, 232 
tons; do. boilers, with water, 93 tons; water in do., 
58 tons. 

Description. — Three masts ; barque-rigged. 

The Bengal has made the quickest passage to 
Gibraltar on record (in four days five hours) from 
Southampton. She had favourable weather. Un- 
der canvas, she went 12 knots; and under steam 
alone, with a full swell in the bay, she ran, in 24 
hours, 264 miles, equal to 1 1 knots. "With canvas 



SHIPBUILDING ON THE CLYDE. 

set, she ran 290 miles. The distance to Gibraltar 
is 1,150 miles, which was performed in 101 hours. 
The quickest voyages previously were by the 
Ganges, in 108, and by the Bentinck, in 112 hours. 
The latter was a full-power paddle-wheel steamer. 



the west highland steam navigation com- 
pany's NEW IRON PADDLE-WHEEL STEAM VESSEL 

" MOUNTAINEER." 

Built and fitted by Messrs. James and George Thomson, 

engineers and iron ship-builders, Glasgow, 1852. 

Dimensions. ft. tenths. 

Length on deck 174 3 

Breath on ditto, amidships 17 6 

Depth of hold, ditto 7 9 

Length of engine room ... ... 53 

Tonnage. Tons. 

Hull 189^j 

Contents of engine room 79^ 

Eegister 109£? B 

One steeple engine (having two piston rods) of 
1 05 horse (nominal) power ; diameter of cylinder, 
56 inches by 4 feet length of stroke ; is fitted with 
Morgan's patent feathering paddle-wheels, diameter 
18 feet 2 inches ; twelve floats, 6 feet 6 inches by 
2 feet 10 inches. Two tubular boilers, length above 

9 feet 9 inches ; ditto at furnace, 9 feet ; breadth 

10 feet 9 inches ; depth 8 feet 3 inches. Steam 
chests, length 6 feet 6 inches ; breadth 6 feet ; 
depth 5 feet. Six furnaces, three in each boiler, 
length 6 feet ; breadth 2 feet 11 inches ; depth 3 
feet 4 inches, 2S2 tubes or 141 in each boiler ; 
diameter 3£ inches. Has 2 funnels. Stem, keel and 
stern post 4 by 1 } A inch ; frames of hull 2| by 2f 
by | inches, and 2 feet apart. The coal bunkers 
hold 18 tons. The cabin is very tastefully fitted 
out, and the panels between the side windows are 



beautifully stained views on glass, painted by 
T. Lawrie, Esq., of Glasgow — No. 1, Clyde from 
Kilpatrick ; No. 2, Eerry boat (returning from 
deer stalking, a Highland scene) ; No. 3, Loch 
Oich (Caledonian Canal) ; No. 4, Inverlochy 
Castle, (Lochabar and Ben Nevis) ; No. 5, Sound of 
Kerrera (Oban) ; No. 6, Ealls of Eorres (Loch 
Ness) ; No. 7, Loch Leven (entrance to Glencoe) ; 
No. 8, Linlithgow Palace ; No. 9, Dunstaffhage 
Castle ( near Oban); No. 10, Loch Eil (passage 
of the Highland army) ; No. 11, Falls of Kil- 
morack (near Inverness) ; No. 12, Loch Ness ; 
No. 13, View on Loch Lomond ; No. 14, Dunally 
Castle ; No. 15, Deer stalking; No. 16, The 
Trossachs. The floors are covered with beautiful 
Brussels carpeting, &c. There are five beautiful 
mirrors, in handsome carved and gilt frames ; also 
a very neatty finished chiffonier, made of rosewood, 
and lined with crimson satin, with a marble top. 
Was launched from the yard of the builders at 
Cessnock Bank, on the 29th of May. On the trial 
trip, July 22nd, made the run from the Cloch to 
Cumbrae (a distance of 15 - 6 miles) in 54^ minutes, 
the steam pressure being 26 lbs. per square inch, the 
engine making 38 revolutions per minute. The 
average passage from Glasgow to Ardrishaig is 5^- 
hours. Steam pressure 20 lbs., 36 revolutions per 
minute, draught of water 4 feet forward, and 4 feet 
3 inches aft ; breadth, including the pad'dle cases, 
35 feet Hi inches. 

DESCRIPTION. 

A full man figure-head (one on each side of the 
bows, on the top of the bulwark rail, a Highlander) ; 
no bowsprit ; one mast ; sloop rigged ; one deck, 
flush ; no galleries ; square sterned and clinch- 
built vessel ; common bow. Port of Glasgow. 
Commander, Mr. James McGown. 



NOTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

H. A. (Bradford). We have not sufficient information to answer his 
question exactly. The first thing is to know what the resistance of the tubes 
will be, and this will depend on their form at each end, and their immersion 
when all the load is on board. Then, it is necessary to know how much 
steam the boiler is capable of producing at a given pressure. If a speed of 
6 miles an hour is to be obtained (and that is a very fair speed on the small 
scale, as " H. A." will find, when he tries the experiment), the wheel must 
make 8 miles, and, assuming that the boiler makes steam for 60 revolutions, 
8 miles 

then = 11-7 feet, or, a diameter of 3 feet 10 inches. There should 

60 
be five or six floats about a foot wide and three or four inches deep. In 



any case, it would be better to run the engine quicker, say at 120 to 150 
revolutions per minute, and put enough lap on the valve to cut off at two- 
thirds of the stroke. In this case, it may be necessary to reduce the diameter 
of the wheel. Nothing but experiment will give the best size, for you can- 
not apply the same rules to such a small engine and boat that you would 
to a large one. The engine will have no difficulty in turning the centres. 

H. F. If you have a very short connecting rod for your pump, you may 
reduce the size of the trunk (p. 55) by making the bolt in the bucket longer, 
so as to raise the pin to about the centre of the trunk. There will be no 
harm in the centre of the pin coming a little above the stuffing box, at top 
stroke, as it is so well guided. 

Constant Reader (Manchester). Send us your address. We could not 
get the information in time for this number. 



94 



List of Patents. 



[April, 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS, 

Armstrong's (R) Practical Introduction to English Composition, 1 vol., 12mo., pp. 142, sewed, 

3s. 6d, 
Bain's (A) Short History of Electric Clocks, 8vo., sewed. Is. 6d. 
Birt's (W. E.) Handbook of the Law of Storms, cloth, 5s. 
Byrne's (O.) American Engineer, Draughtsman, and Machinists' Assistant, 4to. 
Carpenter's Dictionary of English Synonymes, 4th edition, cloth, 2s. 6d. 
Christy's (D.) Chemistry of Agriculture, 12mo. 

Cullen's (Dr.) Isthmus of Darien Ship Canal, 2nd edition, 8vo., cloth, 6s. 
De Morgan's (A.) Elements of Arithmetic, 14th thousand, 8yo., cloth, 5s. 
Douglas On the Construction of Military Bridges, 3rd edition, cloth, 21s. 
Encyclopaedia (The) Britannica, and Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, edited hy T. S. Traill, 

8th edition, vol. i., part i., 4to., sewed, 8s. 
Hose's (H. J.) Elements of Euclid, 12mo., cloth, 4s. 
Hoseason's (Capt.) Letter on a Steam Navy, 8vo., sewed, Is. 
Hughes's (W.) Manual of British Geography, 3rd edition, 12mo., pp. 142, cloth, 2s. 
Keate's (T. W.) Practical Guide to the Best Means of Testing Gold, 12mo., pp. 70, cloth, Is. 
Kendall's Designs for Schools and Schoolhouses, folio, cloth, 42s. 



Lectures on the Results of the Great Exhibition of 1851, 2nd series, post 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 

Metcalfe's (S. T.) Caloric ; its Mechanical, Chemical, and Vital Agencies, 2 vols 8vo cloth 
35s. "' ' ' 

Mining (The) Guide, 18mo., sewed, 2s. 6d. 

Wash's (J. A.) Progressive Farmer ; a Scientific Treatise on Agricvltural Chemistry, the Geo- 
logy of Agriculture, &c, 8vo., cloth, 5s. 

Normandy's (A.) Farmer's Manual of Agricultural Chemistry, post 8vo., pp. 222, cloth 
4s. 6d. 

Norman's (J. P.) Treatise on the Law and Practice relating to Letters Patent for Inventions 
8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. 

Redgrave's (R.) Manual of Colour, 18mo., pp. 3G, cloth, 9d. 

Smith's (J.) Fruits and Farinacea the Proper Food of Man, 2nd edition, 12mo., pp. 370, 
cloth, 4s. Gd. 

Steam Navies (The) of France and England compared, hy a Vice-Admiral, 8vo., sewed, !s. 

Tate's (T ) Principles of Mechanical Philosophy applied to Industrial Mechanics, 8vo., cloth, 
10s. 6d. 

Turner's Domestic Architecture, vol. ii., 8vo., cloth, 21s. 

Vaughan's (E. P. H.) Plea for Geology and its Professors, fcap. 8vo., pp. 20, cloth, Gd. 

Young's i J. R.) Introduction to Algebra, new edition, 12mo., 3s. 

Young's (J. E.) Introductory Treatise on Mensuration, new edition, 3s. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 

Dated 8th January, 1853. 
57. W. Henderson— Manufacture of sulphuric acid and 
copper from copper ores, &e. 

Dated 15th January, 1853. 
106. H. C. Nion — Apparatus for refrigerating. 

Dated 17ft January, 1853. 
116. A. Inglesia— Measuring and gauging silk, cotton, &c, 
on reels. 

Dated 18ft January, 1853. 
218. T. S. Prideaux— Manufacture of iron . 

Da'.ed 24ft January, 1853. 
154. W. E. Newton — " Hawes' calendar clock, or timepiece." 
(A communication). 

Dated 26th January, 1853. 
196. A. G. Gazalat — A new barometer and steam gauge. 

Dated 29th January, 1853. 
228. T. H. Wilson — Securing carriage-gates, doors, &c. 

Dated 3\st January, 1853. 

243. D. S. Brown — Improvements in barometers, &e. 

248. E. Palmer — Cutting and reducing to pulp turnips and 
other roots, &c, and also crushing apples for cider. 

255. E. Leach — Preparing and spinning wool, &e. 

258. F. Lawrence, "W. Davison, and A. Lawrence — Im- 
provements in steam-engines, &c. 

Dated 1st February, 1353. 
276. A. V. Newton — Block printing machinery. (A com- 
munication.) 

Dated 2nd February, 1853. 
279. A. E. L.Beilford— " Metallic oil," for lubricating, &c. 

(A communication.) 
281. A. E. L. Bellford — Improvements in lifeboats. (A 

communication.) 
283. A. E. L. Bellford — Furnaces for making wrought iron. 

(A communication.) 
285. J. V. Kiddle— Improvements in cocks or taps. 
287. J. J. Abadie and H. Lauret — Parasols. 

289. T. Paine — Heels for boots and shoes. 

Dated 3rd February, 1853. 

290. T. Spiller and A. Crowhurst — Propelling. 

291. M. Bower — Apparatus to prevent throwing up of mud 

by wheels. 

292. J. Heckthorn — Colouring buildings, &c. 

293. W. S. "Wright— Improved bath. 
295. J. Bower— Pile-driving. 

297. J. H. Johnson— Gas-burners. 

299. A. Tylor — Improvements in water-closets. 

301. J. Crowther — Improvements in baking bread. 

Dated 4ft February, 1853. 

302. W. Brown — Metallic bedsteads. 

303. D. L. Price — Signalising by electricity on railway- 

trains, &c. 

304. F. J. Jones— Fastenings for bands, belts, &c. (A com- 

munication.) 

305. P. Webley— Repeating pistols and other firearms. 

306. G. Winiwater — Application of explosive compounds. 

307. J. Perkins — Treatment of bituminous substances. 

308. E. Griffiths — Bolts and rivets. 

309. J. Dudgeon — Machinery for raising propellers. 

310. J. V. Asbury — Railway carriages. 

311. W.Edgar — Improved boot. 

312. G. Letts — Mincing meat and filling skins. 

313. W. Walker— Apparatus for drying. 

314. A. Woodward— Lever churn. 

315. A. Woodward— Self-acting cam press. 

Dated 5ft February, 1853. 

316. E. Prosser — Printing-rollers for calicos, &c. 

317. T. Peacock — Weaving hat-plush, &c. 

318. G. Hewitson— Measuring yarn as it is wound on 

rollers. 

319. A. Wallowicz— Primers for firearms. 

320. J. and J. Whitehouse — Knobs for doors, applicable to 

other articles of earthenware. 



321. 
323, 
324. 
325. 
327. 
329. 



330. 
331. 
332. 
333. 
334. 



33G. 
337. 
338. 
339. 



C. F. Werckshagen — Carbonate of soda and potash, 

W. Crossby — Consumption of smoke. 

J. Campbell — Treatment of textile fabrics. 

H. J. Nichol — Garments for travelling. 

E. Palmer — Railway carriages. 

J, Cowan — Propelling. 

Dated 7th February, 1853. 

W. Romaine — Rendering wood durable and uninflam- 
mable. 

W. Scott, E. Brough, J. Rinoe, and T. Mann— Steam- 
engines. 

J. L. Tabberner— Smelting iron ores, &c, and manu- 
facture of lime. 

J. L. Tabberner — Application of granite, &c., to orna- 
menting and construction of buildings. 

A. J. Brooman— Sail hanks, for securing staysails, jibs, 
&c. (A communication.) 

Dated 8ft February, 1S53. 
A. E. L. Bellford — Treatment of bituminous substances. 

(A communication.) 
T, Howarth — Cement for steam-joints, &c. 
J. Buchanan — Propeller, and machinery for same. 
T. Allan — Protecting telegraph wires. 
T. Allan — Galvanic batteries. 



Dated 9ft February, 1853. 

340. T. H. and S. Reynolds— Retarding progress of car- 

riages. 

341. H. Pooley — Weighing -machines. (Partly a communi- 

cation.) 

342. W. E. Newton — Digging and excavating machinery. 

343. W. Binks, S. Bennett, and T. Storey— Pumps. 

344. J. Little — Lubricating. 

345. W. Birkett — Treating soapsuds. 

346. J. Seaward — Marine engines. 

347. I. J. Machin — Nutcrackers. 

348. C. lies — Pointing wire. 

349. J. Webster — Treating animal matters and manufacture 

of manure. 

Dated 10th February, 1853. 

350. J. S. Wilson— Consumption of smoke and gases, and 

utilising the same. 

351. W. J. Curtis — Improvements in candlesticks. 

352. C. Cuylits — Regulating speed of steam and other 

engines. 

354. J. Hunter — Textile fabrics. 

355. W. Foulton — Finishing textile fabrics. 

356. J. Anderson — Steam-engines. 

357. W. Ball — Machinery for looped fabrics. 

358. H. M'Farlane — Machinery for excavating. (A com- 

munication.) 

359. E.Ash — Stopping bottles, &c. 

360. G. Hutchinson — Treating oils, &c. 

361. C. Breese— Ornamenting papier maehe, #e., with gold. 

362. E. Roger — Motive power. 

363. W. Potts— Improvements in sepulchral monuments. 

Dated 11th February, 1853. 

364. E. Thomas — Machinery for planning, slotting, &c. 

365. Sir J. Murray — Deodorising cod-liver oil. 
36G. A. Sanguinede — Improved clasp or buckle. 

367. W. Choppin— Improvements in locks. 

368. E. D. Eea — Improvements in bits. 

Dated \2th February, 1853. 

369. T. E. Mellish — Closing scent and other bottles. 

370. J. F. Stanford— Draining, &c. 

371. G. Winiwarter— Improvements in fire-arms. 

372. T. J. Perry— Construction of cornice-poles, picture and 

curtain rods. 

373. G. Parry— Blast furnaces. 

374. G. H. Bursill— Separating gold and other metals, &c. 

375. G. L. Lysnar — Swivel hooks, &c. 

376. W. Pidding — Crushing ores, &c. 

377. W. Pidding — Purifying, decolorising, &c., oleaginous 

or other gelatinous substances. 

378. C. Hadiey — Communication between guard and 

. driver, &c. 



Dated 14ft February, 1853. 

379. W. E. Newton— Apparatus for veneering. (A commu- 

nication.) 

380. C. J. Burnett — Driving machinery by water. 

381. P. A. de Fontainemoreau— Treating librous substances . 

(A communication.) 

382. P. A. de Fontainemoreau — Giving flexibility to beds, 

sofas, &c. (A communication.) 

383. P. A. de Fontainemoreau — Tiles for roofing. 

384. J. A. Gervais — Treating fermentable liquids. 

385. F. C. Monatis — Improved mode of raising water. 

386. C. J. Lambert — Preparation of bread and biscuits. 

Dated 15ft February, 1853. 

387. W. Clark— Colours and paints. 

388. J. Bethell — Obtaining copper and zinc from ores. (A 

communication.) 

390. B. Greening — Machinery for making fences, &c, of 

wire. 

391. T. W. Kennard — Improving draft of chimneys. 

392. F\ Chinnock — Securing axles in their boxes. 

393. G. Stiff— Manufacture of paper. 

394. A. Nicole — Rotary engines. 

395. A. R. le Mire de Normandy — Articles made of gutta 

percha. (Partly a communication.) 

396. W. B. and G. S. Whitton— Sewer and other pipes. 

397. J. and A. Risdale — Ships' side-lights, scuttles or ports. 

398. H. Dircks — Sewing-machine. 

399. H. Francis — Instruments for cutting wool, hair, and 

vegetable matters. 

Dated 16th February, 1853. 

400. H. S. Ludlow — Removing dust, &c, and separating 

superior and inferior grains in wheat, barley, and 
malt. 

401. J. Cutler — Spoons, forks, &c. 

402. B. Cook — Apparatus for lighting fires. 

403. G. G. Maekay — Drain pipes. 

404. J. Skertchly— Copying press. 

405. J. Day — Protecting insulated wires. 

406. E. Sy — Improvements in bookbinding. 

407. J. G. Perry — Bookbinding, and facilitating the finding 

of places in books. 

408. C. Sheppard — Improved stove, and apparatus for heat- 

ing air for blast purposes. 

409. W. Jones — Stretching woven fabrics. 

410. A. V. Newton — Manufacture of printing surfaces. 

Dated 11th February, 1853. 

411. J. C. Brown — Propelling vessels. 

412. W. B. Adams — Eailways. 

413. J. Murphy — Permanent way. 

414. W". Pidding — Saccharine substances, and apparatus 

for treating same. 

415. M. Walker — Improvements in vessels for beer and 

other liquors. 

416. C. Gordon — Goniometric protractor. 

417. D.Cochrane— Improvements in closing doors. 

418. T. C. Ogden— Spinning cotton, &c. 

419. G. L. L. Kufahl — Atmospheric currents for motive 

power. 

420. "W. Hawes— Refining sugar. 

421. C. Watt — Coating iron with copper and brass. 

422. Isaac Frost — Reaping. 

Dated 18th February, 1853. 

424. J. Horsfall — Pianoforte wire, &c. 

425. C. B. Clough— Apparatus for detaching boats, &c, from 

their moorings. 

426. W. Darling — Manufacture of iron and other metals. 

427. C. Kinder — Mantelpieces. 

428. H. Noad — Treating grain, and obtaining products 

therefrom. 

Dated 19ft February, 1853. 

430. J. White— Fastenings for harness. 

431. F. C. Hills and G. Hills— Refining sugar. 

432. W.E. Dell— Dressing flour. 

433. C. Cowper — Zinc white. 

434. C . Nightingale— Drying and heating certain substances. 



1853.] 



List of Patents. 



95 



435. J. Anderson — Motive power. 

436. P. A. Tourniere— Propelling. 

Dated 2\st February, 1853. 

437. TV. Jones— Steam pipes for warming, &c. 

438. S. R. Samuels and R. Sands — Looms. 

439. J. O'Leary — Numbering entrance and exit of passengers 

in omnibuses. 

440. J.Ramage and T. Coffey— Chandeliers, &c. 

441. J. Mash and J. S. Batfey — Machinery for textile 

fabrics and manufacture of same. 

442. W. Pidding — Coverings for feet of bipeds or quadru- 

peds. 

443. R. Farrant— Improved chimney pot. 

444. E. Miles — Railway breaks. 

445. T. Bell and R. Chrimes — Improvements in valves. 

446. B. Barton — Improved bath, which may be used as a 

life boat. 

447. J. C. Pearce — Steam boilers. 

448. J. D. M. Stirling — Manufacture of wire. 

449. W. Wilkinson— Ropes, bands, &e. 

Bated 22nd February, 1853. 

450. J. and T. B. Hudson — Bricks, tiles, drain-pipes, or 

tubes. 

451. P. F. Gougy— Skidding wheels. 

452. G. Winiwarter — Fire-arms. 

453. J. C. Cockrane — Production of figured fabrics. 

Dated 23rd February, 1853. 
Beckett — Mule spindles. &c. 
Smith — Raising and forcing water, &c. 
T. Brookes, J. Black, G. Stevenson, and W. Jones — 
Machinery for looped fabrics. 
Albrecht^-Transmitting and reflecting light. 
Plant— Safety lamps. 
Milligan — Washing slivers of wool. 
C. Lister — Improvements in treating soapsuds. 
Willard — Butter machines. 
C. Engert — Joints of parasol-sticks, &c. 



454. S. 

455. J. 

456. E. 

457. E. 
45S. R. 

459. R. 

460. S. 

461. A. 

462. A. 

Dated 2ith February, 1853. 

463. J. Green — Economical self-basting cooking apparatus. 

464. W. Spence — Threshing and winnowing corn. 

465. H. Walmesley and T. Critchley — Stopping railway 

trains, and communicating from one part of a train 
to another. 

466. P. M'Lellan — Threshing machinery. 

467. W.Johnson — Manufacture of caoutchouc. (A commu- 

nication.) 

469. T. De la Rue— Improvements in producing ornamental 

surfaces to paper, &c. 

470. E. A. Hermann — Machinery for manufacturing woollen 

cloth. (A communication.) 

471. J. Lawrence — Drying and preparation of malt, meal, 

seeds, corn, &c. 

472. T. B. Jordan — Machinery for planing slate. 

Dated 2oth February, 1853. 

473. F. Preston— Manufacture of machinery used in spin- 

ning cotton, &c. 

475. B. Price— Construction of furnaces, &c, for heating 

and evaporating. 

476. J. Grist — Machinery for manufacture of casks, &c. 

477. W. Symington — Preserving milk, &c. 

478. J. P. de la Fons — Skids and drags for omnibuses. 

479. T. Richardson — Manufacture of compounds of phos- 

phoric acid. 

480. T. M. Nicholls— Emission or reaction engines. 

481. A. F. Cossus— Filters. 

483. F. Goodell — Distilling, bleaching, and deodorising rosin 

oil. (Partly a communication J 

Dated 25th February, 1853. 

484. C.N. Wilcox— Extracts from elder tree. 

485. J. J. Frgchin — Locomotive engines. 

486. W. M. Shaw — Locomotive toilers 

487. J. Brandeis — Manufacture and refining sugar. 

488. M. H. Blanchard — Earthenware pipes, &c. 

489. W.E.Newton — Indicating rotations of wheels. (A com- 

munication.) 

490. E. Thornton — Kitchen boilers and flues, 

491. Lord Berriedale — Weaving. 

492. R. Griffiths — Propelling vessels. 

493. C. Tetley — Power by steam and air. 

494. C. Tetley— Manufacture of bobbins. 

495. S. Vailey — Communication between guard and engine 

driver. 

496. Earl of Dundonald — Useful products by combination 

of bituminous, resinous, and gummy matters. 

Dated 28«ft February, 1853. 
498. J. Murphy — Railway trucks, &c. 
500. M. J. Roberts — Manufacture of mordants, partly ap- 
plicable to manufacture of a polishing powder. 
502. G. Duncan — Steam boilers. 
504. J. Major — Synovitic lotions. 

Dated 1st March, 1853. 
506. R. Stephenson, jun. — Locomotive engines. 
508. J. Bethel — Preserving wood. 
512. W. Rowett — The cylinder paddle-wheel. 
814. J. M'Adams — Printing on leaves of books their desig- 
nations, numbers, &c, &c. 

Dated 2nd Starch, 1853. 
516. L.Hill, jun. — Motive power. (A communication.) 
518. H. A. Holden, A. Knight, E. Bull, and J. Banfield— 

Signals between guard and driver. 
520. A. Soyer — Soyer's ozmazome food. 
522. E. D. Moore — Treating extract of malt and hops. 
524. A. A. de la Hely — Door or finger-plate. 
526. M. Vetillart — Drying yarns. 



Dated 3rd March, 1853. 
528. W. Clark — Propelling and steering vesels. 
530. S. O'Regan — Consuming smoke. 
534. M. Billing— Metallic bedsteads. 
536. S.Colt — A blower. ■ (A communication.) 
538. S. Colt — Rotating breech for fire-arms. (Partly a com- 
munication.) 
540. W. E. Newton — Primers for fire-arms. 
542. T. Crick — Manufacture of boots, shoes, &c. 



10. 

109. 

296. 

317, 

877. 
898, 



LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 

Sealed Wtli February, 1853. 

Freeman Roe, of the Strand — Improvements in valves 
and cocks. 

William Austin, of Birmingham, and Wiliiam Suther- 
land, of the same place — Improvements in orna- 
menting glass. 

Alfred Trueman, of Swansea — Improvements in ob- 
taining copper and other metals from ores, or matters 
containing them. 

William Scholfield and Joseph Pritcliard, of Oldham — 
Improvements in steam-boilers. 

Thomas Ainsley Cook, of Wall's end, Northumberland 
— Improvements in bleaching. 

William Edward Schottlander, of Southwark— Im- 
provements in machinery for boring the ground, 
stone, or rocks, for the formation of drains and 
sewers, for the laying of pipes underground, and for 
removing obstructions therein ; also in the manu- 
facture of pipes to be used in connection with such 
machinery, and in instruments for surveying and 
levelling, preparatory to the boring operations. (A 
communication , ) 

Joseph Skertchley, jun., of Kingsland and of Ansty, 
near Leicester — Improvements in mangles and man- 
gle-rollers. 

James Murdoch, of Staple-inn — Improved galvanic 
battery. (A communication.) 

Anthony Norris Groves, of Madras, and Conrad William 
Finzel, jun., of Bristol — Improvementsiu condensing 
steam or vapours. 

Rudolph Appell, of 43, Gerrard-street, Soho — Improve- 
ments in anastatic printing, and in producing copies 
of drawings, writings, and printed impressions. 

Anthony Norris Groves, of Bristol — Improvements in 
apparatus for heating, drying and evaporating. 

Alfred Krupp, of Essen, Prussia— Improvements in 
cannons. 

James Langridge, of Bristol — Improvements in the 
manufacture of stays. 

Warren de la Rue, of Bunhill-row — Improvements in 
preparing the surfaces of paper and card-boards. 

Ephraim Moseley, of Grosvenor-street— Improvements 
in the manufacture of artificial masticating appa- 
ratus. 

Jean Louis David, of Paris — Certain improvements in 
the manufacture of woollen fabrics. 

George Ingham, of Rochdale — Certain improvements 
in machinery for drawing cotton and other fibrous 
materials. 

George Gwynne, of Hyde-park- square, and George Fer- 
gusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Improve- 
ments in treating fatty and oily matteTS. 

Claude Joseph EdmSe Junot, of No. 15, Rue Basse 
Passy, France — Improvements in the mode of re- 
ducing several metallic substances hitherto unused, 
and applying them so prepared to the plating of other 
metals and substances by means of electricity. (A 
communication.) 

Samuel Clegg, of No. 24, Regent's-sque.re — Improve- 
ments in apparatus for measuring gas. 

Robert Stephen Oliver, of Edinburgh — Certain im- 
provements in waterproof and other garments. 

Charles Edwards Amos, of the Grove, Southwark — 
Certain improvements in the construction of centri- 
fugal pumps. 

Sealed 22nd February, 1853. 
1203. Robert Hazard, of 14, Lincoln's-inn-fields— A calorific 

bath. 
576. Bowman Fleming M'Cailum, of Govan Croft Dyework, 

Glasgow — A yarn drying machine. 
851. William Wilkinson, of Nottingham — Improvements in 

the manufacture of looped and textile fabrics, and 

in machinery for producing the same. 
1093. William Wilkinson, of Nottingham — Improvements in 

the manufacture of looped-pile and cut-pile fabrics, 

and the machinery employed therein. 

Sealed 23rd February, 1853. 

199. Edwin Bates, of 7, Great Portland-street— Improve- 
ments for deriving motive power from expansive 
fluids, and for the better application and economy 
thereof for propelling ships and other vessels in sea 
river and canal navigation ; also, in the shape and 
action of Mind-sails, the use of water as a motive 
power for driving machines, mills, &c, the construc- 
tion of Turbine's air and water-pumps, marine- 
pumps for emptying ships of bilge-water, and other 
useful purposes. 

253. Charles de Bergue, of Dowgate-hill — Improvements in 
machinery for punching'metals, and for riveting to- 
gether metallic plates or bars. 

258. David Chalmers, of Manchester — Improvements in 
looms for weaving wire, web, or cloth by power. 

330. Henry Moorhouse, of Denton, Dancaster — Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for cleaning 



959. 
1001. 

1058. 

1068. 
1094. 
1096. 
1123. 
1128. 

1149. 
1168. 

1171. 

1183. 



1184 

1203 

14 



woollen, cotton, or linen rags and waste, which 
machinery orapparatus is applicable to cleaning and 
tempering clay, or other similar purposes. 

560. Arthur Ashpitel and John Whichcord, the younger, 
of Carlton-chambers, Regent- street — Improvements 
in cocks, valves, and fire-plugs. 

625. John Cameron, of Manchester — Improvements in 
boilers for generating steam, and in feed-pumps and 
apparatus connected therewith. 
1188. John Whichcord, the younger, and Samuel Egan 
Rosser, of Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury — Im- 
provements in the mode of burning and applying 
gas for heat. 

Sealed 26th February, 1853. 
74. Christopher Kingsford, of 18, Buckingham-street, 
Adelphi — Machinery for solidifying peat, coal, and 
other substances of a like nature. 
87. Robert Robertson Menzies, of Glasgow — Improvements 
in the manufacture of carpets and other fabrics. 

172. John Jobson, of Litchurch— Improvements in manu- 
facturing moulds for casting metal. 

179. Frederic Newton, of Fleet-street — Improvements in the 
apparatus to be employed for producing photographic 
pictures. 

672. Stephen Carey, of Great Guildford-street, Southwark — 
Improvements in the construction of viaducts, arches, 
bridges, and other buildings, upon a non-expansion 
principle. 

941. Thomas Collins Banfield, of 18, Queen-square, West- 
minster — Improvements in the process and appa- 
ratus for extracting saccharine and other juices 
from beet-root or other roots and plants. (A com- 
munication.) 
1192. Archibald Douglas Brown, of Glasgow — Improvements 
in the construction of portable articles of furniture. 
12. Edme Augustin Chameroy, of Paris, France — Improve- 
ments in motive-power engines, and in the applica- 
tion of motive-power to the same. 

Sealed 2nd March, 1853. 
8. Richard Wright, of Greenwich — Improvements in con- 
structing vessels. 
135. Robert Griffiths, of Great Ormond-street — Improve- 
ments in apparatus for indicating the number of 
persons entering, and the distance travelled, in 
public or other conveyances and places, for the 
prevention of fraud upon proprietors of public con- 
veyances. 
210. Henry Webb, of Willenhall, Staffordshire, and Joseph 
Fros'sell, of the same place — Improvements in 
fastening knobs to door and other locks. 
447. George Gadd, of Fisher-gate, Nottingham— Improve- 
ments in apparatus for roasting coffee. 
954. Samuel Neville, of Gateshead — Improvements in the 
manufacture of lamp-glass and globes. 

1053. Isham Baggs, of Liverpool-street— Improvements in 
obtaining or extracting gold and silver from their 
ores. 

1086. George Michiels, of 57, Holywell-street, Westminster — 
Improvements in the purification and manufacture 
of gas. 

1119. Jean Baptiste Moinier, of Rue de Marseille, and Charles 
Constant Boutigny, of Rue de Flandre, of La Villete, 
France — Improvements in concentrating syrups and 
other solutions, and in distillations. 

1121. George Beadon, of Creechbarrow, near Taunton — Im- 
provements in constructing and propelling ships 
and vessels. 

1147. George Gwynne, of Hyde-park-square, and George 
Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall — Improve- 
ments in treating fatty and oily matters. 

1160. George Michiels, of 57, Holywell-street, Westminster — 
Improvements in themanufacture of gas. 

1180. William Busfield, of Bradford, York — Improvements 
in apparatus for combing wool and other fibrous 
substances requiring like process. 

1206. Robert Taylerson, of Three Indian King's-court. New- 
castle-upon-Tyne — Improvements in ship-building. 
5. Joseph John William Watson, of Old Kent-road, and 
William Prosser, of Adam-street, Adelphi — An im- 
proved method of manufacturing steel, and of car- 
burizing iron. 
11. John Bleackley, jun., of Myrtle-grove, Prestwich— Im- 
provements in machinery used in washing, bleach- 
ing, dyeing, and sizing yarns and fabrics. 

Sealed blh March, 1853. 
182. Samuel George Archibald, of Pall-mall — Improved 
mode of extracting or rendering animal fats and 
oils. 

228. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 

provements in machinery for boring or cutting rocks 
or other hard substances, for the purpose of tunnel- 
ing through mountains, or making other excava- 
tions. 

229. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 

provements in the means of producing a vacuum for 
various purposes, such as condensing steam, pump- 
ing water, exhausting air, or other purposes where 
a vacuum is required. 

256. John Cronin Jeffcott, of 1, Anglesea-street, Cork — 
Producing heat for generating steam, and applica- 
ble to and for other purposes for which this invention 
has not hitherto been used, under the name and 
title of a heat-producer and ste un-generator. 

269. William VaughanMorgan, of Jewin-crescent, London — 
Improvements in the preparation of oils for the 
purposes of illumination and lubricating machinery. 

401. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Ini- 



96 



List of Patents. 



[April, 1853. 



provements in washing and amalgamating gold and 
other metals. 

442. William Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Improved ma- 
chine for separating ores, metals, and other heavy 
substances, from mud, sand, gravel, stones, and other 
impurities. 

676. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Im- 
provements in the manufacture of the carbonate of 
soda. 

690. James C. Booth, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United 
States of America — Manufacturing chromate and 
bichromate of potash from chromic iron or chrome 
ore. 

692. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
provements in the construction of axles or axle- 
trees. 

722. George Kendall, of Providence, Rhode Island, United 
States of America — Improvements in apparatus to 
facilitate the manufacture of mould candles. 

816. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
provements in the manufacture of paper. (A com- 
munication.) 

966. James Buchanan, of Glasgow — Improvements in the 
treatment of flax and other similar vegetable fibrous 
substances, and in the machinery employed therein. 
1041. Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
proved apparatus for regulating the density of fluids. 
(A communication.) 
1079. Sir Francis Charles Knowles, of Lovell Hill, Berks, 
Baronet — Improvements in the manufacture of iron . 
1163. Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
provements in obtaining and applying motive power. 
(A communication.) 

31. William Louis Sheringham, of Southsea, Hants, Cap- 

tain in Her Majesty's Royal Navy — Illuminating 
buoys and beacons in harbours, roadsteads, and 
rivers. 

40. William Beales, of Louth, Lincolnshire — An improved 

cement for the resistance of fire. 

Sealed 9th March, 1853. 
23. Jean Baptiste Lavanchy, of Richmond-buildings, Soho 
— Improvements in wind musical instruments, where 
metal tongues are employed. 

140. Thomas Robson, of Woolwich-road — Improvements in 
apparatus for igniting signal and other lights. 

153. David Stephens Brown, of 2, Alexandria-lodge, Old 
Kent-road — Invention of an agricultural implement 
for tilling the soil. 

164. John Robert Johnson, of Stanbrook-cottage, Hammer- 
smith—Improvements in fixing colouring matter of 
madder in printing and dyeing. 

168. John Macintosh, of Berners-street — Improvements in 
compositions to be used as paints. 

238. William Gilbert Elliott, of Blisworth, Northampton — 
Improvements in the manufacture of bricks, 
pipes, tiles, and other articles capable of being 
moulded. 

521. John Cross, of Blue Pits, Rochdale, Lancashire— Im- 
provements in steam-engines. 

633. John Macintosh, of Berners-street — Improvements in 
projectiles and cartridges. 

769. John Wheely Lea, of Worcester, and William Hunt, of 
Stoke Prior, Worcester — Improvements in utilising 
the waste heat of coke furnaces. 

793. John Robert Johnson, of Stanbrook Cottage, Hammer- 
smith — Improvements in the manufacture of type or 
raised surfaces for printing. 

815. John Wheely Lea, of Worcester, and William Hunt, 
of Stoke Prior, Worcester— Improvements in the 
manufacture of iron. 

882. Antonio Fedele Cossus, of University-street— Improve- 
ments in lubricating apparatus. 

908. Francis William Ellington, of Drummond-street, Euston- 
square — Improvements in the making of screws for 
collapsible and other vessels. 

987. Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — An Im- 
proved mode of transportation for the conveyance of 
letters, packages, freight, or passengers from one 
place to another. (A communication.) 
1101. Thomas Elliott, of Stockton-on-Tees, Durham — Improve- 
ments in steam-engines, which are also applicable to 
pipes. 
1126. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
provements in lamps, and in apparatus to be used 
therewith. (A communication.) 

1130. Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Improve- 
ments in the means of urging the fires and increasing 
the draft of furnaces, and in arresting the sparks 
given off from the chimneys of locomotive engines. 
(A communication.) 
1135. William Aspdin, of Gateshead-upon-Tyne— Improve- 
ments in the manufacture of Portland and other 
cements. 

1186. John Copling, jun,. of the Grove, Hackney — Invention 
of a safeguard railway signal. 

1191. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane— Im- 
provements in the manufacture of carpets. (A com- 
munication.) 
6. Thomas Billyeald, of Ison-green, Lenton, Nottingham 
— Improvements in the apparatus and arrangement of 
apparatus for making looped fabrics. 

32. Edward Hutchinson, of Tyldesley, Lancashire — Im- 

provements in the mode or method of preparing, 
cleaning, drying, and otherwise treating wheat, pulse, 
seeds, and other grain. 

41. Peter Graham, of Oxford-street — Improvements in the 

manufacture of carpets and other piled fabrics. (A 
communication.) 



50. Richard Gittins, of 2, Thayer-street, Manchester-square 

— Improvements in tills. 
66. John Davie Morries Stirling, of Larches, Camphill, near 

Birmingham — Improvements in the manufacture of 

percussion-caps. 

72. James Thornton, of Derby, John Thornton, and Albert 

Thornton, of Melbourne, Derbyshire — Invention of 
improved nets and other textile fabrics to be used for 
gloves and other purposes, and for the machinery to 
be employed in the manufacture thereof. 

73. Joseph Robert Wilkin Atkinson, of Leeds — Improve- 

ments in machinery for preparing and spinning flax, 
tow, and other fibrous substances. 
86. Edward Haslewood, of Tufnel-park, Holloway — Improve- 
ments in fire-arms and projectiles. (A communica- 
tion.) 
89. John Bennett, of Bradley Mills, Huddersfield, and 
Henry Charlesworth, of Huddersfield — Improvements 
in doffing and preparing rovings of wool. 

101. William Steads, of Redcross-street, Leicester —Improve- 
ments in blinds, maps, charts, and other articles, 
wound on rollers. 

121. Henry Browning, of Bristol — Improvements in preparing 
compositions for coating iron, and other ships' bottoms 
and other surfaces. 

123. Orlando Reeves, of the Castle, Taunton — Improvements 
in the manufacture of manure. 

130. Sydney Smirke, of 24, Berkeley-square — Improvements 
in apparatus for giving signals on railways. 

182. Warren Fish Shattuck, of 373,- Strand— Invention of a 
smut-machine. (A communication.) 

Sealed \1th March, 1853. 

251. Auguste Edouard L. Bellford, of 16, Castle-street, Hol- 
born — Improvements in sewing-machines. 

287. Auguste Edouard L. Bellford, of 16, Castle-street, Hol- 
born — Improvements in steam boilers. 

301. Samuel Smith, of Swinton, Manchester — Improvements 
in looms for weaving. 

575. Pierre Bernardet de Lucenay, of Paris, France, and 4, 
South-street, Finsbury — Invention of the producion 
of photographic images by means of artificial light. 

982. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, 
South-street, Finsbury — Improvements inconstruct- 
ing the bars of furnaces and grates. (A communi- 
cation.) 

Sealed 16th March, 1853. 
53. Thomas Browne Dalziel, of Glasgow — Improvements 
in the treatment or manufacture of textile fabrics or 
materials. 
66. John Finlay, of Glasgow— Improvements in grates and 

fire-places, or apparatus for the generation of heat. 
64. Henry Richardson Fanshawe, of Arthur-street, Old 
Kent-road — Improvements in shawls, scarfs, necker- 
chiefs, handkerchiefs, mantles, sails or sail-cloth, 
table-cloths and table-coverlets, napkins, and um- 
brella and parasol tops and covers, and in improved 
loom for weaving, applicable to the said improve- 
ments in respect to some of the said articles. 

101. Thomas Allan, of Adam-street — Improvements in the 
application of carbonic acid gas to motive purposes. 

106. Thomas Allan, of Adam-street — Improvements in pro- 
pelling. 

181. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery-lane — Im- 
provements in governors, or regulators, for regulat- 
ing the pressure of gas as it passes from the main or 
other pipes to the burners. 

207. William Donald Napier, of George-street, Westminster, 
and William Lund, of Cornhill — Improvements in 
apparatus for steering vessels. 

219. Arthur Richard Burr, of Halesowen, Worcester — Im- 
provements in making gun and pistol-barrels, appli- 
cable to the manufacture of other kinds of tubes. 

231. George Walker Nicholson, of Pendleton, Lancashire — 
Improvements in screw-bolts, nuts, and washers, and 
in the machinery or apparatus for making the same. 

234. John Balmforth, William Balmforth, and Thomas 

Balmforth, of Clayion, Lancashire — Improvements 
in steam boilers, and in fixing the same. 

235. Adam and Johu Booth, of Manchester — Improvements 

in plaiting or braiding machines, which machines 
are applicable to manufacturing webs for making 
door and other mats. 

259. George Walker Nicholson, of Pendleton, Lancashire — 
Improvements in vices, and in the means or method 
used for fixing the same. 

200. William Coles Fuller, of Bucklersbury, and George 
Morris Knevitt, of Argyll-street, New-road — Im- 
provements in applying india-rubber or other similar 
elastic substances as springs for carriages. 

2G2. Robert Mortimer Glover, and John Cail, of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne — Improvements in miners' or safety-lamps. 

280. Auguste Edouard L. Bellford, of 16, Castle-street, 
Holborn — Improvements in smoothing-irons. 

305. John Talbot Tyler, of Mount-street, Grosvenor-square, 
Improvements in hats, and in the preparation of 
plush or other covering used in the manufacture of 
hats. 

321. Samuel Hardacre, of Manchester.— Improvements in 

machinery or apparatus for blowing, scutching, 
opening, cleaning and sorting cotton, wool, and other 
fibrous substances, parts of which improvements are 
applicable to other purposes. 

322. George Gent, and Samuel Smith, of Northampton — 

Invention of a fruit-cleaning and dressing-machine. 
341. Edward Simons, of Birmingham — Improvements in 
lamps. 



317. 

3.54. 

356. 
515. 
529. 
588. 



573. 
015. 



739. 
1120, 

1182. 
64. 
74. 

92, 



103. 

108. 
117. 

125. 

129. 
131. 

111. 

153. 

160. 

177. 

188. 



Auguste Edouard L. Bellford, of 16, Castle-street, 
Holborn — Improvements in sewing cloth and other 
materials. 

Joseph Walker, of Dover, Kent — Improvements in ma- 
chinery for crushing and bruising malt, grain, and 
seeds. 

Joseph Robinson, of Southampton — Improvements in 
ventilators. 

Robert William Mitcheson, of Garford-street— Improve- 
ments in anchors. . 

Robert William Mitcheson, of Garford-street — Invention 
of an improved safety-hook. 

Alfred Charles Hervier, of Paris, France, and 4, South- 
street, Finsbury — Improvements in the application 
of centrifugal force to propelling on water. 

John Norton, of Cork — Improvements in blasting. 

Charles Dickson Archibald, of Burland Hall, Miln- 
thorpe, Westmorland — Improvements in lighting 
and heating. 

Amory Hawkesworth, of Abbey-road, Torquay, Devon 
— Improvements in life- boats. 

Jean Baptiste Niomier, of Ruede Marseille, and Charles 
Constant Boutigny, of Rue de Flandre, of La Vilette, 
France— Improvements in distilling fatty matters. 

James Webster, of Leicester — Improvements in the 
manufacture of springs. 

Michael Fitch, of Chelmsford, Essex — Improvements 
in ovens. 

Thomas Cottrill, of West Bromwich, Staffordshire- 
Improvements in the manufacture of certain salts 
of soda. 

William Brown, of Glasgow— Invention of an improved 
method of treating coal and bituminous substances, 
and for improvements in the treatment of their 
volatile products. 

Edward Wills Wren, of Walkhampton, Devonshire — 
Invention for the manufacture of bricks, pipes, tiles, 
imitation stone, and peat bricks for fuel, by means of 
a machine and arrangements of machinery, entitled 
" a central circular and horizontal motion." 

James Steward Kincaid, of Dublin — Improvements in 
ascertaining and registering the number of persons 
entering or quitting omnibuses or other vehicles or 
vessels, which are applicable in whole or in part to 
buildings or other places. 

Peter Alexander Halkett, of Richmond-hill— Invention 
of an improved construction of inkstand. 

Henry Henson Henson and William Frederick Henson, 
of Hampstead — Improvements in signalling 'on rail- 
ways, and in the apparatus used therein. 

Peter Fairbairn and Samuel R. Mathers, of Leeds, York - 
shire — Improvements in machinery for drawing the 
sliver and rove of flax, hemp, and tow. 

William Vincent, of Noakes and Vincent, of 195, Brick- 
lane, Spitalfields — Improvements in cocks or taps. 

Joseph Rock Cooper, of Birmingham — Improvements 
in firearms. 

William Riddle, of East Temple-chambers — Improve- 
ments in ornamenting walls, ceilings, and other 
surfaces. 

James Middlemass, of Edinburgh— Invention of the 
application of a new material to the construction of 
portable houses and other buildings. 

John Chubb and John Goater, of St. Paul's Churchyard 
— Improvements in locks and latches. 

John Randolph and John Elder, of Randolph, Elder, 
and Co., of Glasgow — Improvements in propelling 
vessels. 

John Sangster, of Cheapside, City — Improvements in 
umbrellas and parasols. (A communication.) 



PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE SPECIFI- 
CATIONS DEPOSITED. 

389. Looms for weaving. (A communication.) February 

15, 1853. 
429. N. Dutton — Manufacture and application of dowels, 

and machinery for same, partly applicable to other 

purposes. 18th Feb., 1853. 
577. Revolving or repeating fire-arms.— 7th March, 1853. 



1853. 
Feb. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 



18, 



3423, James Barlow, 14, King William-street, City, 

" A spring-hat, bonnet, or cap-suspender." 
„ 19, 3424, Joseph Baker, Birmingham, " Pencil-case." 
„ 19, 3425 George Mair, 41, Upper Bedford-place, Rus- 
sell-square, "The multiple gas-stove." 
„ 22, 2426, Mathias Roth, M.D., Old Cavendish-street, 

" A. Russian bath." 
„ 25, 3427, Hargrave, Harrison, and Co., 13, Wood-street, 

and 1, Clement's-court, Cheapside, "Improved 

parasol joint." 
Mar. 3, 3428, Ebenezer Thornton, Huddersfield, Yorkshire, 

" Improved gas retort." 
„ 3, 3429, Charles Berwick Curtis, 74, Lombard-street, 

London, " An air-tight screw nozzle for powder 

canisters. " 
„ 7, 3430, G. Tylor and Sons, Warwick-lane, London 

" Tylor's gardeners' syringe for conservatories." 
„ 10, 3431, William Brookes, 7, Little Somerset-street, 

Aldgate, " Improved sausage machine." 
„ 11, 3442, George Clarke, Kingston-on-Hull, " Seamless 

boot block." 



THE ARTIZAN. 



No. CXXIV.— Vol. XI.— MAY 1st, 1853. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

We learn from our French correspondent, that nothing official has yet 
transpired on the subject of the transatlantic steamers ; but it is said, 
in well-informed quarters, that the commendable desire of the govern- 
ment to have a fair balance sheet has induced them to postpone the 
granting of such a large subvention as has been demanded by the Com- 
pany Levavasseur, the particulars of which will be found in the Artizan 
for February. Another reason which we believe has weighed with the 
government is to be found in the fact that these schemes have assumed 
the character rather of Bourse speculations than of bond fide attempts 
to develope the maritime resources of France ; and it seemed very pro- 
bable that the parties who received the concession would sell their 
interest in it to others better qualified than themselves to carry out an 
enterprise requiring for its successful fulfilment a special knowledge 
not very common even in England, and still more rare in France. 

Indeed, the French government would not have to travel far to find 
good reasons for refusing to grant a monopoly to any steam navigation 
company. We do not think that any unprejudiced person acquainted 
with the subject will deny that our correspondence would be carried as 
quickly, and more economically than it is at present, if the conveyance 
were left entirely to private enterprise. We entertain the highest 
respect for the talents of many of the responsible persons to whom the 
management of our great steam navigation companies is entrusted; but 
the system of monopoly is a bad one, under any circumstances, and 
ought to be abolished, as soon as it can be done with justice to the 
companies concerned. 

It seems probable that the dissolution of the Levavasseur Company 
will pave the way for the formation of a company independent of 
government assistance, and such an event would afford an example 
much wanted in France, and would, we are convinced, enlist a much 
greater amount of sympathy in its favour, than any project for a gigantic 
monopoly to be created at the expense of the tax payers generally. 

As we predicted last month, the Australian Mail Company have been 
deprived of their contract, which will be given either to the General 
Screw Company, or the Australasian and Pacific Company. The former 
company deserve it for their untiring advocacy of the auxiliary screw 
system of propulsion, which has largely contributed to its general 
adoption. 

Our flourishing Canadian colonies are about to enjoy the benefits of 
steam communication with the mother country. Messrs. McKean, 
McLarty and Co., of Liverpool, have concluded a contract with the 
Canadian government for a bi-monthly service between Liverpool and 
Quebec and Montreal. The Genova screw steamer has been already 
dispatched. We hope that this line will prove the means of attracting 
some of the crowd who now find their way to the United States. 
13 



We congratulate our sanitary reformers on the assistance which the 
good cause is likely to gain from the abolition of the excise on soap. 
An immense impulse will be given to the trade, which will extend the 
general prosperity, and the increased demand for palm-oil will act 
beneficially on our African trade, and assist in civilising that magni- 
ficent continent, the resources of which are scarcely known in this 
country. 

A new light seems to have sprung up in high places on the subject 
of the mail contract service; for we find the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, in his exposition of the budget, giving vent to his feelings as 
follows : — 

" With respect to the important and unsatisfactory charge for the 
packet contract service, it has been our most anxious desire to see what, 
consistently with justice, was to be done to amend the position of the 
public. We think that the amount of charge which that service has 
reached is wholly disproportionate with the benefit derived." 

Chancellors of the Exchequer rarely speak so strongly, even when 
they are ready to strike the blow ; and we cannot account for this 
sudden change of opinion, except by supposing that some difficulty is 
found in procuring a customer for the forfeited Australian mail contract 
at the same price as before. The rise in wages, and the difficulty of 
getting coal on foreign stations, makes a vast difference in the expenses 
of a company, and we should not be surprised to find the directors of 
the Australian Mail Company coming forward to congratulate their 
shareholders on their having got rid of the incubus of a government 
mail contract. 

We have still to record the vast increase of the mercantile marine, 
both in this country and the United States. Our shipbuilding yards were 
never more busy. We learn from the North British Mail, that on the 
Clyde alone 100 vessels are in course of construction. Of these only 
six are timber-built, the others being built of iron; and these consist 
both of steam and sailing vessels, though the former preponderate. 
The aggregate tonnage of these ships amounts to upwards of 60,000 
tons, and the engine power required will have an aggregate of more 
than 14,000 horse power. According to the Scientific American, the 
United States have an Atlantic steam fleet of 19,800 tons burthen ply- 
ing between New York and Liverpool, and Havre and Bremen ; seven- 
teen steam ships, of an aggregate tonnage of 21,912 tons, between 
New York and the southern cities and West Indies ; whilst, engaged in 
the New York, Californian and Oregon trade, there are no less than 
forty-one; aggregate tonnage 67,376. " Six years ago there were only 
two mercantile steam ships in the United States." 

The screw three-decker Duke of Wellington, 131, has made her first 
trial in steaming. She made six runs along the measured mile at 
Stokes' Bay, average speed realised 10 - 100 knots per hour. 



98 



Wood-Tlcming Machines. 



[May, 



INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS IN FRANCE. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

Sardinian Steam Ship Company. — A company has been formed 
to establish two lines of steamboats between Genoa, New York, and 
the Brazils; and on the 11th instant the minister presented to the 
Chamber of Deputies the draft of the contract which the government 
proposes to enter into with the company. The company offers to build, 
within a year, six screw vessels of not less than 1,500 tons, and 250 
horse (nominal) power each, which will accommodate 80 first-class and 
100 second-class passengers. The ordinary service will consist of one 
voyage per month on each line. On the voyage to New York the 
vessel will touch at Marseilles, Barcelona, Malaga, Gibraltar, and Ma- 
deira. On the voyage to the Brazils the vessel will touch, in addition 
to the above places, at Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio Janeiro, and Monte- 
video. This second line may stop at Rio ; but, in that case, the com- 
pany undertake to run an extra boat, to keep up a regular correspond- 
ance between Montevideo and Rio Janeiro. The passage will be 
accomplished in twenty-two days to New York, in thirty-two days to 
Rio, and thirty-eight days to Montevideo. The company engages to 
carry the mails, and gratuitous passages to all diplomatic officers of the 
state ; and, in case of war, to put their boats at the service of govern- 
ment at an agreed price. 

On the other hand, the government are to pay the company 22,000 
livres per double voyage to New York (£724), and 30,000 livres for 
the voyage to the Brazils (£987), making a total of 624,000 livres 
(,£20,540) per annum. If the sum received in postage exceeds the 
above amount, the balance is to be the property of the company. The 
vessels are to be exempt from navigation dues and consul's fees in 
Genoa and other ports. The concession is to be granted for fifteen 
years, during which time the government shall not grant a subvention 
to any other company on the same lines. 

This plan has met with great approval in the Sardinian parliament, 
with the exception of the term of the concession (fifteen years), which is 
judged to be for too long a period. Sardinia is making great progress 
in her commerce, and it seems probable that she will act, while France 
is content with talking about ocean steamers. 

Use of Cast Iron in Boilers. — Cast iron has been used in 
France for some time to form the ends of the generators or " bouilleurs" 
of boilers, as they project beyond the brick-setting, and are not exposed 
to the direct heat of the fire. The use of cast iron for this purpose is 
now, however, expressly forbidden by a recent order issued from the 
office of the Minister of Public Works. All boilers in France must be 
tested to three times the pressure they are intended to bear, and the 
operation is repeated annually. Cylinders of steam-engines and steam- 
drying cylinders are tested in a similar manner. It says much for the 
inspection practised in France, that boiler explosions are of extremely 
rare occurrence. 

Steam Engines for the Navy. — M. Cave, of Paris, has just re- 
ceived an order from the government for a screw engine of 1,000 horse 
power, which will be the most powerful steam vessel of war in the world. 

Cotton Industry of France. — The mean annual value of the 
cotton manufactures of France is 600 millions of francs — the produce of 
2>\ millions of spindles, and 900,000 artizans. The wages and expenses 
of transport amount to 400 millions of francs. The raw materials, in- 
cluding bleaching and colouring matters, amount to 110 millions. The 
capital sunk is represented by 30 millions. The depreciation, at 5 per 
cent., amounts to 15 millions, and the repairs to a similar sum. In 
ordinary times, the profits amount to 30 millions. 

The cotton industry consumes annually 35 millions of kilogrammes 
(77,175,000 lbs.) of cotton, which cost 70 millions of francs. There 
exist in the department of the Seine Inferieure, 240 cotton mills, con- 
taining a million spindles. At Rouen, and in the neighbourhood, the 



spinning, weaving, and printing produce a mass of divers articles valued 
at more than 250 millions of francs. 

In the Arrondissement of Lille there exist 150 cotton mills, contain- 
ing 600,000 spindles. About St. Quentin are 37 cotton mills, contain- 
ing 210,000 spindles. The other factories are situated in the depart- 
ments of La Somme, of the Loire Inferieure, of the Rhone, of the 
Haute Saone, of Doubs, Vosges, the Bas Rhin, and the Haut Rhin — 
of which Mulhouse is the industrial centre, and where are united 
740,000 spindles and 18,000 artizans — at Bar-le-duc, at Troyes, and at 
Cholet. 

Algeria Packet Service. — The government, with a view of en- 
couraging private enterprise, and giving a more frequent and rapid 
communication with Algeria, have concluded a contract with a new 
company (the Societe Imperial) for a line of fast screw steamers, of 
which Marseilles will be the head quarters. This company has been 
formed under the auspices of M. Schneider, the proprietor of the works 
at Creusot ; and it is understood that a branch establishment is to be 
opened at Cette for building and equipping the vessels. There are to 
be ten boats of 350 horse power each, which will make seventeen voy- 
ages per month, as follows : — 

Four from Marseilles to Algiers. 
Two from Cette to Algiers. 
One from Toulon to Algiers. 
Three from Marseilles to Stora. 
Three from Marseilles to Oran. 
One from Cette to Oran. 
One from Cette to Stora. 
One from Stora to Tunis. 
One from Oran to Cadiz. 
These different lines will accommodate the ports of Palma, Mahon, 
Bone, La Calle, Tabarque, Port Vendres, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante, 
Carthagena, Tangiers, and Gibraltar. 

In addition to these boats, the company will run six boats of from 
80 to 120 horse power, and carrying 400 tons of goods, making together 
twelve voyages per month. These boats being slower, will carry goods 
and passengers at a low rate, and will be the first put on the line, 
which it is proposed to commence in May next. The distance between 
Marseilles and Algiers is about 450 miles, and the company engage to 
do it in thirty-five hours, or at the rate of 12f miles per hour, in lieu 
of forty-eight hours, the time at present occupied. They also engage 
to furnish covered accommodation for third and fourth-class passengers. 
There can be no question as to the good policy of the government in 
encouraging this enterprise, since it will tend, more than anything else, 
to convert Algeria into a French department. The rapid and frequent 
intercourse will induce many persons to open business relations with 
Algeria, who would otherwise have never turned their attention in that 
direction ; and government stores, troops, &c, will be conveyed much 
more economically than in vessels of war. 

WOOD-PLANING MACHINES, 

AS CONSTRUCTED BY MESSRS. WORSSAM AND CO., LONDON. 

(Illustrated by Plate vii.) 

We have already described Messrs. Worssams' sawing machinery 
(vol. 1852), and we now proceed to notice their ingenious machinery 
for superseding manual labour, in planing wood for flooring and similar 
purposes. 

The general characteristics of these machines are cutters, revolving 
at a high velocity, or stationary, the wood in either case being moved 
over them by endless chains, gripping rollers, or other similar contri- 
vances. Flooring boards require three distinct operations ; first, the 
side which is placed upwards in the room requires to be smoothly 
planed ; secondly, the two edges require to be made parallel ; and, 



PLATE V/l 




"W-iWhytelieai C.E. direx 



THE.. jmiTZAli- ..IQUKHM - IS Si 



V, 



1853.] 



Lewthwaite 's Improved Raihoay -ticket Printing Machine. 



99 



thirdly, the underside requires dressing roughly, to bring the boards to 
an equal thickness. Sometimes a fourth operation is superadded, viz., 
the grooving of the edges, hoop-iron or wood being inserted in the 
groves when the floor is laid, which makes it more solid, and prevents 
the shrinking of the boards leaving any spaces, through which light, 
dust or sound could penetrate. 

In plate vii. are represented two varieties of planing machines. Fig. 1 
is an elevation, and fig. 2 a plan, of one of those adapted for taking the 
rough boards as they come from the saw mill. The framing of the ma- 
chine consists of a long table, g g, on which the boards slide, and which 
is broken off, as there is not room to show it at full length, a a is an 
endless chain, provided with dogs, b, one of which, dropping over the 
end of the board, carries it along with it in the direction of the arrows. 
Motion is given to this chain by a tumbler roller, c, which is on the 
same shaft as the spur wheel, d, to which motion is given by a pinion 
on the same shaft as the pulley, e, which is driven by a gut band off 
the spindle, x, on which are the other driving pulleys of the machine. 
At the other end the chain is carried by the roller, y, the bearings of 
the spindle of which slide in guides, and can be adjusted by set screws, 
to give the chain the tautness necessary. When it is desired to arrest 
the motion of the chain and the plank, the pinion on e is thrown out 
of gear by means of the spindle and levers, e', e, e'. 

In order to guide the board straight through the machine, a straight- 
edge is fixed at i, and a vertical revolving cutter, h, first dresses one 
edge of the board to a true face, and this edge slides against the 
straight-edge. These cutters are like short plane irons, and are securely 
bolted to the piece of metal which carries them. The rotatory motion 
given to them makes their cutting action resemble that of an adze, but 
the number of cuts is so numerous in proportion to the progress of the 
boavd past the cutters, that the inequalities arising from the curvilineal 
motion of the cutters are not visible, and form, practically, a straight 
line. 

The under side of the board (which will form the upper side when 
laid in the flooring) is next operated upon by two plane irons, j, j, set 
diagonally, and one, a coarser cut than the other, to divide the strain. 
The board is held down by two series of rollers, k, k, &c, on which the 
adjustable weight, I, is brought to bear, through the levers, z, z. This 
arrangement allows the board to rise, if an unusual strain is brought 
on it, from nnevenness, knots, &c, and may save the machine from 
being broken down. The board next passes between the two vertical 
revolving cutters, m, m, which are similar in construction to cutter h, 
and dress the two edges parallel. In order to suit various widths of 
boards, the outer of these cutters is made to move nearer to, or farther 
from, the other, in the following manner : — The upper and lower bear- 
ings of this cutter are fixed in the ends of two levers, having a horizontal 
circular motion on a vertical shaft. The upper of these levers has a 
toothed sector, o, cast on it, into which takes a worm n, which is moved 
by a handle, and adjusted, to give the desired distance between the 
cutters, by which the finished width of the board is regulated. Finally, 
the board passes under the horizontal revolving cutter, q, which 
equalises the thickness of the board and renders the two faces parallel. 
The height at which this cutter is placed above the table regulates the 
thickness of the board, and accordingly it is capable of adjustment by 
the same means as the cutters, m, m. The bearings rise and fall in 
guides, and each bearing is fitted with a screw, on the lower ends of 
which are worm wheels, s, s, which are turned round by the worms, r, r, 
and lift or lower the cutter, q. 

A machine of this kind will take from 4 to 5-horse (nominal) 
power to drive it ; much, obviously, depending on the sharpness of the 
various cutting edges, and the care with which they are adjusted. 

Fig. 3 is a side elevation, and fig. 4 an end elevation of another 
machine, adapted solely for planing one side of boards ; it is also used 



to give a greater finish to boards which have been put through the first 
machine. In this case the plane irons are set to a much finer cut, and 
the board is propelled three or four times faster than in the other 
machine. The power required to drive it is also considerably less, 
being about half a horse power. This machine is perfectly portable, 
the cast-iron framing being self-contained, and easily fixed. 

It consists of a bed-plate, a a, in which are fixed two plane irons, 
x, x, over which the board is drawn by two pairs of rollers, e e', e e, in 
the direction of the arrow. Motion is given to these rollers by the 
pinion, g, which drives the two wheels, f, f, which are on the same 
spindles as the rollers, e , e. These rollers are pressed together by the 
springs, m, m, and the adjusting screws, n, n, so as to give sufficient 
friction between the rollers and the wood. When it is desired to arrest 
the motion of the machine, the pinion, g, is thrown out of gear by 
means of the lever, k. As it is requisite that each pair of rollers should 
revolve uniformly, they are connected together by bevel gearing. A 
bevel wheel, on the end of the roller e, driving the bevel pinion, i, fixed 
on a short upright shaft, which drives by a key the bevel pinion, j, 
which drives the bevel wheel on the end of the roller, e ; the bevel 
pinion, j, being on a hollow shaft, is free to rise and fall with the roller e. 
The board is held down on the plane irons by 16 rollers, b, b, which act 
independently of each other. To give the requisite pressure on the 
rollers, the lever, c, carrying the adjustable weight, d, is applied as 
shown in the engraving. 

LEWTHWAITE'S IMPROVED E AIL WAY- TICKET 
FEINTING MACHINE. 

MESSES. WATEHLOW AND SONS, LICENSEES. 

Plate viii. is a front elevation, and fig. 2 a plan, of this machine, 
which is designed to supply perfect raflway tickets, printed in one 
or more colours, numbered consecutively, and check-marked, by one 
continuous operation. In the plan, the bearing and set screw, s, 
(in elevation), are removed, for the purpose of showing the rollers, 
r' r" r.'" The machine consists of a cast-iron bed-plate, and upper 
table, supported on it by four pillars at the corners, the bed plate 
being fixed on a standard or pedestal. On the bed plate are the 
plummer blocks, in which revolve the fly-wheel shaft ; and on this shaft 
are fixed the cams for driving the several parts of the machine. It 
has a driving pulley, w ; and on the fly-wheel is a handle, so that the 
machine may be worked either by steam or hand. 

The tickets to be printed are cut to a size to correspond with the 
section of the hopper, a, wherein they are piled and rest on ledges. 
A slide, having a projection on its upper surface, is attached to the 
lever, c, which has a horizontal movement communicated to it by the 
cams b, b; this slide pushes forward the lowermost ticket, and then 
retires to perform a similar operation on that which is then underneath. 
e is a metal plate, having grooves and ledges in continuation of those 
at bottom of hopper. As the second ticket is pushed forward, it acts 
upon the edge of the preceding one, and forces it along the grooves in 
the plate, e, and, by this continued action of the lever and each 
ticket on its predecessor, they are brought successively over the 
numbering wheels and checkmarking and printing forms, k, carried 
in the printing heads, o and v. These printing heads receive their 
upward motion from the cam p', and are brought down by the cam p, 
having an inside groove which takes on to the pin, q. The card con- 
tinues its forward motion until it arrives over the shaft, g, which has 
a vertical motion imparted to it by the cam l. The hopper, r, has 
two plates, pressed toward each other by springs, past which the ticket 
is pushed by the shaft, G. This hopper contains the tickets until re- 
moved by the attendant. 

The two numbering wheels consist each of four cogged discs, 
mounted on axes, and exhibiting the numbers from to 9. Between 



100 



Mr. Lee Stevens' Patent Smoke- Consuming Furnace. 



[May, 



each impression the number is changed. The lever, t, actuated by the 
cam z, at each revolution of the shaft, advances to and recedes from 
the centre of the machine. On receding it releases the springs, u, which 
allows a spring fitted in the printing head, v, to advance the num- 
bering wheels one tooth, in which position they are held by the lever, 
t, advancing and bringing the springs, tr, in contact with the wheels, 
where it holds them until they require to be changed for the next 
card. Both numbering wheels are used for return tickets ; for single 
journey tickets only one is required. 

The machine has a dial attached, for the purpose of registering the 
number of tickets printed ; and it is so arranged as to act upon the bell, 
h, when the requisite number for which it is set is completed, when an 
imperfect card is under operation, or when, from any cause, they fail to 
be regularly delivered. The registering dial is worked by the cam z', 
striking the lever z 8 , which is fixed on an upright spindle, connected 
by levers to the registering wheels, the spindle being brought back 
by a coiled spring, supported by the arm, i. The handle, x, is for 
throwing the loose pulley, w, in gear, with the fixed clutch, x', on which 
is fixed the cam for moving the lever, t. 




Fig. 2. 

The inking rollers, r', r", r'", are carried in a frame, which is moved 
backwards and forwards by the bevel wheels and cam, t, and lever, 
t'. In the backward motion, they receive their supply from the dis- 
tributing roller, 4, 4 (see plan), under which they retire during the 
upward or printing action of the heads, o, v. 1,1, arc the ducts or 
reservoirs of ink ; 2, 2, are the taUng-up rollers, inking the small 
rollers, 3, 3, which ink the distributing rollers, 4, 4, and 5, 5, these 
having a traversing as well as a revolving motion, for the more equal 
distribution of the ink, — a point of the greatest importance for clear 
printing. As the rollers, 3, ".3, ink each only a part of the surface of 
the roller, 4, 4, it is obvious that more than one colour can be em- 
ployed. The rollers and inking apparatus receive their motion from 
the pinions, 6, 7, 8, 9 ; two of the pinions being fixed on the same 
shaft as the cone n, which is driven by a gut from the cone m, on 
the fly-wheel shaft. 

The advantages claimed by the patentee for this machine are : — 

1st. That it accomplishes at one operation what the others can only 
imperfectly effect in four. To print return tickets by the present 
machines, and to checkmark them, requires three distinct processes, 
after which they require counting ; all which is effected by the im- 
proved machine at one operation, and in the same time as is occupied 
by the others in going through one of the four processes. 

2nd. That, by setting the index at starting, there is no necessity 
for watching the progress of the machine, as, on completing the num- 
ber desired, it acts at once upon the numbering wheels, stops their 
action, and rings the bell to call attention. 



3rd. That, from the simplicity of its arrangements, the changes of 
type, marks, &c, are made much more expeditiously and economically 
than in the machines at present in use. 

4th. That, from the ingenious arrangement for the equal dis- 
tribution of the ink, the ticket is printed with great distinctness, each 
letter being clearly defined. Railway tickets, as now printed, are 
scarcely legible. 

The machine requires but one attendant, and the number of tickets 
that can be delivered within the hour is stated to be 8,000, printed in 
three colours. 



MR. LEE STEVENS' PATENT SMOKE-CONSUMING 
FURNACE. 
The admission of air at the bridge of the furnace has long been a 
favourite method of diminishing the amount of smoke produced, and 




when a furnace is heavily fired, considerable benefit may be derived 
from a small supply of air in addition to that which passes through the 




fire-bars. Mr. Stevens' plan consists in heating the air before it enters 
the furnace. Fig. 1 is a side elevation, and fig. 2 an end elevation, in 




Fig. 3. 



section, of the furnace end of a Cornish boiler fitted on this principle. 



1853.] 



Experiments on the Balancing of Locomotives. 



101 



f is a set of ordinary firebars, with a space between the end of them 
and the bridge; under this space is a very small set of firebars, fed by 
the coals dropping from the upper furnace, over which the air has to 
pass. A plate, H, is fixed in front of the bridge, and becomes strongly 
heated, and serves, with the addition of the fire beneath, to heat the 
entering air before it mixes with the gases produced in the furnace. 

This is in effect a double furnace, except that in this case the one is 
placed below the other, instead of alongside of it. 

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of the patent furnaces, as applied to 
the boilers of the General Screw Company's steam ship Earl of Audi- 
land, wherein b is the set of ordinary firebars, a is the smaller set, c 
is the calorific plate faced with fire-brick. 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE BALANCING OF LOCOMOTIVES. 

RULES FOR PRACTICE.* 

(Continued from page 58.) 

Secondly, The application of suitable balance weights is attended by 
a sensible reduction of resistance on the rails at high speeds ; as in the 
experiments of Le Chatelier, the engine unbalanced could not reach 
the same speed as when balanced. This is corroborated by the writer's 
observations on the single and coupled passenger-engines of the Cale- 
donian Railway. Also by some results obtained by Le Chatelier, from 
the Orleans goods-engine. This engine was continued at work with 
the counterweights attached, after the experiment already described, 
without having anything done to it, in the way of repairs. In the 
hands of the same driver, at the same kind of work, the following are 
the mean consumptions of coke during three mouths : — 
Coke per mile. 

1848, December, 49 '5 lbs. l Wi thout counterwe ights. 

1849, January, 50'3 lbs. J ° 

-p , , on \Mean of 12 trips, of which 10 only were 

„ February, 4Jdlbs.| ma d e with counterweights. 

Of course, a single result like this can hardly be considered a clencher; 
but it affords a strong presumption of the material economy of com- 
bustible effected by a suitable use of counterweights. 

Thirdly, The balance weight should in all cases be distributed over 
at least two or three spaces, to distribute and reduce the unequal wear 
of the tyres by vertical action, and the tendency to slip at high speeds. 

Fourthly, The experiments of Le Chatelier show the limited extent 
of even free oscillation in a single engine, and how much greater it is 
in a coupled engine with outside cylinders. This difference explains 
the greater liability of the latter engines to violent concussions laterally 
against the rails. 

Fifthly, To reduce so far as practicable the reciprocating weights, 
and the severe and unavoidable strains they throw on the crank-piDS at 
high speeds, the pistons should be of wrought iron, the cross heads and 
slides should be hollowed out,f and the connecting rods as simple and 
light as possible. 

Sixthly, The more nearly the width of the cylinders is equal to that 
of the wheels, the more exactly may both the longitudinal and lateral 
actions be balanced by a given counterweight in the wheel. Thus, 
outside cylinders are susceptible of a more perfect balance than insides, 
and the closer that inside cylinders are placed, the less perfectly can 
they be balanced in the wheels. 

From all that has been said we derive the following practical rules 
for the application of counterweights : — ■ 

Rule i. To find the counterweight for outside-cylinder single 
engines. — Find the total weight, in pounds, of the revolving and re- 
ciprocating masses for one side, namely, the piston and appendages, 

* From Railway Machinery, by D. K. Clark. London : Blackie and Son. 
_ t Mr.McConnell has lately patented a light form of wrought-iron piston, and the forma- 
tion of piston rods and connecting rods from wrought-iron tubes, the object being to com- 
bine lightness with strength. This, we apprehend, would be a serviceable idea for outside- 
cylinder coupled engines. 



connecting rod, crank, and crank pin (the crank being referred to the 
pin) ; multiply by the length of crank in inches, and divide by the 
radial distance, in inches, of the centre of gravity of the space to be 
occupied by the counterweight. The result is the counterweight in 
pounds, to be placed exactly opposite to the crank. 

Rule ii. To find the counterweights for outside-cylinder coupled 
engines. — Find the separate revolving weights, in pounds, of crank pin, 
coupling rods and connecting rod, for each wheel, — also the reciprocat- 
ing weight of the piston and appendages, and half the connecting-rod ; 
divide the reciprocating weight equally between the coupled wheels, 
and add the aliquot part, so allotted, to the revolving weight on each 
wheel. The sums so obtained are the weights to be balanced at the 
several wheels, for which the necessary counterweight may be found by 
rule i. 

Rule hi. To find the counterweight for inside-cylinder single 
engines. — 1st. To find its value. — Find the total weight, in pounds, to 
be balanced on each side, as in rule i. ; multiply it by the sum of the 
widths apart, centres of the cylinders and the wheels in inches, and 
divide by twice the width apart of the cylinders ; subtract the quotient 
(a) from the total weight, leaving a remainder (b) ; square the quanti- 
ties A and b, add the squares, and find the square root of the sum. This 
root is the resulting weight in pounds, to be balanced at the crank pin, 
for which the counterweight may be found by rule i. 

2nd. To find its direction. — Divide the greater weight (a) by the 
less (b) ; the quotient is the denominator of the fraction of which the 
numerator is 1, which expresses the inclination of the direction sought, 
with the centre line of the hear crank, diverging/rom the off crank. 

Rule iv. To find the counterweights for inside- cylinder coupled 
engines. — Find the value and direction of the counterweights for the 
inside revolving and reciprocating masses to be balanced, as in rule hi., 
and key the driving wheels on the axle in such positions as to place the 
outside cranks in the direction so found, or key on the cranks them- 
selves as required, if independent of the wheels ; find the total weight 
of the outside cranks and coupling rods, referred to the inside crank- 
pin, and, if less than the inside weight, subtract the outside weight 
from it, and distribute the difference between the coupled wheels, to be 
balanced according to rule i. ; or, if greater, balance the difference by 
counterweights opposed to the outside cranks. 

Note 1. The counterweight for inside cylinders may be found approx- 
imately, by assuming three-fourths of the whole disturbing weight as 
the weight to be balanced in the w^heel. 

2. Inside-cylinder coupled engines, as tbey stand, usually fall within 
the requirements of note 1. 

3. Though note 1 contains a good general rule, for general stability, 
the other rules should be employed where exact equilibrium is required, 
so as to balance as well as possible every internal strain. 

4. For the method of referring the weight to the crank pin, see 
page 169. 

5. For the method of finding the centre of gravity of the counter- 
weight, seepage 1/6. 

6. In the use of rule iv., the outside weight for four coupled wheels 
is usually found to be less than what is required ; and for six coupled 
wheels greater. 

7. To substitute lead for cast-iron counterweights, divide the volume 
found for the latter by 1*6, to find the equivalent volume of lead. 

8. Examples of the application of the rules are given in previous 
chapters. 

NOTES BY A PRACTICAL CHEMIST. 

Freeing Lead from Silver by means of Zinc. — Dr. Karsten, 
several years ago, made some experiments with lead and zinc, and 
found that, when a mixture of these metals was allowed to cool very 



102 



Notes by a Practical Chemist. 



[May, 



gradually, lead with a minute trace of zinc was found at the bottom of 
the crucible, and zinc with a small amount of silver at the top. If the 
lead contained silver, it was almost entirely transferred to the zinc. 
Hearing that in Caermarthen silver is withdrawn from lead by means 
of zinc, he resumed his examination of the subject. 

He found that silver may be entirely separated from lead by zinc, 
and that the following method gives the best results : — A tube of cast 
iron 1J inch in diameter is fitted to the crucible, so that the desilverised 
lead may be let off from the bottom. One end of this tube, dipping 
nearly to the bottom of the crucible, is furnished with a slide moving 
in grooves at the edge of the crucible, so that it can be shut when 
required by means of a rod. In this way the stream of melted lead 
may be regulated and the fall of level in the crucible rendered gradual 
and uniform. In the crucible were put 25 cwt. of lead, containing f of 
an ounce of silver to the cwt., and 4 cwt. of zinc. The whole was then 
fused, and stirred together for one hour at a bright red heat. This 
large amount of zinc was because it was intended to attempt a process 
of concentration in which the same quantity of zinc should serve to 
desilverise subsequent charges of lead. After the stirring apparatus 
was withdrawn, and the melted mass kept for four hours at a red heat, 
the lead, perfectly freed from silver, was drawn off until only about 6 
cwt. of metal remained in the crucible. To this residue a second 25 
cwt. of lead was added, and the operation repeated. With the third 
charge of lead 2 cwt. of zinc were likewise added for reasons given 
below. A fourth, fifth, and sixth charge of lead were introduced and 
treated in like manner, 2 cwt. of zinc having again been added to the 
fourth charge. The lead drawn off, in each case, was entirely freed from 
silver. But when a seventh charge was introduced without an addition 
of zinc, the lead, when drawn off, still retained silver to the extent of 
§ of an ounce to the cwt. The desilvering of 150 cwt. of lead in this 
manner requires 8 cwt. or 5£ per cent, of zinc, a quantity differing 
widely from that indicated by former experiments, namely, 1| per 
cent. 

An addition of 1| per cent, of zinc is quite sufficient for the perfect 
desilverisation of lead when only one charge is worked. Thus, 25 cwt. 
of lead may very well be freed from silver by 42 lbs. of zinc, but the 
difficulty of separating the small quantity of argentiferous metal from 
the desilverised zinc is so great, that this plan is not practicable. On 
the other hand, there is a certain limit to the size of the crucible, which 
cannot be exceeded, and recourse must, therefore, be had to a process 
of concentration. The silver is separated from the lead very imper- 
fectly, if twice or thrice as much zinc as is required for one charge of 
lead is added at once, with a view of making it serve for several charges. 
It is likewise imperfect when, on introducing into the crucible the 
several charges of lead, the 1£ per cent, needed for desilvering the lead 
is added with each charge. If, therefore, with reference to the above 
example, the first melting is made with 25 cwt. of lead, and 42 lbs. of 
zinc, the second, third, fourth, &c, charges (added to the residue in the 
crucible) must also consist of 25 cwt. of lead and 42 lbs. of zinc. The 
cause of the unfavourable result of the process attempted by the author 
lies in the necessity for stirring the melted metals. The oxidation of 
the lead and zinc at the surface of the mass is very disadvantageous. 
[Could not the surface be covered with some substance which would, 
in part, at least, protect the metals from contact with the atmosphere 
during this process ?] The different layers into which the metals sepa- 
rate were examined, in order to ascertain whether the quality of the 
lead was materially injured by the small amount of zinc taken up. 
Tbe crucible contains a series of strata, in which the respective propor- 
tions of lead and zinc vary much. The uppermost layer contains the 
largest amount of silver, and, besides zinc, 2 per cent, of lead. The 
proportion of zinc and of silver decreased in the lower strata in the 
same degree as the amount of lead increased. A specimen taken at 



1£ inch below the surface contained 8'6 per cent, of zinc ; half an inch 
deeper the per centage of zinc was 2'5, and a little below was the 
desilverised lead, containing % per cent, of zinc throughout. Lead, 
therefore, when in contact with zinc, takes up and retains £ per 
cent, of zinc, even under circumstances most favourable for their 
separation. The proportion of zinc does not appear to be influenced 
by the greater or less amount of lead with which it is fused at first. 
The lead obstinately retains this portion of zinc, even at a high tem- 
perature. Small as is tbe quantity of zinc remaining in the lead, 
it might perhaps be prejudicial, in many instances, to the introduc- 
tion of this process. It cannot be denied, that even f per cent, of 
zinc imparts to the lead some degree of brittleness, which renders it, 
for many purposes, such as the construction of tubes, inferior to pure 
lead. For the preparation of white lead it does not appear to have any 
disadvantage, but lead containing this quantity of zinc cannot be em- 
ployed in the manufacture of shot. In some lead works, where pure 
lead cannot be obtained, a greater impregnation of lead with zinc to 
the extent of £ per cent, would not, perhaps, be of any importance ;- 
and the application of zinc to desilverise the lead produced there would 
be very desirable, if any means can be found of obviating the necessity 
for stirring, as well as prevent the formation of oxide. 

The argentiferous zinc obtained by this process always retains a por- 
tion of lead sufficient for the refining of the silver after the zinc has 
been separated from the mixture ; and the alloy of silver and lead 
remains in the distillation muffle. If the per centage of lead is not 
sufficient for this purpose, more must be added, in order that in the 
distillation vessels the silver may be accumulated in the lead, which is 
afterwards cupelled. The distillation does not present any difficulties 
when suitable muffles are employed. The results obtained with such 
muffles as are employed in Upper Silesia were, on the contrary, very 
unsatisfactory. The author had muffles constructed which, except a 
slit f of an inch in diameter, were quite closed for a height of 4 inches 
from the bottom. The slit could be closed and re-opened in the usual 
manner when, the distillation being completed, it was necessary to draw 
off the remaining argentiferous lead. Such a muffle was charged for 
each distillation with 1 cwt. of the metallic alloy of zinc, lead and silver. 
The product , of four distillations of a mixture, which, according to the 
most careful assays, contained 4/i oz. of silver, was 242 lbs. of lead 
and 44^. The loss of silver amounted, therefore, to 3 2 ' 2 oz.; but this is 
owing chiefly to the scattering of small globules in the muffle, and it 
partly remains in the scum, from which it may be again recovered by 
subsequent distillations, washing, &c. 

Adulteration of Anatto. — The anatto of commerce is a soft 
paste of buttery consistence, unctuous and not earthy to the touch ; it 
has a scarcely perceptible taste, and an odour of putrid urine. It 
contains — 

Colouring and resinous matters . . . . . . . . 28'00 

Gluten 26-5 

Ligneous matter . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-0 

Extractive colouring matter . . . . . . . . 20 

Matter similar to gluten and extractive matters . . . . 4 - 

Ligneous and acid matter .. .. . • .. -. 1'5 

Anatto is often adulterated with red ochre, colcothar, Armenian bole, 
and powdered brick. 

The sample examined had the consistence of potters' earth ; its 
colour was a dull red, and, at first sight, it presented many brilliant 
points in its mass ; it was rather gritty between the fingers, and pre- 
sented only a slight urinous odour. Ten grammes dried at 100-0 lost 
3 - 40 of water; the remaining 6 1 6 grammes, ignited in a platinum cru- 
cible, lost only - 8 of organic matter, and there remained 5'8 of fixed 
matter of a red colour. This residue was treated with boiling hydro- 
chloric acid evaporated to dryness, in order to remove excess of acid, 



1853,] 



On Embankments. 



103 



and again dissolved in water. The filtered liquid left a residue of silica, 
which, when washed and dried, weighed 3'57. The liquor and washings, 
treated with ammonia, gave a red precipitate of peroxide of iron, which, 
when collected on a filter, washed, and dried, showed traces of lime. 
This sample contains, therefore, in 100 parts — 

Water 34-0 

Oxide of iron ' 22-10 

Sand 3570 

Organic matter . . . . . . . . . . . . 8* 

Loss, chiefly lime . . . . . . . . . . . . 0*20 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

"P. R. T." You are mistaken. Caustic soda is, strictly speaking, 
an illegal and contraband article ; no one but a soap-manufacturer is 
allowed by law to make it, and he is not allowed to sell it. This absurd 
enactment is, to be sure, never put in force at the present day, yet it 
remains an instructive instance of the effects of the Excise system upon 
manufactures. 

" A Practical Dyer." 1. "We have heard of a blue pigment said to 
be contained in the stem of the hollyhock, but believe it to have been 
merely one of those unfounded rumours which, from time to time, 
appear in unscientific journals. 

2. The proposal to animalise vegetable fibre, by using albumen or 
solution of caseine as a mordant, has not been found to work well in 
practice. 



ON EMBANKMENTS.* 

Two of the greatest works of this kind are, the embankment of Lough 
Island Reavy, in Leland, by Mr. Fairbairn, and the Shaw's Water-works at 
Greenock, in Scotland, by Mr. Thorns. The millowners on the upper Bann 
were subject to great disadvantages. They were flooded in winter, and in 
summer the drought stopped their works. In order to economise the winter 
floods, which were destructive rather than useful, they consulted Mr. Fair- 
bairn, and he thus reported: — "Lough Island Heavy, which is the best- 
situated reservoir, is a natural lake, bounded north and south by land of 
considerable elevation. It has good feeders, which, with the overplus waters 
of the River Maddoch, would give ample supplies, and fill the reservoirs 
once or twice in the year. The present area of the lough is 92^ statute 
acres. On this is to be raised 35 feet of water, which may be drawn down 
to a depth of 40 feet under that height. The area thus enlarged will be 253 
acres, equal to 140 acres 35 feet deep, and 113 acres 15 feet deep, making 
a total of 287,278,200 cubic feet of water." 

This reservoir has been completed, and in operation for some years. 
Reckoning the interest of the money expended upon the works, the cost of 
maintenance, and the expenses of superintendence and distribution, the 
annual charge amounts to £700; and it is calculated that 33 tons of water 
are supplied for one shilling; and, as 12 cubic feet per second falling one 
foot is a working horse-power, the value of such an improvement may be 
estimated. 

12 cubic feet at 62' lbs. by 750 lbs. by 60 seconds equals 45,000 lbs. falling 
one foot per minute, 33,000 lbs. raising one foot high per minute being an 
effective horse power. 12,000 lbs. remaining are allowed for the difference 
between power and effect. 

The Shaw's Water-works are even more interesting. The want of water 
had been long and grievously felt in the town of Greenock, where the people 
had not a sufficient supply even for domestic use, and it was generally be- 
lieved that water sufficient even for sanitary purposes could not be obtained 
in that locality, until a survey was made by Mr. Thom, who reported that, 
not only might an ample supply be provided for the use of the inhabitants, 
but that a large surplus would be applicable as mechanical power and for 
manufacturing purposes, " to an extent at least equal to all the machinery 
then impelled by steam power in and about Glasgow." 

The report is dated June 22nd, 1824, and the copy from which the author 
extracts this information was given to his valued friend, the late James Smith, 
of Deanston, in August, 1840, by Mr. Thom! himself, who has in his own 
handwriting noted the few differences between the original plan and the 
actual execution of the works. 

In consequence of this report, and under the auspices of Sir Michael Shaw 
Stewart, a joint-stock company was formed for carrying the plan into effect, 
with a capital of £31,000, and an Act of Parliament was obtained. In 
April, 1827, the principal portions of the works appear to have been com- 



* Rudimentary Treatise on the Power of Water, uy Joseph Glynn, F.K.S. London : 
John Weale. 



pleted, namely, the great reservoir, containing 284,678,500 cubic feet of 
water, and covering about 295 statute acres of land; the compensation 
reservoir, containing 14,465,900 cubic feet, and covering about 40 acres; 
and an auxiliary reservoir (marked No. 3 upon the plans), holding 4,652,100 
cubic feet, with an area of 10 acres. 

Five other smaller reservoirs are about to be made, and extended to hold 
more than 6,000,000 cubic feet, so that the aggregate quantity stored at 
once would be 310,000,000 cubic feet of water. The embankment of the 
great reservoir is 60 feet high, and that of the compensating reservoir 23 
feet. 

The main watercourse, somewhat more than six miles in length, was at 
the same time completed, and also its branch leading to the eastern line of 
mills, there being two lines, east and west; and, on the 16th of April, 1827, 
the first mill received its supply of water at the rate of 12,000 cubic feet per 
minute; at this rate both lines of mills are supplied. The available annual 
quantity of water to replenish the reservoirs is more than 700,000,000 cubic 
feet. 

The distinguishing characteristics of " this scheme," as Mr. Thom calls it, 
are the following : — Instead of erecting mills and factories on natural water- 
falls, on the banks of rivers in remote and almost inaccessible places, where 
immense capital must, in the first instance, be expended in forming roads 
and houses for the work-people, as well as a heavy and perpetual charge for 
carriage to and from the seat of trade, the water is carried by a conduit 
from the reservoirs to a populous sea-port town with a redundant unem- 
ployed population, where roads, harbours, piers, and everything requisite for 
the most extensive manufacture are already formed. Besides, by thus form- 
ing artificial water- falls on advantageous grounds, every inch of fall from 
the reservoir to the sea is rendered available ; whereas, by the former mode, 
only a very small part of the fall could in general be employed. In the 
present case a fall of 512 feet has been made available, of which not more 
than 20 were formerly occupied or thought capable of being usefully em- 
ployed. But, besides the advantage thus gained by increasing the fall, a still 
greater advantage is gained by the greatly increased and perfectly uniform 
supply of water, by the adaptation of the various self-acting sluices, and 
other simple and effective means of regulation. 

The reservoirs are large enough to contain a full supply for six months, 
so that the surplus of a wet year may be stored up to provide against a dry 
season, thus turning to account all the water caught upon the surrounding 
hills, the greater part of which before ran wastefully to the sea. The prac- 
tical effect of the Shaw's Water-works has been to place within the suburbs 
of a populous town a series of mills and factories driven by power equal to 
that of thirty- three steam engines of fifty horses each. 

Such power being applied to manufacturing purposes, each factory will 
pay in wages to the work-people about £10,000 a year, making a total 
annual amount distributed in wages only, of more than £300,000, and em- 
ploying upwards of 7,000 persons, besides giving an ample supply of water 
for the use of the town. 

A greater addition to the wealth of a small community in so short a time, 
and by such simple means, can scarcely be imagined. 

WRIGHT'S IMPROVED VENTILATING CONDENSER. 
(From the Journal of Gas Lighting.) 
Although condensation is the simplest of all the operations of the gas 
manufacturer, and is, consequently, that upon which the least attention is 
generally bestowed, it is, nevertheless, one of the most important of them, 
and its abuse exercises a more serious influence over the quality of the gas 
manufactured than many gas engineers are at first sight prepared to admit. 
Its legitimate purpose is simply to precipitate the aqueous and opaque 
vapours contained in the crude gas, which, when cooled down to the ordinary 
temperature of the atmosphere, become deposited in the form of tar and 
ammoniaeal liquor; but as it is now an ascertained fact that the bulk of the 
light-giving matters in coal gas are not permanent gases, but hydro-carbon 
vapours condensible by cold into naphtha compounds, it is clear that the 
carrying on of the operation beyond the point requisite for condensing the 
opaque vapours must be attended with a proportionate diminution in the 
illuminating power of the residue. Chemists and gas engineers are not yet 
quite agreed upon the exact point to which the cooling process should be 
carried ; but it has been satisfactorily demonstrated that common coal gas 
undergoes a rapid diminution in its illuminating power when cooled below 50°, 
though cannel-coal gas will bear a lower temperature without a correspond- 
ing decrease in its luminosity. Mr. Lewis Thompson's original and elabo- 
rate investigations have proved that, while the hydro-carbon vapours con- 
tained in Newcastle coal gas at 60° have a specific gravity of 3 - 2, those of 
Boghead cannel gas are only I "21, and in Wigan cannel gas T77, and that 
the former begin to be precipitated at a higher temperature than the two last. 
The safe condensing minimum must, consequently, be regulated by the nature 
of the material employed in the manufacture of the gas. 



104 



Wright's Improved Ventilating Condenser. 



[May, 



A condenser should be so constructed that, while the minimum tempera- 
ture at the exit is attained as nearly as circumstances will permit, the 
cooling operation should never be continued beyond that point. The 
neglect of this condition involves the deposition of some portion of the heavy 
hydro-carbon vapours along with the tar, whenever the temperature of the 
atmosphere sinks below the safe cooling point; whereas, its observance will 
effectually preserve these valuable illuminating agents. They may be after- 
wards temporarily deposited, during excessively cold weather, in the gas- 
holders and mains ; but, whenever the temperature of the atmosphere rises 
above their vaporising point, they again become hydro-carbon vapours, and, 
as such, are taken up and carried off by the gas, adding to its luminosity. 
A perfect condenser must, therefore, allow of its cooling power being varied, 
according to the temperature of the external air, and the quantity of gas 
passing through it. The original apparatus of a series of pipes immersed in 
water requires a large surface to compensate for the increase of temperature 
communicated to the water by the gas, and which is only partially obviated 
by permitting a small stream to run through it. The vertical air condenser, 
moistened by the dropping of water over the exposed surface of the pipe, 



much simplified by the mode adopted for transferring the gas from the 
bottom of one column to the top of the next, an operation which Mr. Wright 
performs with ordinary socket pipes. 

Some idea may be formed of the efficiency of this improved condenser, from 
the following record of three experiments. In the second one, the covers 
might have been advantageously left on the first of the ventilating pipes, if 
common coal gas had been passing through, although the gas manufactured 
by the Western Company from Ramsay's Newcastle cannel coal would bear a 
lower temperature without perceptible decrease in illuminating power. These 
covers, however, give the means of eight adjustments of the condensing 
power, to be used as circumstances may require. 

Experiment No. 1 — passing 10,200 feet per hour. 
Air, 5-t°. — Damp and cloudy. — Covers on ventilating pipes. 

Inlet. 

Temperature of gas 107° 

Decrease in each column 

Accumulated effect of the 

successive columns > 52.i° 



Col. 1. Col. 2. Col. 3. Col. 4. Col. 5. Col. 6. Col. 7. Col. 8. 



54*° 
2|° 



94° 

13° 


84° 1 
10° 


76° 
8° 


69J° 


64|° 
5" 


60" 
4J« 


57" 
3» 




23° 1 


31° 


37*° 


42J° 


47° 


50» 




SCALE ONE-EIGHTH OF AN INCH TO A FOOT. 



acts only upon the external portion of the column of gas. Mr. Kirkham, the 
able engineer of the Imperial Gas Company, modified this by introducing a 
ventilating column concentric to a large pipe, by which the gas was divided 
into a thin sheet; and a powerful condenser, upon this principle, has been for 
some years in operation at the Pancras station of that company, in which the 
gas ascends and descends alternately in each successive column ; and the 
condensing power may be varied by contracting or wholly closing up the top 
of the ventilating column. 

Mr. Wright, the highly scientific engineer of the Western Gas Company 
has lately improved upon Mr. Kirkham's system, by constructing a ventilating 
condenser, in which the gas enters the condensing column at the top only, 
while the air, by its rarefaction within the internal pipe, passes upwards, and 
hence a more effective interchange of heat takes place. Thus, if the air 
entering at the bottom has a temperature of 50°, and the gas entering at 
the top a temperature of 100°, and a certain quantity of each be passing, 
the air might leave the top at nearly 100°, and the gas at the bottom at 
nearly 50°. But if the' gas entered from below at 100°, and the air with 
it at 50°, the gas could not possibly leave at 50°, but would probably do so 
at 75°. In addition to the superior effect thus produced, the construction is 



Experiment No. 2 — passing 11,120 feet per hour. 
Air, 49°. — Fine and Dry.— Covers off ventilating pipes. 

Inlet. Col.l. Col. 2. Col. 3. Col. 4. Col. 5. Col. 6. Col. 7. Col 8. 



Temperature of gas 100° 

Decrease in each column 

Accumulated effect of the 
successive columns 



78| Q 
21i« 


I6i° 

12±= 


69£° 

7» 


55s" 
4" 


53i° 
2i° 


514° 
1|» 


504° 

1" 




334= 


404° 


444' 


461" 


484° 


49ja 



49£« 

1° 

504' 



Experiment No. 3 — passing 12,400 feet per hour. 
Air, 55°. — Rain. — Covers off ventilating pipes. 
Inlet. 



Col.l 
79° 
24° 


Col. 2. 

674' 

114° 


Col. 3. 
61' 
64' 


Col. 4. 

58» 

3' 


Col. 5. 

564° 

14° 


Col. 6. 
56' 


Col. 7. 

554° 

i° 




354' 


42' 


45' 


464' 


47' 


474° 



Col. 8. 
55" 



Temperature of gas 103° 

Decrease in each column ... 

Accumulated effect of the 

successive columns 

The external column is 3 feet diameter, and 18 feet high; the internal one 
is 2 feet diameter, the ring of gas between the two being h\ inches wide, 
with an era nearly equal to that of a pipe 26 inches diameter. The transfer 
of the gas from the base of one column to the top of the next is effected by 
12-inch pipes. The total weight of the whole is about 27 tons, and the sur- 
face exposed 3200 feet.* From these data, some general rules may be laid 
down for the dimensions of such condensers, according to the climate in 
which they are to be used, and the nature of the gas to be condensed. 

* The small quantity of metal employed for so large a surface is due to the excellence and 
lightness of the castings furnished by Mr. Robert Jones, of Wolverhampton, the contractor for 
the condenser erected at the "Western Gas Works. 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



105^ 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SLIP OF THE SCREW. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Mr. Bodmer's letter in your last number, in which he does me 
the honour of selecting me especially for castigation, calls for one or 
two remarks, in which I shall avoid, as much as possible, all such 
observations as might cause pain. 

In his letter occurs the following passage : — " ' W.' accuses me of 

imagining that the case of the screw working in a solid nut is analogous 

to that of a screw working in water. This, I am afraid, is rather the 

view ' W.' takes of the matter ; at least, I must conclude so from 

v — u V H 

his formula = ." Let us see how this matter really stands. 

u y A 

In his letter which appeared in your January number Mr. Bodmer 
certainly supposes the whole of the force applied to turn the screw 
round effective in balancing the resistance to the vessel's progress ; 
for he equates the " works" done by these two forces; which would be 
incorrect, if any part of one of the forces were expended in any other 
manner. This same process he repeats in his second calculation- 
Now, although the work of a screw working in a solid nut (neglecting 
friction) would be correctly found in this way, I showed that this is 
not the case with a screw working in water, where part of its work is 
expended in displacing the water through which it moves. The cor- 
rectness, therefore, of the statement which I have quoted from Mr. 
Bodmer's last letter may be left to the judgment of your readers. 
Further, I stated that the equation which I exhibited was founded on 
the true supposition just given; and of this Mr. Bodmer, or any one of 
your readers, may convince himself by consulting The Marine Steam 
Engine, by Professor Main and T. Brown, C.E., p. 315. 

But how Mr. Bodmer infers, from this formula, that I take the view 
of the screw which I attribute to him he does not inform us, and I am 
at a loss to conjecture. 

In exhibiting that equation, I did not conceive it necessary to enter 
into a detailed explanation of the terms used, as I could not conceive it 
possible that any gentleman would come forward to correct the current 
views on this question, without at least making himself acquainted 
with the results at which previous engineers had arrived, if not with 
the investigations by which they had arrived at them ; in this, however, 
it seems, I was deceived, as will presently appear. 

Before leaving this part of his letter, I must make one more remark. 
Let any one read, without favour or prejudice, Mr. Bodmer's first letter, 
and he will certainly allow that that gentleman's case rests entirely on 
the accuracy of his numerical calculations. When, therefore, in his 
second letter he admits, that in his explanation he neglected the forward 
motion of the vessel, he virtually abandons his whole case. 

He says, indeed, " that circumstance, however, can only affect the 
numerical result of my calculation, and not the principle for which I 
am contending." 

What principle he is contending for — except that which he deduces 
or leaves others to deduce from his numerical calculations, the correct- 
ness of which he now abandons — I am at a loss to conceive. The 
analogy drawn in the concluding paragraph of his first letter between a 
screw blade ar,d an inclined plane (which certainly does not there 
assume a very prominent place, but appears rather as an obiter dictum.) 
does not mend his case ; for, were an inclined plane — by which I pre- 
sume he means a plane fixed obliquely to the axis — employed to propel 
a ship, there must still be a difference of velocity of the plane and of 
the ship in the normal direction in favour of the former — or there 
would be no resistance on it, and therefore no propelling power. Part 
of the " work" applied to move the plane round would still be em- 
14 



ployed (uselessly as regards the motion of the ship) in giving a trans- 
verse motion to the water ; and hence there would necessarily arise, on 
the ordinary suppositions, slip. 

Since each elementary area of the screw blade may be considered a 
portion of a tangent plane to the surface, which might thus be considered 
an inclined plane, the whole surface may, if he pleases, be considered 
an aggregate of all such elementary inclined planes — no two of which, 
however, would be in the same direction. Further, that a single inclined 
plane may be found producing, by its rotation round an axis, the same 
effect in propelling a vessel at any given screw, I am willing enough to 
grant ; but its area would be very different in magnitude from that of 
the screw ; and I am by no means ready to concede that the screw- 
blade may be replaced by an inclined plane of the same area, which 
seems to be Mr. Bodmer's proposition, and which he requires us to 
accept upon no evidence, but on his sole authority. But there is 
nothing peculiarly novel in the notion of an inclined plane of one area 
as equivalent to a screw of another area. The novelty of Mr. Bodmer's 
views consists entirely in the " principle" as illustrated by his numerical 
calculations — a principle which I have shown to be quite erroneous. 

To strengthen his own case, Mr. Bodmer misapprehends and misap- 
v — u \/ H 

plies the formula I produced = . I particularly stated that 

u \/ A 

H was the effective area of midship section, and A was the effective area 
of the screw blade. But Mr. Bodmer, apparently, is ignorant of the con- 
ventional use of these terms by mathematicians, and has confounded 
two distinct things. By the effective midship section of a vessel is 
meant that plane area which, moving through the water, experiences 
the same resistance as the vessel, and is very different in amount from 
the actual midship section; and by the effective area of the screw 
blade is meant that area or disc which, moving through the water 
opposite to the direction of the vessel's motion, experiences the same 
resistance in that direction as the screw does — which alone is effective 
in propelling the vessel. This is, in fact, a convenient conventional 
mode of expressing a constant quantity, which, of course, depends on 
all the elements of the screw blade itself — viz., its diameter, pitch, 
and length. 

a I 

Its real value is (cos. a + tan. a, log. e, sin. 3 a), where 2 a, is the 

2 
diameter, I the length, and a the angle of the screw a ; if, therefore, p 

P 

be the pitch, we should have tan. a = 

27ra 

In applying the test of numerical calculation to my formula, Mr. 
Bodmer quietly assumes that the true area of midship section and true 
area of screw blade are intended. No wonder that the results he so 
obtains are very different from observed results. 

Further, this expression fully and amply theoretically accounts for 
those observed facts respecting screw propellers for which Mr. Bourne 
is cited as a witness. I do not know what expression in my letter gives 
Mr. Bodmer a right to assert that I adopt generally the theory of the 
current of Mr. Isherwood. The expression so often alluded to, and 
which I adopt as generally true, is founded on no such theory; but 
supposes that, while the vessel glides through the water with a cer- 
tain speed, the water itself remains stationary ; and, hence, that the 
water has, relatively to the vessel, the vessel's speed, but in the opposite 
direction. Had Mr. Bodmer read with ordinary intelligence my letter, 
which he professes to criticise, he would not have committed so gross a 
blunder. In my letter occurs this sentence, which leaves no room for 
misapprehension, — " Hence, while the common supposition that there 
is no absolute motion of the water holds good, there must be positive 
slip." 



106 



Correspondence. 



[May, 



In the exceptional cases where negative slip has been observed, it is 
evident this expression cannot hold good ; and, as it is derived by a 
strict mathematical process from certain hypotheses, it is equally 
evident that, in such cases, some one or more of these hypotheses are 
incorrect. Even here Mr. Bodmer cannot draw a correct inference. 
What I stated accords admirably with experience is, not that the ex- 
pression for slip holds good (though that I am prepared to defend), but 
that "the resistance to the screw blade varies as the square of the 
relative normal velocity of the screw and ship." 

Investigations, based on the above theory of resistance, lead to the 
following conclusions : — "1st. Thatsolong as the same screw is employed 
in the same ship, the horse power of the engine varies as the cube of 
the speed of the ship. 2nd. That if in the same ship the screw is 
changed, the horse power varies as the square of the speed of the ship 
multiplied by the speed of the screws." These two deductions, which 
would not be true on any other theory of resistances, have been abun- 
dantly verified by experiments in the Rattler, Minx and Dwarf. As, 
then, this law rests on such firm ground, we can only imagine some 
other element to vary, for instance, the normal relative velocity of the 
screw and ship. We are thus naturally led to infer that the water in 
which the screw acts, in the case of negative slip, is not absolutely at 
rest, but has a motion in the same direction as the ship. 

Far be it from me to state dogmatically that such is the case (and I 
distinctly gave it as my opinion that we are in no situation to hazard 
anything beyond a conjecture on this matter) ; but this I may be per- 
mitted to say, that, of all the theories which have been put forth to 
account for negative slip, this seems the most probable and reason- 
able. 

With a great part of " Goose-Quill's" letter I fully agree ; in fact, he 
brings forward the same objections as myself. To the two concluding 
paragraphs, however, I can by no means subscribe. If there be no 
" after current," so long as a screw is really a screw, i. e., generated 
by a straight line moving perpendicularly to the axis of a cylinder 
along the circumference of a given curve, a strict investigation has 
shown that no possible proportions can be given to it, so as " at a 
given velocity to produce a greater thrust than is necessary to overcome 
the resistance the ship meets with at a speed equal to what it would be 
if the screw worked in a solid nut, and a negative slip would be the 
result." 

What might be the case were a surface of another form given to the 
propeller, it is not our present object to inquire ; but this, at all events, 
we may safely say, that that which, under the ordinary suppositions, 
gives rise to slip in the common screw blade, must exist in the case of 
every propeller. There must be a greater motion of each point of the 
moving surface than that of the vessel, and in the opposite direction. 

Mr. Bodmer has succeeded in mystifying himself completely with 
regard to the relation of the " pitch " to a vessel's progress. Of course 
the blades of the screw transmit the motion to the vessel; the pitch 
is merely a conventional term, though of great use, as enabling us to 
represent simply an element of great importance as affecting the use 
of the screw as a propeller. The degree of obliquity with which it 
strikes the water (which must materially affect the vessel's progress) 
depends immediately on the ratio of the pitch of the screw to its 
diameter. We might certainly talk of the angle of the screw; but the 
pitch is, on the whole, the more convenient term. By-the-bye, Mr. 
Bodmer is quite wrong in calling the pitch a ratio ; it is absolutely and 
simply a length, corresponding to what is called in a screw considered 
as a mechanical power, the distance between two contiguous threads. 
I am not aware that anywhere, except in Mr. Bodmer's vivid imagina- 
tion, did the conception ever arise, that "the pitch transmits the power 
to the vessel." This, with all due deference to him, is — simply non- 
sense. 



This gentleman has also fallen into an error common enough among 
half-fledged mathematicians, viz., that of exhibiting an equation to 
embody his " explanation," without showing how it is connected with, 
or explains, physical facts ; simply, I presume, because it is convenient. 

It would have been more satisfactory had any, the slightest, notion 



been given how to obtain the result ( — v 



A sin. 2 a = u* H. 



What physical truth does this expression represent, and how ? I 
need scarcely tell Mr. Bodmer that an equation, in itself, like his pre- 
sumed pitch, is naught. Let us, then, be informed of the process by 
which it is obtained, and what acknowledged truth it is founded on, 
before we are called on to admit its truth. This, I believe, would give 
him much trouble. 

His numerical calculation leaves no room to doubt that A is the 
actual area of the screw blade; and I cannot help thinking that he 
takes A sin. 2 a for a projection of this area, as he certainly does after- 
wards take A cos.'a for its projection on the midship section ; but I 
must take leave to remind him that A cos. a and A sin. a would be the 
area of these projections. 

But, further, Mr. Bodmer must prove, by a mathematical investiga- 
tion, that he may use a screw blade as an inclined plane of the same 
area. 

The centre of pressure of the screw blade or paddle wheel has 
nothing whatever to do with motion ; — it is the point through which 
the resultant pressure of the fluid at rest acts ; but it has no relation 
whatever to the resistance produced by motion, which does not vary 
as the depth below the free surface. 

The whole of Mr. Bodmer's mathematical lucubrations may then be 
dismissed as simply gratuitous, and quite beside the question. 

There is one grave error into which we could hardly have supposed 
that he, as a " practical man," could have fallen : — It is that of supposing 
that the resistance on a vessel propelled by a screw is increased by a 
resistance in the same direction on the screw blade itself. Now, the 
whole motive power on the vessel is derived from a resistance on the 
screw blade in the opposite direction. How can these opposite re- 
sistances co-exist ? In reality, all the conditions to which the screw 
blade is subjected are taken into consideration in the investigation 
which leads to my expression. Besides, if Mr. Bodmer's supposition 
were true of the screw, why not also of the paddle wheel? The pre- 
ference, therefore, he gives to the paddle wheel over the screw, other 
circumstances being the same, rests on an unsound foundation. 

I shall merely content myself with saying that Mr. Bodmer's 
assertion, as to the application of his equation to the paddle-wheel 
propeller, is equally incorrect. 

As Mr. Bodmer asserts that I differ from him for reasons similar to 
those of "Goose-Quill" and "Navalis," I must, for my own credit, 
decline any responsibilities for the opinion put forth by those gentlemen. 
I have already shown where I differ from the former ; with the latter 
I cannot find that I have one notion in common, except opposition to 
Mr. Bodmer's explanation. I do not profess to understand his argu- 
ment, which is, to ordinary apprehensions, anything but lucid. Each 
of his two expressions for the resistances, " the product of three con- 
ditions, as developed in the screw and in the vessel," is obtained simply 
enough, I dare say ; but on what theory, and how actually representing 
physical truths, we are left to conjecture. Even, however, supposing 
his two expressions are obtained on sound views, I should like to be 
informed on what principle the product of the pitch of the screw and 
the number of revolutions of the engine per minute, divided by the 
number of minutes in a second, represents the velocity of the ship. 
I shall not, however, expose his fallacies, as I am quite sure he will not 
make many converts to his very novel theory, if theory it may be called. 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



107 



All I wish to do, at present, is to advertise, " No connection with the 
other house." 

My letter has run, I am aware, to an unreasonable length; but for 
this the interest of the subject, and the necessity of clearing up as much 
as possible inexact and erroneous views of it, will, I trust, be accepted 
as an excuse. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

W. 
Portsmouth, April Wth, 1853. 



To tie Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Mr. Bodmer seems unwilling to admit that a screw working 
in a solid nut is a very different matter to a screw propeller working 
in a fluid ; and that thereby the digits expressing the power of a screw 
working in a solid nut do not express 'the power of a screw propeller 
working in a fluid. I omitted the term " during one revolution," it is 
true, but I think I inserted an equivalent expression when I said " not 
1 1 feet only, but so long as the power was applied" — that is, to a solid 
nut and screw, and, as " W." observed, this power will be quite inde- 
pendent of the velocity of the screw, and limited only by the strength 
of the materials of which it is composed ; whereas, in the screw pro- 
peller, its power may be increased ad infinitum^ by increasing its velo- 
city, and its power may be measured by the thrust at the shaft, and its 
(commercial) horse power by multiplying the thrust by the space 
passed through per minute, and dividing by 33,000. 

As motives of argument must this time take precedence of motives 
of brevity, I will again refer to Mr. Bodmer's figures ; we will suppose 
his screw 10 feet diameter and 11 feet pitch, to be moving at such a 
velocity as to exercise a thrust on the shaft equal to 94,248 lbs., and 

11 X 100 

the equation expressing the resistance of the hull is ■ := 

60 
18-333 (18-333) 2 X 40 = 13,439-6. Now, why multiply this sum again 
by 11? What element does 11 express? The presence of this term 
was supposed to be necessary in the first equation, but why should it 
reappear in this second equation, where the terms 18 - 333 2 by 40 ex- 
presses its equivalent, and represents the total resistance of the hull 
at the same velocity which the screw was supposed to have when it 
exercised a resistance of 94,248 lbs.? And then, to square up the effects 
of this inaccuracy, Mr. Bodmer supposes and expresses in figures (a 
very easy matter) a result which a process of reason will not allow to 
exist. 

The assertion that " the changing of the same screw into a vessel of 
finer lines or lesser resistance does not constitute an analogy from 
which to deduce its negative slip in its own vessel," one would have 
thought required no more than the hint. 

Between an invariable cause and an invariable effect there is an in- 
variable relation ; and does it not occur to Mr. Bodmer that, if any of 
the elements constituting the cause, relation, or effect be removed, that 
he immediately annihilates the logical succession from cause to effect ; 
and that if the effect, " negative slip," be demonstrated, it can onlv be 
proved through the medium of its own relations up to the cause ? Now, 
will this process of reason have anything to do with the action or re- 
sults of the same propeller in another vessel of a different form ? Not 
the slightest. 

Although I cannot see any reason why the resistance of a vessel may 
not be lessened 60 per cent, or more, by cleaning the immersed sur- 
face of marine matter, as was the case with the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company's steamer Ripon, I am not aware that the Teazer has passed 
through such a process, and that the result was a negative slip ; but I 
am aware that, " after her form had been improved, she went above a 
knot an hour faster with 40 horse engines than she had previously gone 



with engines of 100 horse power" (A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, by 
J. Bourne, C.E., pp. iv. and xxxiii., appendix). If this be the circum- 
stance to which Mr. Bodmer alludes (and I suppose it is), I have only 
to add that, as an argument, I consider it a teazer against his explana- 
tion of the cause of negative slip. 

I have now reached the limits circumscribed me as a measure of 
justice for prolixity of assertion, but I will probably be excused, if I 
take the liberty of calling in question some of the exercitations in Mr. 
Bodmer's last letter, as long as I do not infringe on " W.'s" reply, 
who appears more able to take his own part than I am to assist him. 

The fallacy of Mr. Bodmer's conclusion is sufficient to show the 
fallacy of the formulae; but let v, as before, equal the velocity of the 



sum of the units of blade-resisting surface, then ■ 



v = N X (V ■** + e 2 ) 
60 



where c represents the circumference at the centre of pressure, for a 
helix developed upon a plane becomes the hypotheneuse of a right- 
angled triangle, whose base is the circumference normal to the distance 
of the helix from the axis considered as a radius, and whose perpen- 
dicular is the pitch ; let R = the total resistance of the propeller, and 
k the pressure per square foot of surface, hence R = » 2 A sin. 2 a kj 
let H = the midship section, K the pressure per square foot, V = the 
velocity, R 1 = the total resistance, then E' = T ! HK; but I remarked 
in my last, that the resistance to a screw blade in its rotation is trans- 
90° : R : : cosin. 2 a 

verse to the axis, therefore = slip, and the only 

R 1 
result I can deduce from the inquiry is, that the slip is dependent on 
the velocity of the screw, and will vary with the velocity in the ratio 
of v 2 A sin. 2 a k to V 2 II K, and which appears to " be in accordance 
with the facts" " and the results of practice." — Artizan for 1852, 
p. 204. 

Result No. 1 — Speed of screw at 33f revolutions . . 30,299*4 feet. 
Do. vessel do. do. .. 23,314-8 „ 



Slip . , 



6,984 6 feet. 



Do. vessel 



do. 



Slip 



do. 



40,199-4 feet. 
30,899-9 „ 



9,299-5 feet. 



or an increase of slip of 2,314 - 9 feet for the extra 11 revolutions; see 
also reports Nos. 1, 4, 5 and 6, confirming the results of the two pre- 
vious trials ; see also a Treatise on the Screw Propeller, by J. Bourne, 
C.E., p. 149, where Mr. Bourne remarks that, although at low speeds 
the increase of slips may be inappreciable, nevertheless, at high speeds 
it becomes apparent ; and it is manifest, that in " auxiliaries'" it must 
become palpable. 

Now what the midship section has to do with the indicator and dyna- 
mometer diagrams I never could comprehend. These diagrams only- 
measure the relative efficiency of the engines and propeller, and have 
nothing to do whatever with any "additional or effective midship 
section," and the usual formula expressing the co-efficient of efficiency 
of the hull ought certainly to be immediately remodeled and put 
speed 3 X mid. sec. 

dynamom. power. 

With respect to the difference between the indicator and dynamometer 
diagrams, the remarks I have already made in this and in the former 
letter will suggest a mode of accounting for it. Since the propeller 
meets with a resistance in its rotation apart from its resistance on the 
shaft, it is obvious that this resistance will be greater or less, according 
to the pitch of the screw ; and it is also obvious that, if it be possible to 



108 



Correspondence. 



[May, 



have a resistance at the centre of pressure of the screw blade equal to 
the resistance on the engine crank (direct acting), that if the two radii 
be not equal, then it will be necessary to take this element into account 
also. But the diagram to which Mr. Bodmer has referred us {Rudi- 
mentary Treatise on the Marine Engine, by R. Murray, C.E., p. 149) 
does not represent a loss from either of these causes (although they 
may exist), but represents a loss in consequence of the sudden immer- 
sions of the screw, the vessel at the time having been steaming against 
" a fresh breeze with some sea," and representing a varying thrust on 
the dynamometer lever of from about 16 to 55 lbs., and, for that reason, 
no doubt, inserted by Mr. Murray as a more tangible illustration than 
a diagram showing a nearly straight line. This loss of power is circum- 
stantial, but the first causes of loss of power which I have mentioned 
arise from construction ; and it is rather astonishing that Mr. Bourne 
should have lost sight of this form of the question, more particularly 
when remarking on the performance of the American steamer San 
Jacinto (A Treatise on the Screw Propeller, p. xxviii., appendix), her 
indicated horse power was 782'45, while her dynamometricated horse 
power was only 375 - 92, or scarcely one-half (see also the Artizan, 
vol. 1852, p. 63). Now, I consider that this loss of power had nothing 
whatever to do with the hull, as is generally supposed, but is purely a 
matter between the engines and propeller. The screw of the San 
Jacinto is 14 ft. 6 ins. diameter, and having the monstrous pitch of 
from 40 expanding to 45 feet. 

" Although the theories which have been hitherto brought forward 
to account for the ' negative slip,' have certainly not been of a nature 
to induce me to suppose that my explanation would be set aside for 
want of precision, I am quite willing to supply that deficiency" — a 
very laudable ambition ; " nor will any one maintain, I should say, 
that the progress of a vessel propelled by the screw could exceed the 

quantity 2 w ( , — rjr~t) f° r eac ^ revolution of the screw." Now, 

really what does Mr. Bodmer mean? He here admits, as it were, his own 
error, under shelter of a dazzling file of citations, and, bringing up his 
rear with a cloud of mathematical dust, coolly challenges us to see that 
we are not mistaken. 

Your obedient servant, 

London. Navalis. 

P.S. Although I have put v~, it must not be understood that I con- 
sider the force of impact as the square of the velocity with any angle, 
I have merely put the term, as others do, for want of a more definite 
one; if sin. a = 180° we should consider the resistance as the square 
of the velocity; but if cos. a = 180° the resistance would be 0, and 
the co-efficient of resistance for a given angle appears to be the first 
problem which must be solved, with a view to the determining the 
theoretic thrust of a screw propeller. N. 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sie, — I have examined Mr. Bodmer's figures, but cannot make out 
that they mean anything. Referring to his first letter (Artizan for 
January), I find he constructs his case as follows : — Diameter of screw 

v 
= d ; pitch =■ p ; velocity of screw =: — ; and the power acting at 

60 
the circumference = p. On the other hand, he makes the ship's 
resistance at the unit of velocity = r. Comparing the resistance of the 
ship with the power developed by the screw, he finds that, with certain 
assumed values for the terms, — 
• p v \ 2 

) X r p is unequal to d ir X p ; 

60 / 

whereas, as he says in his second letter, " there must be equality be- 
tween the thrust of the screw and the resistance of the vessel." To 



make his figures (docile creatures!) show this equality, he arbitrarily 
alters the term representing the pitch. Why should this term be altered 
rather than that representing the velocity ? If Mr. Bodmer will give 
a valid reason for his choice of the term, which should be modified, to 
make the two sides of the equation balance, I will acknowledge that he 
will then have explained the phenomenon termed negative slip. I do 
think it possible for this phenomenon to occur without the intervention 
of a current ; and the few suggestions which appear so unintelligible to 
Mr. Bodmer were offered by me with the view of giving a new direc- 
tion to the investigation of its causes. As, however, these suggestions 
have little to do with Mr. Bodmer's explanation, and as I am so vain 
as to be quite content with my own opinion on the subject, I will not 
at present take up more of your space, which can, I think, be much 
better occupied than by such discussions. 

Your obedient servant, 
Glasgow, April, 1853. " Goose-Quill." 



LONDON IMPROVEMENTS AND STREET RAILWAYS. 

We have received the following note from a correspondent, whose 
position in the mercantile world gives him an opportunity of appre- 
ciating any improvement which would facilitate the transaction of 
affairs in this great metropolis : — 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — The exceedingly crowded state of the principal thoroughfares 
of London (the City in particular) is a well known fact, productive 
of inconvenience to the business man, and of danger to the aged 
and timid. 

It has struck me that a remedy exists for this, neither very impracti- 
cable nor expensive. At all events, I think it would pay its own ex- 
penses. 

Should you think my suggestions of any value, you will oblige me 
by giving them a corner in your widely circulated Journal. 

I would propose that, at certain termini, powerful stationary en- 
gines should be placed, to work a rope which should convey a train 
of carriages up one line of rails, say on the left side of the street, and 
down another line of rails on the right side. These trains might start 
as frequently as necessity required, or convenience allowed. The 
train might be stopped at will, as the mode of traction would allow of 
a disjunction from the rope at any moment, the guard or conductor 
having at his command attached to the waggons an instrument (strong 
but easy to work) somewhat like a pair of pincers. When he wished 
to stop the train, he would open the instrument, thus detaching the car- 
riages altogether from the rope. They could be at once attached by 
closing it. The rope would, of course, be in a groove between the rails. 
I may not have explained my views as clear as a practical mechanic, 
still I think the plan is feasible, and I hope I have made myself under- 
stood as far as the main principle is concerned. At all events, my 
suggestions' may be the means of elucidating opinions from others, 
who have noticed and felt inconvenienced from the periodical and fre- 
quent blockades that occur in the metropolis, like 

Your obedient servant, 

B. M. 

PS. The plan itself of moving carriages by means of a revolving 
rope worked by a stationary engine is not I, believe, new. I have not, 
however, seen the idea broached of applying it to common roads or 
streets. 

[Our correspondent's plan for connecting and disconnecting the car- 
riages resembles that formerly in use on the London and Blackwall 
Railway. Its inconveniencies are, that a carriage cannot be connected 
when the rope is in motion; that sharp curves are impossible; and 
curves of any radius difficult ; and that the rope would prevent other 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



109 



carriages crossing the streets. A better plan would be condensing 
locomotives and a tramway, or a tramway and horse power ; but all 
these devices are mere palliatives. We must come to a radical reform ; 
and, although Mr. Pearson is laughed at now, his only fault is that, 
like other clever men, he looks into futurity a little farther than the 
world in general. Men whose minds cannot rise above scrip and Capel- 
court ask, sneeringly, " Where is your dividend to come from?" It 
would be just as rational to ask, " Where is the dividend from New 
London-bridge, or New Cannon- street, or Victoria-park ?" Ten 
minutes saved every time a business man has to go from the Bank to 
Charing-cross would represent a " dividend " to them, and, indirectly, to 
the public at large ; compared with which, the revenue of any existing 
railway, of similar cost, would make but a beggarly show. Objectors 
of the kind we have alluded to cannot grasp the idea of dealing with 
the comfort and convenience of a population which is numbered by 
millions. A remark which we over-heard in conversation a short time 
since offers an illustration. The speaker was reckoning the profit on 
the export of bottled beer at so many farthings per dozen, which did 
not sound a very important sum, when he was interrupted with, 
"Aye, but look at Messrs. So-and-so; they send out two thousand 
dozen a week !" a fact which very materially altered the complexion 
of the case. 

How the money should be raised to carry out a general scheme for 
the improvement of London we need not stop to inquire; and the 
question does not affect our argument, since the ridicule is directed 
not against the possibility of raising the money, but, against the use of 
the work when it is completed. The City possesses funds enough to 
make London not only the most commodious and healthy, but the 
most elegant, city in the world, if those funds are properly looked after. 
Without wishing to exalt utility at the expense of art, we may be per- 
mitted to wish that the sum proposed to be applied to erect statues in 
the Mansion House had been made the commencement of a fund to 
fill up the Holborn valley. Certainly, in England, a nuisance has only 
to be old to be protected and cherished. Smithfield market and the 
Holborn valley, to wit. 

" Be to their faults a little blind. 
And to their virtues very kind." 

is the tender aspiration of the civic counsellors. When we look at what 
continental states with not half our resources manage to effect, an 
Englishman is fain to blush for the capital of his country. Nowhere 
is the art of laying out the public money to the public advantage better 
understood than in Paris. There is no reason why London should not 
have its Boulevards, its fountains, and its Place de la Concorde — 
names which make every eye brighten that has once beheld them in 
their glory. If we could get these, we would not ask for fetes and 
fireworks, although we have heard it stated by persons well placed to 
judge correctly, that, for every pound so expended, the trade of Paris 
gains two.] 

BESSEMEK'S IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANDEACTUBE OE 

SUGAR. 

MR. BESSEMER TO MR. FAIRRIE. 
(Concluded from page 89.) 
6 In the latter part of your circular you plume yourself not a little on 
your experience. Now, " / believe" you have no experience whatever on this 
point, while I have had much, having carefully noted, hour by hour, for 
whole days, the precise amount of evaporation under the identical circum- 
stances you name ; and I am prepared to prove that, within the same super- 
ficial area occupied by the vacuum-pan and its appurtenances, with the 
same outlay for machinery, and by an incomparably less complex apparatus, 
I can evaporate double the quantity of sugar in a given time with my apparatus, 
and with a consumption of fuel less than one-third, and wholly without the 
use of the vast body of water which you require for condensation. 



7 If you will take the trouble to examine the able analysis of more than 
two hundred different samples of sugar, made by order of the American 
government, by Professor McCulloch and Professor A. de Bach, you will 
find the precise amount of uncrystallisable matter in every different descrip- 
tion of sugar in the market. Deduct the average from the quantity of treacle 
made in refining, and you will then perceive that the loss amounts to 10 per 
cent., without the necessity for any " random guess." 

8 If you were an authority in the scientific world, I should hold myself 
deeply indebted for this most unequivocal attestation of the value of my in- 
vention. No words that I could say could more clearly express the impor- 
tance of one great section of my invention; namely, the substitution of hot 
water for steam, when combined with the use of air for evaporating. Had 
you taken the very proper step of investigating my patents before rushing 
into print, you would have found, in the first I took out for the use of warm 
air, the very marked way in which I point out the necessity of substituting 
hot water for steam, as a means of heating the pan containing the syrups; 
and thus a little more caution, on your part, would have prevented you from 
thus, most unintentionally, confirming the correctness of my views, by pub- 
lishing the result of a trial of your own; which proved that, in the absence 
of steam, the " most delicate test could not show any particle whatever converted 
into uncrystallisable sugar." 

9 So gross a mis-statement of facts as this obliges me to say, that you either 
know this to be utterly false, or you must be totally ignorant of the first 
principles of physical science. I will assume the latter, as the most favourable 
view of the case, and ask you the following questions: — 

Does not the mass of sugar in the vacuum-pan vest in contact with a sur- 
face of some hundreds of square feet of copper pipes heated by steam? Is not 
the bottom of the large pan heated by steam also? Do you not know that 
the steam is under pressure in these pipes and jacket? Do you not know 
that steam under pressure always exceeds 212°? Do you not know that 
steam from 11 to 22lbs. pressure is used by sugar refiners; and that, at these 
pressures, the temperature ranges from 242° to 263° Eah.? If you answer 
" Yes " to these queries, how, sir, can you attempt to delude the public by 
so shallow a subterfuge, and tell them that " No part of the sugar is exposed 
to the heat of boiling water," — -" 140° or 150° being the temperature usually 
employed?" Are you not well aware that these temperatures, which you 
would have the public believe you apply to the sugar, are simply the balance of 
heat left in the general mass of fluid, by the application of a destructively- 
high temperature at one part, and the abstraction of that heat at another, 
by the formation of vapour? 

10 After the unblushing assertion contained in the last paragraph, you 
attempt to palliate it a little by another mis-statement. You must be per- 
fectly well aware that steam as low as 212° to 214° of heat is never used by 
the trade in boiling sugar. You must also be perfectly well aware that the 
viscid nature of the granulated syrup totally prevents that free circulation of 
it which is absolutely necessary to prevent its becoming carbonised by the 
hot pipes. There is not an old wife in the kingdom but knows that the 
boiling of all viscid fluids requires great attention, because the circulation is 
extremely slow, and hence a constant stirring is necessary, even to boil a 
mess of porridge, without burning it. 

11 1 am glad you again make an implied, though a reluctant, admission, 
that some injury arises to sugar by evaporating in vacuo. In clarifying, as 
in the evaporation, I use boiling water ; nor do I find it necessary to heat, 
by means of steam, to 180°, the warm water you recommend so strongly 
coining again to my aid, as you would have learnt by a timely reference to 
my specification ; and here let me remark that my reason for so studiously 
avoiding the use of steam is, that the latent heat of steam, marking on the 
thermometer 212°, contains an additional 1,000°, making an entire heat of 
1,212°, or equal to 5 - 5 times as much heat as is required to raise an equal 
quantity of water from 32° to 212°.* Hence it is that you found no change 
tahe place, even by the most delicate test," when you used hot water, which 
contains no latent heat. But your daily observation must have shown you, 
that where steam is used the vast amount of latent heat transferred to the 
sugar solution darkens its colour, gives it a peculiar empyreumatic smell and 
flavour, and changes a large per centage of it into treacle. 

* See the Treatise of Dr. Black, the great discoverer of latent heat. 



110 



Corresp on dence . 



[May, 



12 After the total want of knowledge you have displayed as to the nature 
and extent of my inventions, I submit that you are wholly incompetent to 
judge of their novelty or usefulness. I totally repudiate your assumption of 
that legal knowledge necessary to form an opinion as to whether my inven- 
tions are capable of being- protected by patent or not, especially when such 
an assertion is made in direct contradiction to the opinion of the most eminent 
counsel ; and I most emphatically deny your further assertion, that they do 
not secure the advantages I hold out. 

is Is this real or wilful obtuseness? Can you really discover no difference 
between treating a mass of sugar in a box, and then digging it out and re- 
filling by hand, and the self-supplying, self- discharging operations of my 
curing table? — No difference between an instantaneous process that is almost 
like a flash of light, and the slow percolation of syrup through a thick mass 
of sugar? — Is there no difference where water produces a more perfect result 
than is produced by the use of an expensive syrup? — Is there no difference 
in the amount of labour, saving of time, and waste of sugar by the two pro- 
cesses? And pray, sir, if all these advantages are possessed by one appa- 
ratus, and are wanting in the other, is it not possible that while one may be 
commercially successful, the other more faulty. process may be deservedly 
abandoned? Had you properly investigated my invention, you would not 
thus again be led by hypothesis from the simple facts of the case. The 
quantity of water used in washing the sugar is by no means great: its den- 
sity is 24° Bautne, and therefore does not exceed one-fourth the weight of 
the sugar operated on. A vast consumption of fuel and labour seem insepara- 
ble from your notions of evaporation ; but my process consumes only about 
one-third the fuel required by the vacuum pan; and when the animal char- 
coal is burned on the premises (as it always should be), no fuel whatever is 
used for evaporation, as the air required for that purpose is warmed by the 
waste heat in the retort flues. 

Allow me to say, that I think you assume too much on what you call 
your experience, when you take on yourself the task of public censor, with- 
out knowing something more definite of the matters on which you write. 
My experiments have been repeated, both publicly and privately, a vast 
number of times, and I have generally used a ton of syrup on such occa- 
sions — a quantity quite sufficient to give mercantile results; and, as I have 
passed whole clays in a sugar refinery, your "belief" is again at fault. 
Having answered the various points of your letter, and, I trust, shown the 
fallacy of your premature conclusions, I make the following deductions from 
the admissions you have therein made — Firstly, You think it " likely " that 
sugar is injured by the present mode of boiling, and it may be most safely 
inferred that you are perfectly well aware that it is so, because you have 
descended to a gross misstatement of facts, in order to make it appear that 
the heat so applied is less than it really is : secondly, Your positive state- 
ment, that the exposure of a solution of sugar, even for a " considerable time," 
to the heat of boiling water, does not convert " any portion whatever into 
uncrystallisable sugar," confirms the views I have promulgated, and most 
unequivocally proves, as far as your testimony and experience goes, that my 
invention is based on the known scientific fact ; viz., that by the substitution 
of hot water (containing no latent heat) for steam (which contains 1,000 
degrees of latent heat), I avoid the injury which is done by the present mode 
of boiling, and do not produce a single particle of uncrystallisable sugar or 
treacle in my process. I find, also, that you have not ventured to say one 
word in disparagement of the use of warm air, as a means of evaporating ; 
and I am glad that you have shown the good taste not to attack so invulner- 
able a point. 

In conclusion ; having replied to your several objections, and, I trust, in a 
different spirit to that which has prompted you to animadvert so severely 
upon a process with which I think I may say you are at present totally un- 
acquainted, I must beg to decline any further discussion, as I do not hesitate 
to leave the merits of the case to the decision of an unbiassed public. 
I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

Baxter-House, Old St. Pancras-road, Henry Bessemer. 

January lith, 1850. 

MR. FAIRRIE TO MR. BESSEMER. 

Sir, — Having read the long statement you have done me the honour to 
make, in answer to my letter, I beg leave to say a few words in reply. I do 



not mean to bandy vituperative terms with you, or to minutely answer your 
various observations, which I believe it would not be difficult to do. It is 
not the first time that a joint-stock sugar refining company has been at- 
tempted; but the end of previous schemes has only been, what always occurs, 
when large associations attempt to compete with individuals, especially in a 
business where care and attention are so important. Should you be able io 
persuade a large number of individuals to place their money at the disposal 
of managers and directors in a sugar refinery, I can predict, with as much 
certainty as that the sun shall rise to-morrow, that the entire capital will be 
squandered, and that before any long period elapses. 

You tell me that various most intelligent refiners have already joined 
your company, and others are in treaty to take licenses from you. It would 
have been satisfactory had you given the names of these intelligent men, 
that we might be better able to appreciate the weight to be attached to their 
opinions. I can assert that I have not spoken to one refiner who had in- 
spected the working of your evaporating apparatus, who did not express 
himself as entirely dissatisfied with what he had witnessed. 

You speak of my being invited to these exhibitions; but I never received 
either an invitation or was I informed of the time and place; on the con- 
trary, I understand that Mr. Wanostrocht gave permission to Mr. Charles 
Coles to introduce any person whatever to witness your operations, with the 
single exception of myself. An extensive refiner informed me that he had 
applied for one of your pamphlets, but was refused; so that I concluded it 
was your desire to expose your process to as few as possible of those who 
were really qualified to judge of its merits. 

I have asserted that your process is not new, and your answer appears to 
me almost a complete admission of the correctness of what I have stated. 
You admit that the revolving discs (or rather what you have substituted for 
them, to save appearances) are not new; the use of hot air is not new, so 
that all that you can claim is the manner of admitting the air, which you do 
through a perforated tube, forming the axis on which the discs revolve. 
Mr. Schroeder blows the air from the side of the discs, or it may be blown 
through small tubes projecting from a main tube so placed ; whichever may 
be adopted can affect little the operation. You claim, however, the use of 
hot water, and, like a sinking man who will grasp at anything, you seize on 
a remark of mine — that a solution of sugar kept for a considerable time in 
boiling water was not sensibly injured — as confirming the wonderful advan- 
tages of hot water over steam. Steam contains 1,000 degrees of latent or 
hidden heat, making, therefore, with the sensibleheat, 1,212°; and you exclaim, 
how destructive this must be! No wonder sugar is soon reduced by steam 
to a cinder, for 1,212° is the heat of red-hot iron!! I will refer it to any 
tyro in chemistry, whether all you say, on this point, does not disclose a mass 
of ignorance, which renders the person who displays it unworthy of being 
reasoned with on any chemical subject whatever. 

Mr. Richard Davis, who has paid great attention to the evaporation of 
sugar solutions, states that, accompanied by two engineers, he visited the 
exhibition of your evaporator, and that the attempt he saw made to concen- 
trate syrup was most unsuccessful. What is, however, of more importance, 
he states that, on examination, he found that high-pressure steam was ac- 
tually used in the process which he witnessed; and this is testified to by the 
gentlemen who accompanied him ; who, moreover, both declare that, in their 
judgment, your plan is an infringement of Mr. Schroeder's patent! His 
patent, however, you attempt to invalidate by quoting from a specification 
as far back as 1817, a description of the application of discs similar to those 
he employs. The answer to this is, that these discs were only employed with 
a pan heated by a fire, and, therefore, have no relation to Mr. Schroeder's 
pan, where steam or " other heated fluids" are specified. 

Your statement of the pressure of steam usually employed in vacuum 
pans shows that your knowledge of the practice of refiners must be. very 
imperfect. In the pans which I employ only as much pressure is used in 
the boiler as will ensure a continuous current through the apparatus, and I 
doubt if the pressure in the tubes or on the bottom of the pan ever amounts 
to 1 lb. on the square inch. What others may do I know not, but I can 
answer for my own practice being uniformly what I have stated. This 
answer I make to your fine flourish of unblushing assertion, &c, &c. 

As the public are not likely to be much enlightened by any controversy 
carried on between us, I propose a method of bringing the question at issue 



1853.] 



Correspondence. 



Ill 



to a point. I will send to your factory a proper quantity of such syrup as 
we are accustomed to boil, to be operated on in your apparatus, under the 
supervision of properly qualified persons acting on my behalf, who shall be 
furnished with a thermometer and hydrometer, and shall note, from time to 
time, the heat of the air employed, the heat of the evaporating syrup, and 
that of the bottom of the pan or vessel. Should you be able to show that 
you can concentrate the syrup to a proper point for forming a loaf of sugar, 
with such an extent of apparatus as could be conveniently employed on a 
manufacturing scale, I will publicly confess that I have been mistaken in the 
opinion which I have formed of your process. 

I understand you have put into your specification the description of an 
apparatus for heating the sugar after it has been concentrated, which seems 
to be very nearly the same as what I described in a specification some years 
ago. My plan is to pass the sugar over steam pipes placed in a run, so that 
the sugar is brought to the proper temperature, as it flows along, in a few 
minutes. From the wonderful pains you have taken to ascertain what has 
been previously done, my specification, probably, has not escaped you. In 
order to avoid, if possible, an infringement, but adopting the identical prin- 
ciple, you pass the sugar through tubes surrounded with steam, that is, you 
take an inferior plan to mine, for if the pipes you employ are large, you lose 
surface, and if they are small, with very strong sugars they would get 
choked up. The point, however, is of little importance, but it is only 
another example of the ingenuity you have exercised to seize upon the 
labours of others, making such a change only as you expect will avoid a 
charge of infringement. 

I will not enter into any discussion as to your " curing table ;" it is, I 
dare say, a very ingenious plan, but it will only, I assert, produce wet sugar, 
and, however well it may do in a chamber experiment, I doubt its success as 
an instrument of manufacture. I believe it to be inferior to the centrifugal 
machine, and, at all events, will not assist you in making a loaf of sugar. 

I have had much experience, as I have stated, in attempting the introduc- 
tion of new plans of working, and this I will assert, that no one can be 
assured of the success of any plan, unless after continuance of work for some 
months. At all events, it must be obvious to the most inexperienced, that a 
few desultory experiments, whereby pounds, or ounces only, are all that can 
be exhibited to prove the success of a scheme, are no security for its final 
result on a great scale. I repeat what I have before said — show us a mer- 
chantable loaf of sugar manufactured by your so-called patent process, 
before you boast of your success, or endeavour to form a joint-stock com- 
pany. 

I remain, &c., 

Church-lane, Whitechapel, John Fairrie. 

January 19th, 1853. 

P.S. — In case there should be any of the readers of this letter as ignorant 
of the doctrine of latent heat as you, apparently, are, I will make a few ob- 
servations on the subject. The advantage of using steam as a medium for 
conveying heat is, that while showing by the thermometer only 212", it in 
reality contains 1,000° more, ready to be produced when wanted. Steam at 
212° will not heat another body to more than 212°, and, therefore, not more 
than water kept at the same degree will heat the same body. When a sub- 
stance cooler than itself is presented to it by the condensation of a portion 
of the steam, a portion of the latent heat is given out instantaneously: 
whereas, water communicates its heat slowly. If water were employed to 
heat vacuum pans, the time required for evaporation would be increased 
possibly six or eightfold. If sugar kept at 212°, by being placed in boiling 
water, is not injured, I beg leave to propound it as a question to you — how 
can it be injured, if not heated by steam to more than 212°? 

ADDITIONAL POSTSCEIPT NOT IN FEINTED CORRESPONDENCE. 

Though I am unwilling to introduce technical discussions into this corre- 
spondence, I think I may with propriety add another note, touching your 
assertion as to the injury done to sugar by the present mode of refining. 
You refer me, for evidence of 10 per cent, of treacle being formed in the 
vacuum pan, to American authors. Happily, I am not under the necessity 
of applying to them, having beside me different means of ascertaining the 
amount of uncrystallisable sugar in any sample. From the information you 
have picked up, like others with only a smattering of knowledge of a subject, 



you jump to a conclusion which is quite erroneous. Suppose there is 8 per cent, 
of what is chemically called glucose, or sugar which cannot be crystallised, 
in any given sample, it does not follow that 8 per cent, is the amount of 
treacle. Each per cent, of glucose renders another of cane sugar uncrystal- 
lisable, and the real quantity of treacle is 16 per cent. When syrup, in the 
course of working a sugar house, comes to contain less than one-half its 
weight of cane sugar, you may evaporate the syrup to the proper point, but 
either no crystals will be formed, or such as will not separate from the un- 
crystallisable part. There are chemical means of making this separation, but 
the remedy is worse than the disease, for the operation requires nicety of 
manipulation, and the substance to be employed is a poisonous one. 

[We extract the following from the Journal of the Franklin Institute. — Ed.] 

" Mr. Bessemer, it appears, has a new machine, by which he presses juice 
from the cane, which acts by a series of compressions at a high velocity, in- 
stead of the slow process of rollers. Mr. B., without saying what per-centage 
of the weight of the cane is obtained in juice by other modes of operation, 
states that he obtains 20 per cent. more. On the best estates in the island of 
Cuba, having sugar mills with great length of rolls and a velocity of 2 j revo- 
lutions per minute (diameter of rolls being from 26 to 30 inches), 70 per 
cent, of the weight of cane is obtained in juice ; if to this you add 20 per cent., 
the yield will be 84 per cent., which is considerably more than the cane con- 
tains ; from 70 per cent., by good management, the product falls off to 50 
per cent, by bad. 

"We are also informed, that by the new process the cane juice passes directly 
from the mill through a wire strainer into the clarifiers. Considering that 
precisely this process has been in use for at least twelve years, wherever 
steam trains have been in operation, it is rather a bold declaration to call it 
new. 

" Mr. B.'s next improvement is the substituting currents of hot air (for the 
purpose of evaporation) in the place of steam ; to make this necessary, he 
informs us that, while the temperature in a vacuum pan may be as low as 
180°, still the copper tubes by which it is heated will show 226°. He is 
probably only acquainted with the ordinary Howard pan, and is not aware 
that, in this country and Cuba there are many apparatuses in which the 
temperature of the sugar in the vacuum pan does not exceed 150°, and the 
temperature of the steam used is only 212°, being barely of the pressure of 
the atmosphere ; this result is produced by having increased surface for the 
steam to act upon, and has been in operation several years. 

" After the peculiar process of evaporation adopted by Mr. B. has been in 
operation for three or four hours, we are told that the result is a mass of 
crystals of sugar, not one grain having been converted into molasses. 

" Now, although he states that not one grain has been converted into mo- 
lasses, still he has given to each grain a covering which he calls mother 
liquor (a new name for an old friend), and this mother liquor he removes by 
putting the sugar on a circular table of wire having a partial vacuum below 
it ; and, as the sugar passes under a fine stream of water, the mother liquor 
is drawn through into a receptacle below. If this mother liquor and water 
do not form molasses, what do they form ? We should like to know. The 
only thing new that Mr. B. has produced is his method of extracting the 
cane juice, and also of evaporating by means of heated air ; and, I venture 
to say that, on trial, both of them will be found defective." 



To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — In your review of Mr. Bourne's work it strikes me as rather singular 
that, in selecting four propellers for special notice, you should, in one instance, 
adopt the copy for the original. I refer to the Boomerang. 

When Sir T. Mitchell's specification was published, the late Mr. Bobert- 
son, in a foot-note in the Mechanics' Magazine, stated the invention was 
identical with mine, and if any doubt had remained on the subject, it would 
have been removed by the announcement in the Sydney Morning Herald, in 
a report of the trial of the boomerang propeller in the steamer Keera, " that 
it combines the parabolic and cycloidal curves." 

' Now, as my patent extends to the colonies, it is an infringement of my 
rights, and not entitled to a specially favourable notice. 

I am obliged, by the notice you take of my propeller secondarily j and I 



112 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



[May, 



should feel further obliged if you would inform me, in any way you think 
proper, where on the continent it is chiefly employed, as I have some reason 
for believing that it is used without my sanction. 

If I mistake not, the illustration you gave of my propeller was from the 
wood-engraving I forwarded to Mr. Bourne, athis own request, for illustration 
in his treatise; but, instead of using it, he published a drawing which would 
answer very well for the fly-vanes of a patent log. I also, at his request, 
enclosed a second prospectus, with testimonials, of which I enclose a copy, 
and I will leave you to decide whether he was justified in asserting that my 
propeller had not had sufficient trial to form an estimate of its merits, or 
words to that effect, as I quote from memory. 

I perceive, by your last number, protection has been granted for atmo- 
spheric engines to W. E. Newton (a communication). It is a subject which 
has engaged my attention for some time, and I have matured a plan for a 
reciprocating motion ; but, being desirous of producing a rotary one, I have 
delayed securing priority of invention ; however, I can state thus much, that 
a foreigner may not claim all the honour. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

E. Hodgson. 

Swell, February 8th, 1853. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

March 15th and 22nd, 1853. 

Robert Stephenson, Esq., M.P., Vice-President, in the chair. 

(Continued from page 83.) 

By the mode of placing the tube plate some distance within the cylindrical 
part of the boiler, the tubes were not liable to be choked with cinders, or the 
draught to be obstructed. This plan also afforded an opportunity of re- 
ducing the size of the tubes from If inch diameter to If inch, giving, in the 
same boiler, an equal area of flue passage, whilst, at the same time, the pro- 
portion of tube heating surface was increased 34 per cent, per foot of length 
of tube, and a very large addition of flame surface was gained. 

It was further argued that, although the evaporation of water per pound of 
fuel was the test of the boiler, yet, up to this time, few, if any, experiments 
could be implicitly relied upon, owing to the quantities being estimated 
by the measurement instead of by weight, and without due regard to the 
variation of the temperature of the water in the tender. 

As to the evaporative powers of marine boilers, as compared with that of 
the best locomotive boilers, if an investigation was instituted, it would be 
found, that the general features of the best tubular marine boilers now used 
in ocean navigation were nearly identical with those of locomotive boilers, 
but the circumstances under which they were used were very different. In 
the marine boilers coal was used instead of coke, and the natural draught 
of the chimney, instead of the urging of the blast-pipe, in a locomotive ; salt 
water was also used, instead of fresh water, and a pressure of about 12 lbs. 
or 14 lbs., instead of from 60 lbs. to 80 lbs., on the square inch. Although 
lightness and compactness were important properties in marine boilers, they 
were less so than in locomotives; and the former were frequently worked 
for many weeks or months consecutively, without the means of stopping for 
any extensive repair, or even to be cleaned, except at long intervals. Under 
these circumstances marine boilers required to be worked less intensely, and 
the water and flue spaces must, of necessity, be larger, to prevent their being 
choked up. 

The following statement showed the comparative proportions and effect 
of the two descriptions of boilers : — 



In the Locomotive Boiler. 



1 square foot of fire grate consumed about 
1 12 lbs. of coke per hour. 

I square foot of Are grate required about 
85 square feet of Are box and tube sur- 
face. 

1 square foot of fire grate with the above 
surface would evaporate 1 008 lbs. of water 
per hour. 



In the Marine Boilers. 



1 square foot of fire grate consumed about 
20 lbs. of coal per hour. 

1 square foot of fire grate required about 
30 square feet of fire place and tube sur- 
face. 

1 square foot of fire grate, with the above 
surface, would evaporate 170 lbs. of water 
per hour. 



In the Locomotive Boiler. 



1 square foot of flue surface would evaporate 
11 '7 lbs. of water per hour. 

1 lb. of coke would evaporate 9 lbs. of 
water. 

1 H. P. of 33,000 lbs. lifted 1 foot high 
per minute, required about 4 lbs. of coke 
per hour. 



In the Marine Boilers. 



1 square foot of flue surface would evaporate 
566 lbs. of water per hour. 

1 lb. of coal would evaporate 8'5 lbs. of 
water. 

1 H.P. of 33,000 lbs. lifted 1 foot high per 
minute, required about 4-25 lbs. of coal 
per hour. 



Prom this statement it appeared that, although the proportion between the 
firegrate and the flue surfaces was widely different, the quantity of water 
evaporated and the power obtained by the consumption of a given weight of 
fuel were nearly the same, when allowance was made for the difference in the 
evaporative power of coal and coke. 

After explaining the table of "working results," &c, it was contended 
that, in no case did the formula accord entirely with the practical results 
recorded in the table; the nearest approximation being that of the "Rocket." 

It had been found, in the altered goods engine, that certain practical in- 
conveniences arose from the horizontal transverse water tubes, and two or 
three mid-feathers had now been substituted for them. 

It had been found that intense combustion was liable to cause the forma- 
tion of clinkers in the small fire box, but which did not occur in the new 
engine. When the drivers first took out the new engine, being unaccus- 
tomed to its peculiar action, they kept thin fires, and drew too much air through 
the fuel, which was wasted, by raising steam too freely; latterly, the fires had 
been kept thicker, and the combustion had been slower, whilst the supply of 
steam had been fully equal to all demands upon the engine, which, it should 
be recollected, had been built expressly for conveying heavy loads at high 
speeds, and whose performances, under these circumstances, were contended 
to have been among the best recorded results of the present day. To set at 
rest all questions as to duty performed, it was proposed to institute a set of 
experiments, or trials, with certain loads at given speeds ; the tests to be 
" consumption of coke per ton per mile, and time of performance." The 
results to be communicated to the institution. 

The possible maximum evaporative power of 1 lb. of carbon was deduced 
from the results of chemical experiments, showing that 1 lb. of carbon, con- 
verted into carbonic acid, developed 14,000 units of heat, or would raise 
14,000 lbs. of water through 1°, which was equivalent to the conversion of 
12 lbs. of water at 60° into steam of 120 lbs. 

The formula was shown to be derived directly from the tabulated results ; 
it was a mere embodiment of results, and represented no theory. 

It was explained that the formula referred to the economical evaporative 
power of boilers, and that it was in no way designed to limit the uncondi- 
tional evaporative power ; that a boiler might raise less or more steam than 
the quantity assigned by the formula, but, in the latter case, only by a par- 
tial sacrifice of the fuel. 

In the comparative trials of the Crewe engines and the new engine with 
enlarged firebox, it was shown that, looking simply to the boilers, the Crewe 
boilers raised a greater total quantity of water per hour, and more water per 
foot of grate per hour, than the new boiler, with greater economy, in the 
ratio of 8|- lbs. per pound of coke by the Crewe boiler, to 7} lbs. by the new 
boiler. 

It was explained, with respect to the greater time lost by the Crewe en- 
gines on the trial, that the defect lay not in the boilers, but in the exposed 
position and unprotected state of the cylinders, by which steam was con- 
densed; and in the too large size of the chimneys, which should have been 
only 12 inches, instead of 15 inches diameter; and in the blast pipe, which 
was carried too far into the chimney. 

The formula being applied to the new boiler, indicated that it could not 
economically evaporate above 120 cubic feet of water per hour ; and the 
correctness of this indication was confirmed by the result of eighteen experi- 
ments by Mr. Marshall, as they showed that, though 150 feet of water per 
hour had been evaporated, it was at a sacrifice of one-fourth of the fuel, as 
only 7 J lbs. were evaporated per pound of coke. 

With respect to the rapidity with which the new form of boiler could get 
up the steam, and which was attributed to the free draught, it was shown 



1853.] 



MeConnelVs Patent Locomotive Engines. 



113 



that the " Rocket," the first tube-boiler engine ever made, got up the steam 
in less time than the new boiler. 

The benefit of the removal of the tube-ends in the new boiler from the di- 
rect action of the fire was considered to be more than balanced by the liability 
of the lower part of the combustion chamber to become overheated, and to 
be burned away, owing to the lodging of steam at the junction with the fire 
box. 

It was suggested that, in order to obtain better results from the new en- 
gine, the combustion chamber should be abolished, the number of the tubes 
should be reduced, and their length be extended to the firebox, which should 
be restricted to 16 square feet of area. 

It was further argued that, in the statement of " actual working results," 
&c, the formula had been misunderstood and wrongly applied ; for instance, 
in the two Crewe engines, of identical proportions, the results of the formula 
were stated as 86*2, 84*4, and 73 - 7, whereas the same results ought to have 
been applied to each. In No. 291 engine a similar discrepancy was apparent, 
the results being 116 - 5and 1027. 

In the experiments themselves there were several unexplained anomalies; 
and, in some instances, the engines, instead of working at their full power, 
were performing very inadequate duty, and, therefore, under circumstances 
to which the formula was not intended to apply. 

In the case of the altered goods engine, No. 125, it was urged that, in 
its original state, the engine must have been either in a very inefficient 
condition, or that its duty must have been chiefly confined to piloting, when 
it would have been consuming the fuel without producing any useful effect, 
as a consumption of 51 lbs. or 58 lbs. per mile run, with an average train 
of 115 tons, was out of all proportion. 

That the result of the working, after alteration, viz., a consumption of 
39 lbs. and 43 lbs. per mile run, with a load of 144 tons, was not favour- 
able, as compared with the performance of a narrow-gauge engine reported 
on by Mr. D. Gooch in the gauge inquiry, where, with a consumption of 
47 lbs. per mile, a load of 294 tons was conveyed : also, when compared 
with the working of the Eastern Counties goods engines for the last half- 
year, where, with an average load exceeding 170 tons, the consumption of 
coke was only 32 lbs. per mile, taken over a distance of 529,000 miles. 

A comparison was drawn between the recent experiments, by Mr. Mar- 
shall, on the large firebox engine, and those on the long-boiler engine, made 
during the gauge inquiry, the results being, with the former, a consumption 
of 40 lbs. per mile with an average load of 64 tons, and, with the latter, a 
consumption of 27 lbs. per mile with a load of nearly 60 tons. 

The recorded results of the passenger trains on the Eastern Counties line, 
for the last half-year, showed an average consumption of coke under IS lbs. 
per mile run. 

It was contended that, hitherto, no advantages had resulted from the 
extension of the firebox and the reduction of the length of the tubes; still it 
was possible that this innovation might, by directing attention to the sub- 
ject, lead to important modifications of the structure of locomotive boilers, 
which should possess compactness, lightness, power of raising sufficient 
steam with rapidity for performing the required work, strength to resist the 
chance of explosions, and a form calculated to diminish the disastrous effects 
of explosions, -when they occurred, facility of repair, especially of the fire 
box, which was the part most liable to deterioration, being most severely 
acted on by the fire, and also requiring more support than the tubes, the 
latter being, at the same time, cheaper and of thinner metal, whilst, by an 
extension of their length, the diameter of the external shell of the boiler 
could be diminished ; the fire grate should not be larger than would eva- 
porate the required quantity of water in steam within a given time, with the 
•utmost practical economy of fuel, and, if that were accomplished, it was of 
little importance whether the evaporating heat was communicated through 
the firebox, or by the tube surface. 

As to the mid-feathers, it was contended they had, hitherto, only served 
to extend the dimensions of the firebox, and to increase the difficulties of 
maintaining and repairing the boiler; and that, up to the present time, the 
results of the experiments upon the boiler, with enlarged firebox and short- 
ened tubes, exhibited rather a retrograde step, than an onward progressive 
movement. 

15 



April 5th, 1853. 

The paper read was " On Locomotive Boilers," by Mr. J. Sewell. 

After showing the theoretic and practical evaporative value of coal and 
coke at different pressures, and the various results under stationary boilers 
and in locomotive boilers, and with slow, or quick combustion, a series of 
tabulated results was given, showing that, estimated by the value of the fuel, 
the best locomotive boiler exceeded the Cornish boiler by about 2 per cent, 
in evaporative economy, but ordinary locomotive boilers were from 4 to 10 
per cent, below the Cornish standard of 10^ lbs. of water evaporated by 1 lb. 
of Welch coal. 

Evaporative economy was shown to follow the increase of the tubular 
ratio of the heating surface of the long-tubed boilers ; but it was urged that, 
in practice, evaporative rapidity was as essential as economy of fuel alone, 
and the Great Western boilers were referred to as sufficient examples in 
this respect. 

The rate of combustion, the time of the heat remaining in the boiler, and 
the number of draughts of steam from the boiler, were shown to be 25 per 
cent, in favour of boilers mounted on wheels of 8 feet diameter over those 
on wheels of 6 feet diameter, for economy of fuel and for pure steam to the 
cylinders. Evaporation, apparently good, not unfrequently proved indif- 
ferent, on account of priming, as a diminished duty frequently demonstrated. 

The influence of load and velocity on the consumption of fuel was referred 
to as defeating any economical comparison between engines maintaining a 
speed of 50 miles per hour, and those which only reached a speed of 30 miles 
an hour. 

The recent experiments on the London and North Western Railway were 
referred to, as showing that the present form of locomotive boilers might be 
departed from, without evaporative loss, to gain the constructive facilities of 
a low boiler with high wheels and inside cylinders ; and the new shortened 
boiler was stated to have realised the full average evaporative economy of 
locomotive boilers, or from 7\ lbs. to 8J lbs. of water by 1 lb. of coke. 

The advantages of a larger proportion of water evaporating surface to the 
total water in the boiler, the shorter ascent of steam from the lower tubes to 
that surface, and the greater proportion of the heat passing through tubes 
nearer the evaporating surface, were referred to, as being in favour of small 
boilers with the fewest rows of tubes generating most steam per square foot 
of the total heating surface. It was suggested, that vertical rows of tubes 
with free vertical steam passages between them, and the largest practicable 
water surface, so much valued for stationary boilers, might merit a trial in 
the large locomotive boilers, and might place them on a level with the 
smaller boilers, in evaporative rapidity per square foot of heating surface. 

The want of a more homogeneous structure for locomotive boilers was 
referred to, in order to safely resist the expansion and contraction which 
now fell on particular parts only, and ultimately injured the cohesion of the 
metal at those parts. 

Explosions of boilers were noticed as frequently occurring when either 
the safety valve or the regulator was opened, and it was suggested, that 
this might be due to the sudden disturbance of the pressure of the elastic 
force tending to one point, and momentarily increasing the pressure at that 
point, from the effect of which the boiler might burst, even with the safety 
valve in good order. The apparent effects, after explosion, would not be 
then due to the pressure only, but to the sudden release of the whole elastic 
force, which, like any other spring, would exert a force beyond its quiescent 
limit. 

The rare occurrence of goods or slow trains leaving the rails without 
known cause was proof that Mr. George Stephenson adopted a flange suffi- 
ciently deep for the speed of 15 miles or 20 miles per hour, originally con- 
templated on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway ; but the frequent 
running off the rails of fast trains suggested the trial of deeper flanges on 
the wheels; and it was hoped they would have the effect of adding to public 
safety and to railway economy. 

McCONNELL'S PATENT LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

At p. 266 of our last volume we noticed the leading peculiarities 

of these engines. Report says that they do not fulfil their proposed 

end. The following account, in Herapath's Railway Journal, evidently 

by a friendly hand, bears a very apologetic look on the face of it — to- 



114 



Reviews. 



[May, 



say that "its relative proportions, &c, are all matters of detail, to be 
determined by experience," is not saying much, where it was under- 
stood that the whole improvement consisted in altering existing pro- 
portions, and increasing the firebox at the expense of the tube 
surface. However, we have no wish to prejudice the question, and, 
in the absence of a more authentic account, give the report as we 
find it ; only correcting what appears to be a typographical error, in 
attributing the four last results, instead of the two last results, in the 
first table, to the Heron. 

A few weeks back we gave some details of the construction of Mr. 
McConnell's patent locomotive boiler, and what was anticipated from it. 
As is usual with any invention which steps from the beaten path, the patent 
boiler has met with severe criticism, but wholly undeserved. So far as 
numerous experiments, with all varieties of trains, go, they show that the 
average evaporative economy is about 8 lbs. of water by 1 lb. of coke, or very 
nearly the same as is done by the best broad-gauge boilers with 11^ feet tubes, 
whilst the patent engine has only 7 feet tubes. The principle upon which 
the boiler is constructed is thus established, and the best disposition or pro- 
portions of its parts is a mere question of detail, to be regulated by the given 
duty required from the engine. 

As the trials have been to test economy of fuel, the maximum evaporative 
power of the boiler, regardless of coke, has not been tested. Since a cubic 
foot of water or steam of equal temperature will perform the same gross 
duty, usefully or not, in any engine, there is very little difference in the 
consumption of coke with the new and old engines with light stopping trains. 
But then where the light engine ends the large one begins to develope its 
power. 

This was fully tested by a load of 170 tons from Birmingham to London 
on the 8th March, taken by No. 300 new engine alone in three hours and 
eight minutes, including five stoppages ; and by two small engines in three 
hours eighteen minutes ; giving a difference in time often minutes over 111 
miles in favour of the large engine. 

The practical results are as follow :— 





Load 
Tons. 

170 


Coke. 
4,529 


Evap. 
by 1 lb. 
of Coke. 


Coke 
per 
Mile. 


Velocity 
Mile. 


Cylinder. 


Driv. wheel 
diam. — Ft. 


Patent engine } 
Two engines ) 


7-99 


40-8 


36-4 


18X24 


8 up 


170 


4,851 


8-38 


43-7 


34-5 


ea. 15X20 


6 up 


Heron .... 


85 


3,210 


6-72 


28-9 


38-0 


15X20 


6 down 


„ .... 


85 


2,815 


7-97 


25-3 


36-9 


15X20 


6 up 


Patent engine j 


85 
85 


3,157 
2,942 


8-27 
8-3 


28-4 
26-4 


38-0 
38-0 


18X24 
18X24 


8 down 
8 up 



These are trials made on the same day, and at nearly the same time, and 
in the same direction, by independent parties, and afford the best and most 
decisive reply to those who have so industriously deprecated the new boiler. 

In the above trials the consumption of coke is practically alike ; but in 
the 170 ton trial there is the curiosity of two engines working together 
taking only 4,851 lbs. of coke ; whilst each engine, working separately, re- 
quires from 2,815 lbs. to 3,210 lbs. for half that load. As it is held that 
engines work best separately, we wish to know how these two small engines 
save 20 per cent, of coke over their usual consumption by working together. 

This point is evidently gained by McConnell's boiler ; that there is no ne- 
cessity to adhere to the present form, but that the firebox may be extended 
in the form of a tubular arch, below which the cranks work without any 
loss of evaporative economy. On the narrow gauge this should be held as a 
boon, instead of a failure. On the whole trials the new boiler may fairly 
take its place amongst the useful improvements of the day, and the experi- 
mental one rank with the very first class on any gauge. Its relative propor- 
tions, diameter of tubes, form of combustion chamber and firebox, are all 
matters of detail, to be determined by experience and the size of the engine 
required, since there need be no more top-heavy engines made, and those 
under repair can be readily altered. An old one of Stephens's, altered from 
1,013 square feet of heating surface to 547 square feet, consumed 23 per 
cent, less coke, whilst taking a heavier load. 

The results are: — 



Original 
Altered 



Miles run. 



29,442 
12,000 



Average Load 
Tons. 



115 
144 



Coke, lbs. Coke per MUe, 



1,715,952 
519,120 



58-28 
43-04 



Coke per Ton 
per Mile. 



•504 lbs. 
•298 lbs. 



In this altered boiler the tubes were left only 4f feet long, and a few 
diagonal ones across the long cylindrical chamber, between the firebox and 
tubes. A speed of near sixty miles was reached on the good part of the 
road with the 170 tons, and of near seventy miles with light trains; excellent 
results from any new engine. 



REVIEWS. 

A Treatise on the Causes of Explosions of Steam Boilers, with Practical 

Suggestions for their Prevention. By Cadwallader Evans. Pittsburg : 

Whitney. 1850, 
This is one of the many recent American publications on subjects 
connected with steam, of the greatest importance to this country, as 
well as to the United States. The author is the son of the celebrated 
Oliver Evans, the well-known American inventor of very high-pressure 
engines. Having read this book with much interest, and received from 
it considerable information, we can with great confidence recommend it 
to general perusal at the present time, as calculated to be of considerable 
service to some of our eminent engineers, there having been several 
conspicuous instances before various coroners' juries of late, where en- 
gineers have acknowledged their inability to account for certain fatal 
explosions, except on the gratuitous assumption that the engine drivers 
themselves had wilfully held down or made fast the safety valves, at 
their own imminent peril. Such engineers may now, perhaps for the 
first time, learn the fact from Mr. Evans, fully borne out by our own 
experience in this country, that at least eight out of ten explosions 
occurring in America happen just at or about the time of the engine, 
steam vessel, or locomotive, starting to work ; and that such explosions 
almost universally arise from collapse of the flues or fire chambers ; 
and, so far from a wilful "tying down," "overweighting," or "stick- 
ing," of the safety valve being concerned in producing explosions in 
such cases, it is more than probable that the very reverse of this is the 
truth. It is the sudden opening of the steam or safety valve, accidental 
or intentional, which causes the water, previously too low in the boiler, 
to flow over the overheated metal and thereby become suddenly converted 
into steam of great pressure, which produces the catastrophe. As the 
principle of Mr. Evans' " improved safety guard," which he modestly 
terms a " suggestion" for preventing explosions, is founded upon the 
circumstances just described, we cannot, perhaps, do better than quote 
here a portion of the section of his book in amplification of the subject. 

" This cause of explosions is produced by allowing the water to get 
too low, and suffering a large portion of the boiler to become highly 
heated, and when in that state bringing in contact with the hot iron 
and surcharged steam a portion of the hot water still remaining in the 
boiler; this hot water is thrown in contact with the hot iron and 
steam, by puffing the safety valve or starting the engine — for it is to 
be understood that, as long as there is no escape of steam, the surface 
of the water remains smooth and without ebullition, but the moment 
the engine is put in motion or the safety valve raised, then a sudden 
and rapid ebullition or foaming commences, which raises the water to 
the hot surface of the exposed parts of the boiler ; and it is also to be 
understood that the whole body of water is not brought in contact 
with the hot iron, nor raised to the high temperature required to pro- 
duce the dangerous pressure, but only a very small portion — no more 
than is necessary to furnish the proper density to the steam. The reason 
why there is but a small quantity of water thrown in contact with the 
hot iron, is that at each half-stroke of the engine the communication 
between the boilers and the cylinder is shut off, which immediately 
causes the ebullition and foaming to subside. Now, when we consider 
the rapidity with which the elasticity of the steam is increased in pro- 
portion to the increase of temperature, it will appear evident that this is 
the cause of many disasters; but, to make this plain, we must suppose 
a case. 

" Suppose, then, we have a boiler thirty-eight inches diameter and 
twenty feet long, thickness of iron three-sixteenths of an inch, with 
flues fifteen inches diameter, iron one-quarter of an inch thick ; such 
a boiler I have already shown will burst at four hundred and thirty 
pounds pressure per inch. Then suppose the water to have fallen so as 
to expose one-half of the surface of the flues, the whole space in the 
boiler above the water would then be equal to sixty-two cubic feet ; 
this space is supposed to contain at the time of stopping a pressure of 
steam equal to one hundred and fifty pounds per inch area. Then, to 
fill this space with steam equal to four hundred and fifty pounds, it 
would require only the additional quantity of one thousand two hun- 
dred and forty cubic inches of water to be converted into steam, and 
this would only require the additional temperature of seventy-eight 
degrees to convert it into steam and produce the bursting pressure of 
four hundred and fifty pounds ; now, if one thousand two hundred 
and forty cubic inches were spread over the exposed parts of the boiler, 
which would be one hundred superficial feet, then the thickness of the 
sheet of water would only be eighty-five one-thousandths of an inch. 
Then, suppose the iron of the flues, which are one-quarter of an inch 



1853.] 



Boiler Explosions. 



115 



thick, or within a fraction of being three times the thickness of the 
water, be heated to a temperature of one thousand three hundred de- 
grees, or a cherry red, is it not evident that this bulk of iron, thus 
heated, would impart to the thin sheet of water the slight additional 
temperature of seventy-eight degrees ? If so, an explosion would in- 
evitably take place. In other words, will not a bulk of iron of three 
thousand sis hundred cubic inches, heated to one thousand three 
hundred degrees, give out to one thousand two hundred and forty cubic 
inches of water seventy-eight degrees of temperature, when placed 
under the circumstances described? And it is to be remembered that 
this temperature is not to be gathered from the hot iron only, but also 
from the surcharged steam. This explanation of explosions agrees with 
the fact that eight out often of those disasters take place just at the 
time of starting from a landing — the engine generally making one or 
two revolutions. 

" The common safety valve is sufficient to prevent accidents from 
the first two causes as explained, when properly arranged and suffered 
to act freely : but in this case it is entirely inadequate and even danger- 
ous when under the management of an incompetent man ; for, should 
he suddenly raise and close the valve whilst the boiler is highly heated, 
in all probability he would produce an explosion, for reasons already 
stated ; nor is there any other contrivance in general use that will 
meet the evil — nor is it possible for any act of Congress to effect a 
cure." 

A large portion of Mr. Evans' pamphlet is, of course, occupied with 
a description of his invention, the object of which is to prevent all 
explosions arising from the above-mentioned causes. 

It consists of a very simple mechanism, connected with a box of 
fusible metallic alloy, so arranged that the boiler is quietly relieved of 
all pressure before the top of the internal flue arrives at what may be 
considered a dangerous temperature. . This apparatus we hojie to be 
able to further illustrate in some early number of the Artizan. 



A Summary of the Law of Patents. By Charles Wordsworth. London : 
Benning and Co. 

The new Patent Act, which has rendered our old law-books waste- 
paper, has need of commentators, like all other Acts of Parliament, and 
Mr. Wordsworth has supplied the want by the timely issue of an expo- 
sition of all the details of the new law, with a reference to a number of 
leading " cases," and copies of the various statutes and forms. 

Hydraulic Tables, Coefficients, and Formula: for Finding the Discharge 
of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, Pipes, and Rivers. By 
John Neville, C.E. London : John Weale. 

Mr. Neville's professional position, as county surveyor of Louth and 
Drogheda, has no doubt given him opportunities of studying the appli- 
cation of hydraulics in the sister isle, and in that case, probably, as in 
many others, the notes at first collected for private use have swelled 
into a modest volume. The value of such a work depends obviously 
on the literal care bestowed on its production, and the author has at 
least corrected some of the errors of others, if he has not entirely avoided 
falling into similar ones himself. The examples given are couched in 
practical language, and have a practical aim — an object often missing 
in similar works. As bearing, also, on the question of drainage, and 
the economical application of sewage manure, this work will be found 
useful by the professional man. 



BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

Two of the five explosions which were mentioned in the last Artizan oc- 
curred so near the end of the month that we conld not obtain the particulars 
of them in time for publication. One of them occurred in a small screw 
steam vessel off the east coast. The deck, it is stated, was "blown to atoms," 
and eight out of the crew often escaped as if by a miracle, the vessel sink- 
ing immediately. 

The other was in a cotton factory at Stockport, belonging to Messrs. Pearn- 
ley and Bradley, it was one of two 40-horse boilers, known as Pairbairn's 
patent boiler (that is, cylindrical, with flat ends, and having two internal 
flues). It was made and put down by Mr. Pairbairn seven or eight years 
ago, and stated by him to be then capable of working safely at a pressure of 
35 lbs., it being tested up to 150 lbs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure. 
It had had new and stronger stays put in two years ago, to enable them to 
increase their power, which consisted of two condensing engines, a 40 and a 
20-horse. A week before the explosion four additional stays were also put 
in by another boiler maker. These were called "gusset stays," and consist 
of triangular plates riveted on two sides to the end and side of the boiler. 
The above is the purport of the evidence given by the proprietor at the 
coronet's inquest, from which it also appeared that the explosion arose from 



a giving way of the rivet holes of the flue over the fireplace. The two fire- 
places were each supplied with lead plugs, which were not melted. The 
boiler was also provided with a glass water gauge, Sidney Smith's steam 
indicator gauge, and a safety valve weighted to blow off at about 34 lbs. In 
Mr. George Holcroft's evidence it is stated that the boiler was 30 feet long 
by 7 feet diameter. The two fire flues were slightly oval, being 2 feet 8 
inches by 3 feet, the longer diameter being vertical, and the thickness of 
the plates § inch. The fracture was in the seam of the second plate over 
the fire, about 2 feet long in the direction of the seam, which had cracked 
from rivet to rivet, and in width sufficient to admit a man's hand. The 
extreme pressure at which he had known the boiler to work was 37 lbs., and 
he was of opinion the boiler had not been short of water. Mr. R. Roberts, 
C.E., whose assistance was called in by the coroner, differed on this point 
from Mr. Holcroft, and considered the explosion to have been caused by 
collapse of the flue from want of water, and that, except for that circum- 
stance, the boiler would have been quite safe at 45 lbs. per square inch, and 
would not have burst with double that pressure. The jury returned a ver- 
dict in accordance with that opinion. 

During the present month we have three new steam-boiler explosions on 
record, and one only, which is remarkable, has occurred in Manchester, or 
rather Salford. It is only a few months ago we had occasion to remark in 
the Artizan, that, from the great number of patent boilers then being produced 
in and about Manchester, it appeared to us as if our Lancashire friends had 
great difficulty in agreeing to some general principle on the subject. In one 
thing, however, some of their principal engineers — men of great name, too 
— have all agreed, in making boilers that blow up! They are all pretty* well 
agreed, also, in laying the blame on enginemen screwing down or over- 
weighting safety valves ; such enginemen, in the majority of cases, being 
killed, and, therefore, unable to contradict them. This was, we are sorry to 
learn, the kind of conclusion come to by at least one coroner's jury on the 
Longsight locomotive explosion, described in our last. At the inquest on 
the body of the driver Heffner, who died in the Manchester Infirmary, held 
before Mr. Herford, the borough coroner, in addition to the verdict of 
" accidental death," the jury recorded their opinion " that the engine driver 
was blameable in screwing down the safety valves." But in another inquest, 
held before Mr. Rutter, the county coroner, on the bodies of four more of the 
unfortunate men, it appears that the impartial aid of Captain Wynne, the 
government inspector of railways, was called in, when a very different com- 
plexion was put upon the matter, as will be seen by a report of his evidence, 
which we give from a Manchester paper: — ■ 

Captain Wynne made the following statement : — " Having been espe- 
cially directed to inquire into the causes of this explosion, I have inspected 
the boiler, and inquired as to the working of the engine. The locomotive 
superintendent (Mr. Ramsbottom) bad stated to me that the engine came 
on the line in the year 1840 ; that since that time the number of miles 
it has run has been about 104,000 ; and she had run about 47,000 miles 
before a new set of tubes were put in, and since then 57,000. He could only 
speak positively since 1842, when it came on this station ; previously to that 
time there was no regular account of the running kept. In 1842 he had 
thirty-three new stays put into the boiler. I have myself examined the 
engine. I now produce a piece of iron, which is an average specimen of the 
original stays of the boiler ; there have been several put in since then. The 
firebox has never been taken out and re-stayed throughout. I find, by 
measuring this stay, that by oxidation it has been reduced in the middle 
about three-sixteenths of an inch. Here are three more specimens of the 
stays, in which the oxidation is more extreme ; in one it is reduced, I should 
say, as much as half an inch. The great force of the explosion seems to 
have taken place on the left-hand side of the engine, but there has been con- 
siderable force on the right side, and, I think, under the circumstances, it is 
impossible to say which side gave way first. The yielding appears to have 
been, chiefly, by the drawing of the stays through the copper firebox ; a great 
number of stays, however, have drawn through the iron, and a great many 
stays have broken off close to the iron. Those stays which have drawn 
through the iron, and broken across, appear to me to be those which had suf- 
fered most from oxidation, and, from their condition, I should suppose they 
were the original ones, put in when the engine was first turned out. Another 
thing I observed in respect to the original stays of the boiler — that there was 
a ring of metal eaten out of them by the rust around the part- where they 
were inserted into the iron boiler plate. The usual way of accounting for 
these accidents is, by supposing that steam of very high tension has been 
generated, either by having the safety valves screwed down, and no escape 
for the steam, or, in other instances, by the water getting low and exposing 
the top of the firebox, which then becomes heated ; and that so steam has 
been generated beyond the resisting power of the boiler. This is no doubt 
the cause of a great number of these accidents. I have had some experience 
in inquiring into accidents of this kind ; and, until very recently, I enter- 
tained the opinion that it was necessary for the steam to be in that state to 
produce the violent explosions I have witnessed ; but, from having itincon- 
testably proved to me that an explosion of equal violence with this has taken 
place under the ordinary pressure at which a locomotive engine is worked, 
I have changed my opinion. I believe there have been one or two instances 
since of locomotives exploding while under the ordinary pressure ; so that 
it would be necessary to seek for some other cause, than supposing that 
steam had been generated to a force equal to the explosive power of gun- 



116 



Shipbuilding on the Clyde. 



[May, 



powder. A very high authority, I understand, has given the strength of this 
boiler at about 480 lbs. to the square inch." [On reference to Mr. Fairbairn's 
evidence, it appeared this estimate was only on the assumption that the stays 
were firmly attached, and every part quite sound.] " Capt. Wynne continued 
to say : It is stated that, in this instance, there seems to be no doubt that 
the safety valves had been screwed down ; they had been set to work at a 
little above 50 lbs. ; and there is a difference of statement as to the time 
which they had been screwed down, whether 10 minutes or 25 minutes. 
I feel quite satisfied in my own mind — though I give it only as an opinion — 
that the steam could not, in either of these periods of time, have been got up 
from the pressure of 50 lbs. to that of 300 lbs. or 400 lbs., or whatever was the 
ultimate resisting power of the boiler — not while the engine was shut up at 
rest ; it must have required a very strong blast to get up the steam in that 
way. No doubt the tension of the steam was greatly increased ; but I do 
not myself believe that the strength of the boiler, looking at the condition of 
the stays, was equal to a pressure of 300 lbs. on the square inch. The oxida- 
tion must have acted on the iron plate of the boiler, and tended to deteriorate 
its strength ; and it appears to me, that the thread of the screw in the copper 
firebox has suffered from oxidation. Here is a specimen of a more recent 
screw — not one of the original ones, but one put in at the time the new 
tubes were put in. I think the state of oxidation in which a great many of 
the stays existed, and also the probable oxidation, similar to that, though not 
to so great an extent, of the boiler plates, sufficiently accounts for the boiler 
exploding under a pressure much less than has been supposed. I cannot 
form any notion of what the pressure was ; but I do not think it necessary 
to suppose that it arrived at anything like what Mr. Fairbairn has taken to be 
the ultimate resisting strength of the boiler. This accident shows, however, 
the absolute necessity of one of the valves being put out of the power of the 
driver to tamper with it. I think it is probable the pressure of the steam, in 
this case, was higher than 70 lbs., which is said to be the extreme limit 
allowed by the spring balance safety-valve ; but it seems to have been proved 
that one, if not both, of those valves was fastened down. I am perfectly of 
opinion that, with these stays in the state they were, it was unsafe to work 
the engine at all. I am satisfied, if it had been known the stays were in that 
state, they would have been renewed. I have not observed that any of the 
stays were broken in the middle— they would bend rather than break there; 
but several seemed to have been pulled out of the plate, having suffered from 
oxidation at their ends, or to be broken at their ends, close to the plate. I 
cannot say that the boiler would not have burst if the pressure had remained 
at 60 lbs. ; that might depend on several contingencies, as if there was a flaw 
in the metal, for example ; but I can say, that it was not safe to work 
the engine at all with the stays in such a state. The copper of the firebox 
seemed good. The iron and the copper, if there was acid in the water, would 
have a galvanic effect, and cause a great corrosion. I noticed eleven of the 
tubes of the boiler nearly plugged up with a deposit from the water pro- 
ceeding from the leakage of the boiler ; this would not cause danger, but it 
must have been going on a long time to have accumulated so; and I think it 



shows great neglect in the workmen to allow an engine to go out in such 
a state. Supposing the firebox valve fastened down, and the dome valve 
open, I think there would have been sufficient escape of steam allowed to 
prevent excessive pressure on the boiler within, and it ought then to be 
safe, in that case. Of course I have no evidence that the valves were 
fastened down, except that one valve has been shown me screwed down, and 
it was said that it had been found in that condition ; the other valve has been 
so broken to pieces, it cannot be ascertained." 

The jury consulted for three-quarters of an hour, and then returned the 
following verdict : — " We find that the deceased were killed by the explosion 
of the boiler of a locomotive engine; and, from the evidence, we are of opinion 
that the boiler of this engine was in a defective condition, and unfit to bo 
worked." 

Recently, the bursting of a "tube boiler," according to the Carlisle Patriot, 
took place in the John Tit Coliiery, Flimby, near Workington, severely scald- 
ing three young women, who, with others, were at breakfast in the engine 
house at the time. One of whom died the same day. 

On the evening of Monday, April 4th, a terrible boiler explosion occurred 
at Thornhill Lees Forge, near Dewsbury, by which a young man having 
charge of the engine at the time was killed on the spot, the boiler being 
" almost rent to atoms;" and the houses in the neighbourhood suffered much 
dilapidation. The occurrence took place about ten o'clock, when the change 
from the day to the night hands was taking place, otherwise the sacrifice of 
human life must have been very great. 

We regret that, of these two, as is the case with many other explosions, we 
have no particulars furnished us of any interest to our pages. 

Fatal Boiler Explosion in Saleord. — On the 14th of April the ex- 
plosion of a low-pressure waggon-boiler, 24 feet long by 6 feet wide and 1\ 
feet deep, occurred in the Regent's-road Cotton Mill, Salford, a little before 
two o'clock, while the engine was standing during the usual dinner hour. A 
man who was supposed to be on the boiler at the time was killed, and the 
gable end of the building was driven out, by which considerable damage 
was done to some adjacent cottages, and several of their occupants injured. 
The boiler is stated to be about seven years old, and, according to the en- 
gineman, it had been repaired by himself and the smith putting in two new 
stays a few weeks before. From the evidence of John Bates, a boiler maker, 
it seems the concave sides of the boiler had been forced out 5 or G inches, 
and the bottom had gone down more than 2 feet. Out of sixteen upright 
stays, which braced the sides to the bottom, all had given way except two. 
The boiler plate was § of an inch thick, and there were two longitudinal 
stays running from end to end of the boiler, 4 feet above the rent of the boiler 
at each end. From other witnesses we learn that the pressure of the steam 
could not have been more than 10 lbs. or 11 lbs. per square inch at the time 
of the explosion, which it ought to have been able to bear with safety, and 
that the safety valve was found wide open. Evidence was also given of the 
boiler having been short of water on former occasions, although nothing was 
proved in respect to it at present. The verdict was " Accidental death." 



SHIPBUILDING ON THE CLYDE. 



THE GLASGOW, STRONE, KILCREGGAN, KIRN, AND 
K1LMUN NEW IRON STEAMER "REINDEER," 



Built and fitted by Messrs. Blackwood and Gordon, engineers 
and iron ship-builders, Paisley, 1852. 



Dimensions. ft. tenths. 

Length on deck 166 

Breadth on ditto, amidships ... ... 15 7 

Depth of hold, ditto 7 3 

Length of engine space 47 8 

Tonnage. Tons. 

Hull 143 T J fl; 

Contents of engine space 59fi»j 

Register 84-,'A 

One steeple engine (with four piston-rods), of 73 
horse (nominal) power; diameter of cylinders, 47 
inches by 3 feet 9 inches length of stroke; diameter 
of air-pump, 22 inches by 3 feet 7 £ inches (wrought 
direct off the crosshead, the pump being inclined). 
This is an improvement, in so far as to lessen the 
strain on the guides on the up-and-down stroke of 
the engine) ; diameter of paddle-wheels (extreme), 
17 feet; do. effective, 16 feet 6 inches. Fourteen 
(common) floats, 6 feet by 15 inches. One tubular 
boiler; length aloft, 18 feet 4 inches; do. at fur- 
naces, 17 feet 6 inches; breadth, 8 feet 4 inches; 
height, 7 feet 2 inches. Four furnaces, two at each 
end; length, 6feet9 inches; breadth, 3 feet3 inches; 
height, 3 feet 2 inches. Two steam- chests, one at 
each end of boiler; length, 5 feet *l\ inchesj breadth 



(mean), 5 feet 5 inches ; height, 4 feet 8 inches. 
Two funnels, 3 feet by 21 feet. 228 tubes, or 114 
at each end ; diameter outside, 3^ inches by 6 feet 
long. Average revolutions per minute 36. Steam 
pressure, 17 lbs. Draft of water (mean), 3 feet 9 
inches. Plying on the station from Glasgow to 
Greenock, Gourock, Kilcreggan, Strone Point, 
Cove, Kirn, Kilmun, and Dunoon, &c. This is a 
very beautifully-modelled vessel. On the top of 
the cabin companion is a neatly-carved representa- 
tion of the head of the reindeer. 

DESCRIPTION. 

No figure-head, galleries, or bowsprit; one mast; 
sloop-rigged; one deck (flush); clinch-built vessel. 

Port of Glasgow. Commander, Mr. Neil M'Bean. 

The two aft furnaces have Chanter's patent fur- 
nace-bars, and are fully better than the others. 



THE "TAURUS." 



Built by Wm. Denny and Brothers ; engines by Tulloch and 
Denny; 180 (nominal) horse power. 



Dimensions. 
Length on deck 
Breadth of beam 
Depth of hold at ditto 
Length of engine space 



ft. tenths. 

210 5 

29 5 

24 

40 



Tonnage. Tons. 

Hull 1»126^ 

Engine-room 3i4 T ^- 

Register (new measurement) 812-nfrj 

Ditto (old ditto) 910 

Direct-acting engines; tubular boilers; diameter 
of cylinders, 50 inches; length of stroke, 2 feet 
9 inches; diameter of screw, 12 feet ; pitch of 
screw, 18 feet ; blades of screw, 2 ; boilers, 2; 
length of ditto, 10 feet 6 inches above, and 8 feet 
9 inches at furnaces; breadth of ditto,12 feet each, 
and 24 feet total; height of ditto, 15 feet; no steam 
chests ; furnaces, 6 ; breadth of ditto, 3 feet 3 
inches; length of fire-bars, 6 feet 6 inches; tubes, 
258 each, or 516 total ; internal diameter of ditto, 
3 J inches; length of ditto, 6 feet 9 inches; diameter 
of chimney, 4 feet 9 inches; height of ditto, 38 feet; 
load on safety valve, 12lbs. per square inch ; con- 
tents of bunkers, 250 tons ; consumption of coals 
per hour, 18 tons; date of trial, April 9; draught 
forward, 9 feet 5 inches; ditto aft, 12 feet 4 inches; 
average revolutions, 64 ; average speed, 12 miles ; 
weight of engines, 40 tons ; ditto boilers, with 
water, 100 tons ; iron frames, 5 inches by 3 inches 
byf, -f^, and \ inch, and 12 inches apart; bulkheads, 
5 ; 3 masts ; barque-rigged ; intended service, 
Mediterranean; classed Al at Lloyd's. 

The Teneriffe, consort to the Taurus, and in- 
tended for the same service, is alike in every 
respect, as regards hull and engine; but the Tene- 
riffe has a three-bladed propeller. Her trial will 
take place next week. 



1853.] 



List of Patents. 



Ill 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



Cost and Consequences of Defective Sanitary Regulations. — 
On Thursday evening, April 14, a lecture on the above important subject 
was delivered in St. Paul's School, Ellor-street, Salford, by Mr. David 
Chadwick, borough treasurer. Mr. Chadwick first inquired into the nature 
of sanitary regulations, which he divided into three classes — the person, the 
home, and the town. Having spoken of the importance of personal cleanli- 
ness, and the necessity of the homes of working men being made comfortable 
by having them free from noxious effluvia arising from cesspools, sewers, 
ashpits, and other causes, and being provided with water-closets, and a pure 
supply of fresh-water, Mr. Chadwick proceeded to the last division of his lec- 
ture — the town. The principal sanitary regulations for a well-regulated 
town were — well paved and well drained streets, regularly and properly 
cleansed ; a plentiful supply of water; public cemeteries outside the boundaries 
of the town, and a prohibition of all intramural interments ; the erection of 
abattoirs, or public slaughter-houses ; public baths and wash-houses ; well- 
regulated lodging-houses ; the substitution of water-closets connected with 
the main sewers, for the present system of privies, middens and cesspools ; 
the arrangement of a system of sewerage, whereby the sewerage of the town 
shall be applied to agricultural purposes; public parks, and play-grounds for 
the people. At the close, a vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to 
Mr. Chadwick for his able lecture. — Manchester Courier. 

Queen's College, Birmingham. — It will be seen by advertisement, that 
the department in connection with " Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce " 
will be opened in May. The appeal from the college to the noble patrons 
and Mends of education to enable the council to purchase expensive philo- 
sophical apparatus, models, &c, &c, and to fit up the chemical laboratory 
and engineering workshop, has been generously responded to by the Duke 
of Sutherland, the Marquis of Lansdowne, the Earls of Dartmouth, Claren- 
don, and Granville, the Lords Eoley, Calthorpe, Eedesdale, Leigh and Lif- 
ford, General Vyse, Mark Phillips, Esq., George Attwood, Esq., Messrs. 
Piercy, Dawes, Bagnall, Barrows and Hall, and other leading Staffordshire 
ironmasters, by Messrs. Welsh, Armfield, Upfell, and other influential mer- 
chants of the town. Considering the present condition of commercial enter- 
prise, the unrestricted competition to which the trade and manufactures of 
the country must inevitably henceforth be exposed, in connection with the 
fact, that systematic education in arts and manufactures is established in 
some continental states, a cogent argument is supplied that this department 
of the college, under the powers granted by the Crown, should be energe- 
tically carried out ; and the recent alarming and numerous accidents in 
mines, manufactories, ships, and railways, must he allowed to add still farther 
importance to this branch of education. It must be admitted that no town 
in the kingdom offers such practical advantages as Birmingham. The 
council are also sanguine in their expectations, that they shall be able to 
form — by donations from the public at large, of specimens of mining and 
mineral products, of chemical and pharmaceutical products, of vegetable 
and animal substances used in manufactures, of civil engineering, architec- 
tural and building contrivances, of manufacturing machines and tools, of 
philosophical apparatus, of models and plastic art, &c, &c. — a great " central 
museum," accessible to the artisan under certain regulations, and subservient 
to the general purposes of literature and science, and especially to the courses 
of education in the college in the engineering, architectural and chemical 
branches. 



Ericsson's Caloric Engine.— Extract of a letter from Charles W. Cope- 
land, Esq., New York, March 17th, 1853:— "I see, by the periodicals, that 
on your side they are giving great promises to the Ericsson caloric ship. I 
wish to say to you, that all the newspaper accounts I have seen are exag- 
gerated. The stock does not stand so high in public opinion here as it did 
two months since. The days of steam are not numbered; and if the caloric 
ship is to do it, I fancy you and I will both have considerable salt sprinkled 
in our hands ere we live to see it." 



NOTES PROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

CIRCULARS, PROSPECTUSES, &c— A HINT. 

An American contemporary lately published a specimen letter from a 
correspondent, containing a long string of inquiries, from the particulars of 
a late patent to the price of molasses, as an illustration, we suppose, of the 
profouud acquaintance an editor should possess with all matters, either 
celestial or sublunary; and, although our correspondents do not usually go to 
the same extent as our Transatlantic friends, we do receive many inquiries 
that cannot be answered without much patient and laborious searching. We 
are at all times anxious to oblige subscribers, and we now offer a few sug- 
gestions as to a way in which they might materially assist us, and somewhat 
lighten the load on our shoulders. 

We have, for some time past, been engaged in forming a collection of 
circulars on all subjects connected with the Mechanical Art3, which we have 
found of great service when we have received letters requesting information, 
for they not only contain the information likely to be required, but it is in an 
authorised shape, with addresses, prices, and many particulars not other- 
wise readily obtained. Now, if our numerous readers would forward to the 
Artizan office their duplicate circulars, and any others they can conveniently 
spare, new or old, we should soon have a valuable mass of information, 
which would always be available to our readers. We would suggest further, 
that all persons introducing new inventions would do well to forward fifty 
or a hundred circulars, on which, under the new regulations, the postage 
would not exceed sixpence, if the wrapper were open at the ends. One of 
these would be filed for reference, and the others kept for inquiries (we have 
many respecting anything new), when it would save much clerkly labour to 
enclose a circular instead of sending a letter, the posting of which might be 
deferred from pressure of business, while a circular would merely require 
addressing. Illustrated catalogues, engravings, &c, would likewise be 
useful. 

Subscribers desiring information should number their inquiries and copy 
their letters; the answers would be numbered to correspond, and the neces- 
sity of repeating the substance of the question, in order that the answer may 
be clearly understood, thereby obviated. 

Portable Engines. — We have received a number of letters on the sub- 
ject of the respective merits of portable engine makers, our correspondents 
being anxious to prevent the letter in our last number from being^taken as 
a fair statement of the case. To some of these letters we should have <riven 
insertion, had we not already put our readers on their guard against the 
enthusiasm of our correspondent, by attaching an editorial note to the article 
itself. Under the circumstances, we think the end of our various correspon- 
dents will be answered by our joining in their unanimous declaration, that 
no other merit is due to Messrs. Bach than that they have followed in the 
footsteps of other good makers. 



LIST OF PATENTS. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 

Dated 31st January, 1853. 
264. C. Cattnach — Measuring human figure, and transfering 
same to cloth. 

Dated 10th February, 1853. 
353. W. E. Newton — Instruments for examining internal 
parts of the body. 

Dated 25th February, 1853. 
474. J. Hynam — Manufacture of wax and other tapers. 
482. J. G. Taylor — Ornamental fastenings for dress. 

Dated 2%th February, 1853. 
Baron T. von Gilgenheimb — Agricultural machine. 
T. E. Merritt — Railway carriage, &c. 
E. H. Bentall — Improvements in harrows. 
P. A. Fontainemoreau— Drying cigars. (A communica- 
tion.) 
S. C. Lister — Heating and making cards. 

Dated 1st March, 1853. 
T. and C. Littlewood — Machinery in preparation of 

wool, silk, &c, to be spun. 
J. C. Daniel — Propelling vessels and also carriages. 
W. E. Newton— Improvements in capstans. 
E. Charlesworth — Bill or letter holders. 
C. Hude— Evaporating, generating steam, heating and 

production of gas. 
R. L. Bolton— Power by explosion of gases. 

Dated 2nd March, 1853. 
C. H. Hall— Cooking by gas. 
J. Abbott — Winding machines. 

J. and W. H. Smith, and A. Williams^Ietallic plates, 
and production of ornamental patterns. 



497. 
499, 
501. 
503. 

505. 



509. 
510. 
511 
513. 



517 
519. 
521. 



523. L. Jennings — Speed regulator. 

525. R. Waddell— Steam engines. 

527. W. T. Monzani — Reaping machinery. 

Dated 3rd March, 1853. 
529. J. Murdoch — Manufacture of iodine. (A communica- 
tion.) 

531. C. Humpage— Materials for coffin furniture. 

532. R.Barclay— Rotatory engines andtransmitting aeriform 

bodies and fluids. 

633. A. E. L. Bellford — Locomotive and other engines. 

535. S. Colt — Rotating breech fire arms. (Partly a com- 
munication.) 

537. S. Colt — Machinery for forging metals. (Partly a com- 
munication.) 

539. B.Chaussenot— Aerating liquids. 

541. J. Wright — Machinery formanufacturing bags of paper, 
&c. 

543. J. Waterman — Treatment of grains for production of 
food for cattle, &c. 



Dated 4th March, 1853. 
Hincks — Metallic pen. 
C. Ross — Machine for cutting files, &c. 
Elliott — Manures. 

S.Hall — Cutting out boots and shoes. 
". Sandilands — Hopper for pianoforte. 
H. Huntley — Regulating flow and pressure of gas. 
. M'Evoy— Covered buttons. 
W. Bott— Pressers. 
Brydell — Bedsteads. 
D. M. Stirling — Manufacture of coated metal. 



544. J. 

545. R. 

546. G. 

547. J. 

548. ~W 

549. S. 

550. H 

551. G. 

552. J 

553. J. 

Dated 5th March, 1853. 

554. M. A. Smith — Toys, models, and articles of ornament 

and utility. 

555. J. Gedge — Fire arms and loading same. 



656. B. F. Tfeatherdon and C. Dealtry— Floating vessels 
and propelling. 

557. T. W. Cross— Portable fire-engine. 

558. W. Todd— Steam engines. 

559. J. Maudslay — Propeller. 

560. R.A. Brooman — Machinery for pipes and tubes. 

561. J. Hirst — Stretching fabrics. 

Dated 1th March, 1853. 

562. R. Barter, M.D.— Cutting roots, &c. 

563. W. Barrington— Life boats. 

564. J. G. Lynde — Pressure governor for water. 
505. H. Mapple — Electric telegraphs. 

566. A. Calles— Manufacture of typographic characters. 

567. J. F. D. de Bussac — Paving, &c. (A communication ) 

568. G. Simon and T. Humphreys — Carriages. 
5G9. W. Matthews — Improvements in pianofortes. 

570. J. J. W. Watson— Illuminating apparatus and produc- 

tion of light. 

571. T. W. Dodds— Manufacture of iron and steel. 

572. C. Parker— Weaving. 

573. J. Little — Cooking apparatus. 

574. T. W. Dodds— Wheels and axles. 

575. A. Carosio — Electro-magnetic apparatus for motive- 

power, light, and heat. 

576. T. T. Chatwin and R. M'Leish — Rollers, rods, &c, 

window blinds, maps, &c. 

Dated ith March, 1853. 

578. C. Finlayson— Converting reciprocating into rotatory 

motion. 

579. T. J. Perry— Cornice poles, picture, and curtain rods. 

580. T. Dryland — Portable iron stove. 

581. J. F. Pinel — Deodorising sewage water, &c. 

582. N. Schmitt — Cleansing and separating ores and coal. 

583. C. Baker— Moulds for bricks. 

585. J. Wright — Bedsteads and other frames. 



118 



List of Patents. 



[May, 



586. A. Samuelson — Bricks and tiles. 

f>87. F. W. Emerson— Obtaining tin from ores. 

588. J. Veevers and H. Ashworth— Preparing cotton, &c, 

for spinning. 

589. T. Glover— Construction of buttons, &c. 

590. J. Colqulioun— Bleaching silk, &c. 

591. J. J. A. Macarthy— Gunnery and projectiles. 

Dated 9th March, 1853. 

592. J. Kimberley— Gas stove. 

594. S. Blackwell— Strap for connecting harness, &c. 

595. S. Blackwell — Improvements in saddlery and harness. 

596. F. Valtat and F. M. Rouille— Construction of combs for 

looms. 

597. J. Shuttleworth— Appendages to portable machines for 

threshing, &c, corn. 

598. W. Pidding — Manufacture of caoutchouc and gutta 

po.rcha, and fabrics of same, &c. 

599. G. Chambers— Means of gathering cinders and deposit- 

ing ashes under fire- grates. 

600. T. J. Nash— Churns. 

601. G. Collier — Manufacture of carpets, &c. 

602. E. M. Stapley— Dressing flax, &c. 

603. H. Eansford— Manufacture of starch. 

604. W. A. Holscamp — Castor of furniture. 

605. G. Collier — Spinning, roving, &c. 

606. F. W. Campin — Measuring steerage-way of vessels, 

&c.; applicable to ventilating ships and carriages. 
(A communication.) 

Dated \0th March, 1853. 

607. J. Walmsley — Machinery for block-printing. 

608. J. Powis and J. S. James — Machinery for slotting, mor- 

ticing, &e. 

609. E. T. Bellhouse— Improvements in iron structures. 

610. T. B. Dodgson — Improvements in roads, &c. 

611. G. Collier — Machinery &c, for weaving. ' 

612. Hon. W. E. Cochrane — Improvements in girths &c, for 

saddles. 

613. F. F. Dumarchey— Improvements in making roads, &c. 

614. J. Stevens — Communication between guard and driver. 

615. E. Myers — Preventing carriages running off the line. 

Dated Uth March, 1853. 

616. F.Preston — Manufacture of bobbins and spools. 

617. J. Summers — Improvements in sails. 

619. M. Poole — Apparatus for serving oysters, and other 

shell-fish. (A communication.) 

Dated \2th March, 1853. 

620. J. Gilby — Improvements in fire-arms. 

621. W. Muir— Grinding edge tools, &c. 

622. P. A. Le C. de Fontainemoreau — Filtering liquids. (A 

communication.) 

623. J. F. Heather— An equitable gas-weighing meter. 

624. A. E. L. Bellford— Reaping machine. (A communi- 

catifin.J 

626. T, Evans— Construction of steam boilers. 

627. G. Michiels— Obtaining oxygen. 

628. T. Hunt — Construction of sights for-firc-arms. 

629. T. Rhodes — Manufacture of manure. 

630. R. C. Witty— Manufacture of gas. 

631. J. Murdoch— Portable voltaic batteries. (A commu- 

nication.) 

Dated Uth March, 1853. 

632. W. B. and J, Quititon — Improvements in manufacture 

633. Lord Howard de Walden — Cleansing sugar, by appli- 

cation of steam and hot air iu a centrifugal machine. 
(A communication.) 
of measuring-rules. 

634. "W". E.Staite — improvements in producing and applying 

currents of electricity, &c. 
636. B. A. and H. M. Burton — Manufacture of casks, &c, 
and machinery for sauce. 

638. J. H. Johnson — Improvements in dyeing. (A commu- 

nication.) 

639. J. Scott — Manufacture of animal charcoal. 

640. W. Stevenson — Treatment, &c, of textile materials. 

641. W. Bashall — Improvements in dressing, sizing, and 

tape machines. 

Dated \bth March, 1853. 

642. W. Morgan — Portable double-action folding chair. 

643. T. J. Herapath — Treatment of sewage, and manufac- 

ture of manure. 

644. P. S. L'Hernaultand J. Richards — Means of unhooking 

horses and stopping vehicles. 

645. F. Durand — Improved loom. 

646. J. Maudslay — Screw propeller. 

647. P. M. Parsons — Working valves of steam-engines. 

648. E. Sabel — Looking-glasses. 

Dated 16th March, 1853. 

649. G. Knight and J. Heritage— Drying bricks and articles 

made of clay. 

651. C. H. Wild— Fishes and fish-joints for rails. 

652. W. Malins — Atmospheric propulsion on railways. 

653. H. R. Fanshawe — Fire-arms. 

654. S. Colt— Heating and annealing metals. 

655. J. Oliver— Venetian red. 

Dated Vlth March, 1853. 

657. J. Livesey— Pile and looped fabrics, and machinery 

for same. 

658. J. T. Ashenhurst — Pianofortes. 

659. W. Bliukthorn — Furnaces and annealing kilns for 

glass. 

660. G. Johnson, M.D.— Looms. 

661. J. Eoscoe and R. Bullough — Apparatus for raising 

water. 

662. J. Bottomley— Figured pile fabrics. 



Dated IWi March, 1853. 

663. R. Peters — Machine for mortising, &c. 

664. J. A. A. and S. Tweedale — Spinning machinery. 

665. P. Cameron — Marine and surveying compasses. 

666. W. K. Westly — Improved comb for heckling, &c. 

667. J. M. Johnson— Improvements in steam-engines. (A 

communication.) 

668. M. Baxter— Improvements in steam-engines, and pres- 

sure regulating valves. 

669. R. A. Brooman — Machine for weighing or measuring 

and packing spices, &c. (A communication.) 

670. A